First Aid Final

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Standing orders are known as _________ medical control

indirect

You are providing care to a patient at the scene of a motor vehicle collision. The patient has a cut on his arm that is bleeding; the blood is flowing in a steady stream. Which of the following personal protective equipment should you wear to prevent disease transmission?
A. Protective eyewear
B. Disposable mask
C. Disposable gloves
D. Disposable gown

C. Disposable gloves

Which of the following assumes that all body fluids, secretions, and excretions are potentially infective?
A. Universal precautions
B. Body substance isolation precautions
C. Personal protective equipment
D. Standard precautions

D. Standard precautions

While providing care to a patient, some of the patient’s body fluids splash into your eyes. What is the first action to take?
A. Flush your eyes with clear water for 20 minutes
B. Wash your face with soap and water
C. Apply an antibiotic ointment to the eyes
D. Rinse the eyes with a disinfectant solution

A. Flush your eyes with clear water for 20 minutes

How is malaria transmitted?

Vector-borne transmission

Examples of precautions and practices which can be used to protect oneself from exposure to any type of bodily substance:

PPE-disposable gloves, masks, gown Good hand hygiene-soap and water Engineering controls -biohazard containers, sharp disposal containers Work Practice Controls Proper equipment cleaning-1 1/2 cups of bleach and 1 gallon of water Spill cleanup procedures

When giving ventilations to a patient who isn’t breathing, which personal protective equipment is most important to use to protect you and the patient from disease transmission?

CPR Breathing Barriers-resuscitation masks, face shield, and BVMs.

Explain the term engineering controls:

They are objects used in the workplace to help reduce the risk of an exposure incident (equipment)

Give three examples of engineering controls:

-Sharp disposal containers -Self sheathing needles -Safer medical devices

What is the first step to take in removing gloves?

To pinch the palm side of the glove near you wrist.

As a general rule, an emergency medical responder should always attempt to resuscitate a patient who has no pulse and is not breathing. Under what situations should resuscitation should not be attempted?

-With a DNR order -Obvious signs of death -Situation is too dangerous (endangering your life)

The range of duties and skills an emergency medical responder is expected to provide to a patient in a given situation is called?

Scope of practice

Good Samaritan laws protect a person from legal liability when providing care in an emergency under which of the following conditions?
A. The person obtains verbal consent from the patient
B. The person identifies himself or herself by name to the patient and states his or her level of training
C. The person offers help with the expectation of being reimbursed for services
D. The person acts in good faith within his or her scope of practice

D. The person acts in good faith within his or her scope of practice

You arrive at the scene of a robbery at a convenience store where the employee was stabbed in the chest. Law enforcement personnel have secured the scene. Which of the following statements is appropriate in providing care to the patient in this situation?
A. Assume control of the situation as soon as you arrive
B. To protect yourself from bloodborne pathogens, have law enforcement personnel clean up blood around the patient
C. Take care not to disturb any item at the scene up
D. Obtain immediate access to the patient upon your arrival

C. Take care not to disturb any item at the scene

Prior to providing care to a patient, what is the first thing that you should do as an emergency medical responder?
A. Ask the patient how the injury occurred.
B. Identify yourself to the patient by name and level of training.
C. Describe the injuries that you see to the patient
D. Explain in detail the care you intent to provide to the patient

B. Identify yourself to the patient by name and level of training.

You are providing care to a male patient who has fallen off the roof of a shed. The patient is conscious. Which of the following actions should you take first?
A. Obtain consent from the patient to provide care.
B. Ask the patient about any complaints of pain.
C. Check the patient’s pulse and breathing rates.
D. Ask the the patient what happened when he fell.

A. Obtain consent from the patient to provide care.

An emergency medical responder determines that a patient is competent under which of the following circumstances?
A. The patient is capable of identifying an appropriate health care proxy.
B. The patient understands that any information that is shared will will premain private.
C. The patient gives verbal or nonverbal acceptance of the treatment to be given.
D. The patient understands the emergency medical responder’s questions and the implications of decisions.

D. The patient understand the emergency medical responders questions and the implications of decisions.

An an emergency medical responder, you are expected to provide care based on specific criteria which called the _______?
A. Standard of care
B. Duty to act
C. Scope of practice
D. Good faith action

A. Standard of care

Which of the following terms refers to a body part that is closest to the midline of the body?
A. Distal
B. Medial
C. Lateral
D. Proximal

B. Medial

The plane which divides the body horizontally is called the _____________ plane?
A. Axial
B. Coronal
C. Sagittal
D. Frontal

A. Axial

Which of the following body systems is responsible for fighting disease?
A. Respiratory system
B. Endocrine system
C. Integumentary system
D. Immune system

D. Immune system

____________ are structures that attach muscles to bones.
A. Joints
B. Tendons
C. Ligaments
D. Fascia

B. Tendons

The prefix which means "fast" is _______?

"Tachy-"

List the three vital organs:

Lungs, brain, heart

The structure that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity is the _______?

Diaphragm

The largest organ of the body is the?

Skin

Another name for the collarbone is the what?

Clavicle

Of the following situations, which one is least likely to involve moving the patient before care can be provided?
A. A patient involved in a motor vehicle collision lying next to a smoking vehicle
B. A patient who was painting a house and fell off the ladder onto the grass
C. A patient who has collapsed inside the doorway of a burning building
D. A patient slumped over the car’s steering wheel who has no breathing or pulse.

B. A patient who was painting a house and fell off the ladder onto the grass

Which of the following statements best reflects the principles of moving a patient?
A. The power grip allows for maximum hand stability and strength.
B. You should pull rather than push whenever possible.
C. Reaching over a distance of 10 inches should be avoided.
D. The squat lift is preferred over the power lift when moving a patient.

A. The power grip allows for maximum hand stability and strength.

The best method to use when moving a patient with a suspended head, neck, or spinal injury is the_____?
A. Shoulder drag
B. Ankle drage
C. Firefighter’s drag
D. Blanket drag

D. Blanket drag

A patient lives on the third floor of an apartment building and needs to be moved to an ambulance. There is no elevator in the building and the staircase is narrow. Which of the following devices would be most appropriate to use in moving this patient?
A. Wheeled stretches
B. Stair char
C. Short Backboard
D. Scoop stretcher

B. Stair chair

Describe 3 situations in which an emergency medical responder must move a patient:

1. Immediate danger (to yourself) 2. Gaining access to other patients 3. Providing proper care

Under what condition is it acceptable for an emergency medical responder to use restraints on a patient?

If a patient is aggressive or violent (in danger to themselves) in need of emergency care.

The physical event that caused the injury is called?

Mechanism of injury

Which of the following actions should an emergency medical responder do first when arriving at the scene of any emergency?

Size up the scene

You arrive at the scene of an emergency are sizing up the scene. Which of the following would be considered least hazardous to you?
A. A downed electrical wire
B. The smell of gasoline
C. Large and small pieces of broken glass
D. A damaged vehicle on the side of the road

D. A damaged vehicle on the side of the road

How far away should you park from a fire?

100 feet away

You assess a patient and find that he is able to answer your questions appropriately. Using the AVPU mnemonic, you would give this patient the letter?

A. A

After sizing up the scene, you conduct a primary assessment of the patient. Which of the following do you evaluate first?
A. Airway
B. Breathing
C. Circulation
D. Responsiveness

D. Responsiveness

You and other rescuer find an adult lying on the floor. One rescuer leaves to summon EMS. You conduct a primary assessment and find that the patient is unconscious, has a pulse but not breathing. Which of the following actions would be appropriate for you to take?
A. Give one ventilation every 5 seconds
B. Give the patient five back blows followed by five chest thrusts
C. Perform a finger sweep of the patient’s mouth
D. Perform CPR

A. Give on ventilation every 5 seconds

What is the purpose of the primary initial assessment?

To quickly identify conditions that represent an immediate threat to the patients life, so that you may properly treat them as they are found

State and define each letter in the mnemonic of AVPU?

A=Alert- able to respond appropriately to questions V=Verbal- responds appropriately to verbal stimuli P=Painful- only respond to painful stimuli U=Unresponsive- does not respond

The primary reason for conducting an ongoing assessment is to:
A. Gather more information regarding the injury or illness
B. Look for any changes in the patient’s condition
C. Give the EMR something to do while awaiting the arrival of the EMS
D. Reassure the patient and family members

B. Look for any changes in the patient’s condition

You are obtaining a SAMPLE history from a patient with abdominal pain. Which statement made by the patient correlates with the "L" in a SAMPLE history?
A. I drank a glass of apple juice about two hours ago
B. I take an antacid occasionally for stomach pain
C. I was treated for a stomach ulcer three years ago
D. The pain has gotten worse over the past five hours.

A. I drank a glass of apple juice about two hours ago

Which interviewing a patient, you observe her grimacing and holding her abdomen as she changes her position. Which of the following questions would be least appropriate for an emergency medical responder to make in this situation?
A. Does your abdomen feel strange?
B. Why did you make that face just now?
C. Are you feeling uncomfortable?
D. Are you having pain in your belly?

B. Why did you make that face just now?

Which of the following is an example of a chief complaint?
A. I have a history of high blood pressure
B. The patient drank 8 ounces of water 1 hour ago
C. The patient fell from a height of 7 feet
D. I was having really sever pain in my chest

D. I was having really severe pain in my chest

What does DOTS mean?

D- Deformities O- Open injuries T- Tenderness S- Swelling

What does SAMPLE mean?

S- Signs and symptoms A- Allergies M- Medications P- Pertinent past medical history L- Last oral intake E- Events leading up to the incident

What does OPQRST stand for?

O-onset-what were you doing when pain started P-provocation-what makes it better/worse Q-quality-is pain blunt, sharp, burning R-region, radiate-where is the pain S-severity-scale 1-10 is- how intense pain is T-time- when did it start

When placing a blood pressure cuff over a patient’s arm, the cuff is placed over the ___________ artery.

Brachial

A blood pressure is expressed as two numbers. The top number is the systolic pressure and the bottom is the diastolic. What does the diastolic blood pressure reflect?

the force exerted against the arteries when the heart is between contractions or at rest

An ongoing assessment is performed every _______ minutes on unstable patients and every__________ minutes on stable patients.

5; 15

_________ is the point of contact between the public and emergency medical responders.

Dispatch

The prehospital care report (pcr) is also known as the __________ or _________

run report; trip sheet

When you give two ventilations to a patient who is not breathing, you discover that the ventilations are not causing the patient’s chest to rise. What should be your next step?
A. Re-tilt the head and give two more ventilations
B. Check for a pulse
C. Administer two more ventilations but with greater force
D. Give five back blows, look in the mouth, and do a finger sweep if an object is seen.

A. Re-tilt the head and give two more ventilations

You suspect that an unconscious patient has a spinal injury. You need to leave the patient to summon EMS. The patient is breathing and has a pulse. How should you position the patient?
A. Leave the patient in prone position
B. Leave the patient in a supine position
C. Place the patient in the most comfortable position.
D. Place the patient in the HAINES recovery position

D. Place the patient in the HAINES recovery position

To open a patient’s airway using the jaw-thrust maneuver, an emergency medical responder should:
A. Tilt the patient’s head back
B. Maintain pressure on the patient’s forehead
C. Slide the fingers under the angles of the jawbone
D. Life the chin in an upward motion

C. Slide the fingers under the angles of the jawbone

An emergency medical responder knows that a patient’s airway is open if:
A. The patient is unable to speak a full sentence
B. You hear air coming out of the nose and mouth of the patient
C. The patient is clutching his or her throat with one hand
D. The chest does not rise and fall with ventilations

B. You hear air coming out of the nose and mouth of the patient

An unconscious adult was pulled from a swimming pool When you open the airway to look, listen, and feel for breathing, the patient is taking infrequent gasps and has a weak pulse. What should you do next?
A. Give two ventilations
B. Check for severe bleeding
C. Begin CPR
D. Continue to monitor the patient’s breathing

A. Give two ventilations

You are giving artificial ventilations to a 7-year-old boy with a resuscitation mask. How often should you give ventilations?

C. Once evver 3 seconds

As you are giving ventilations to an adult in respiratory arrest, the patient vomits. What is the first action that an emergency medical responder should take in this situation?
A. Clear the airway of the vomit immediately
B. Turn the patient as a unit onto his or her side
C. Use greater force when giving ventilations to bypass the vomit.
D. Reposition the patient’s head to reopen the airway

B. Turn the patient as a unit onto his or her side

Which of the following statements is correct in the use of a resuscitation mask?
A. Cover the nose completely with the mask with the bottom edge at the upper lip
B. Place the broad end of the mask between the lower lip and chin
C. Blow into the mask for at least 2 seconds to give ventilations
D. Hold the mask at the one-way valve to seal it

B. Place the broad end of the mask between the lower lip and chin

You and a fellow rescuer are giving ventilations using a bag-valve-mask resuscitator. One rescuer positions the mask over the patient’s face. What should the second rescuer do?
A. Squeeze the bag with both hands.
B. Open the airway with the thumbs
C. Position the fingers behind the jawbones
D. ensure that the mask is sealed

A. Squeeze the bag with both hands

A child or an infant’s heart usually stops due to a _________ while an adult’s heart stops due to __________

Breathing emergency; disease

Which statement about a bag-valve-mask (BMV) resuscitator is more accurate?
A. Monitoring a patient for full exhalation is not required.
B. A BVM must be used by two rescuers
C. BMVs are readily available to emergency medical responders
D. When used by a single rescuer, it is easy to coordinate with giving chest compressions

B. A BMV must be used by two rescuers

Suctioning can reduce the amount of oxygen reaching the lungs; therefore adult patient should be suctioned for no more than _____ seconds at a time.
A. 5
B. 10
C. 15
D. 20

C. 15

The first step to take when deciding to insert an oral airway is:
A. Ensure that the patient is unconscious
B. Select the proper airway size
C. Open the patient’s mouth
D. Insert the airway toward the roof of the mouth

A. Ensure that the patient is unconscious

An oropharyngeal airway (OPA) should not be used for which of the following patients?
A. A patient without a gag reflex
B. A patient who is alert and talking
C. A patient who is unconscious
D. A patient with nasal trauma

B. A patient who is alert and talking

When suctioning the mouth of a patient, which of the following actions is most appropriate for the emergency medical responder to take?
A. Measure the distance from the patient’s earlobe to the tip of the nose.
B. Suction for at least 20 seconds each time
C. Insert the suction tip as far back into the throat as possible
D. Apply suction while withdrawing the tip in a circular motion

D. Apply junction while withdrawing the tip in a circular motion

Give the contradictions to using an orpoharyngeal airway (OPA)

-Use only on unconscious, unresponsive, with no gag reflex -Should not be used if the patient has suffered oral trauma or has recently under gone oral surgery

Name the two types of airway obstructions:

1) Mechanical 2) Anatomical

A finger sweep can only be performed on an _________________ person.

unconscious

After removing the vomit, the patient fails to start breathing. You use your pocket mask to give ventilations. The mask must be placed so

C. One end of the mask rests between the lower lip and the chin

When administering back blows to an infant with a foreign body airway obstruction, the head should be

C. Lower than the chest

To administer chest thrust to a conscious choking infant, the EMR should use

D. The pads of two or three fingers

Universal sign of choking:

Clutching throat

To administer abdominal thrusts on a conscious, choking adult, where would you place your hands?

Slightly above the navel

you are attempting to dislodge a foreign body from a conscious choking adult patient when the patient suddenly becomes unconscious. What is the next step you should take?

Gently lower the patient to the ground

An oxygen delivery system which gives the EMR flexibility in adjusting the flow of oxygen being delivered to a patient is called:
A. Fixed flow rate
B> Pressure regulator
C. Variable flow rate
D. Flowmeter

C. Variable flow rate

You are preparing to administer emergency oxygen to a patient via variable flow rate system. what is the first step that an EMR should take?
A. Clear the valve
B. Attach the regulator
C. Check the cylinder label and marking
D. Open the cylinder counterclockwise one full turn

C. Check the cylinder label and makring

When using emergency oxygen, which of the following statements is most appropriate to remember?
A. The valve or regulator should be used to carry the cylinder
B. Oxygen cylinders should stand in an upright position on a flat surface
C. Using grease or oil to clean the regulator could lead to an explosion
D. Cylinders should be dragged but not rolled

C. Using grease or oil to clean the regulator could lead to an explosion

Which statement best reflects a variable flow rate system?
A. The system is already preassembled
B. The flow rate has a high or low setting
C. the flow rate can be adjusted for use with various oxygen delivery devices
D. It is less practical than other types of systems

C. The flow rate can be adjusted for use with various oxygen delivery devices

You are preparing to administer oxygen to a patient with a nasal injury. Of the following oxygen delivery devices, which one is least appropriate to use on this patient?
A. Non-rebreather mask
B. Nasal Cannula
C. Resuscitation mask
D> Bag-valve-mask resuscitator

B. Nasal cannula

A fixed flow rate oxygen system is preset to administer oxygen at the flow rate of ______ liters per minute

15

If the pressure gauge on an oxygen cylinder reads 200 pounds per square inch, what should the EMR do?

Replace the oxygen cylinder with a new tank, tank is full at 1000 psi

The most common cause of cardiac emergencies in children is
A. Poisoning
B. Electrocution
C. Trauma to the head
D. Respiratory problems

D. Respiratory problems

What should an emergency medical responder do if the patient shows signs of life while performing CPR/
A. Instruct a bystander to transport her and the patient to the nearest hospital
B. Perform artificial ventilations only until EMS arrives
C. Perform a physical examination and SAMPLE history
D. Leave the patient on his back and perform an ongoing assessment every 5 minutes

D. Leave the patient on his back and perform an ongoing assessment every 5 minutes

To deliver effective chest compressions on an adult in cardiac arrest, your hands should be placed

On the middle of the breastbone

Cardiac arrest is identified by the

Absence of a pulse

On an adult , the chest should be compressed at a depth of ____ inches during CPR.

C. at least 2

The cycle of two rescuer CPR in an infant is

15 compressions and 2 ventilations

The correct hand position for CPR in an infant is

One hand on the forehead and two or three fingers on the sternum just below the nipple line

While preparing the AED for use, you notice that the patient has a medication patch on his chest. What do you do?

Remove it with a gloved hand and wipe off chest

You are about to apply the AED pads to an adult female patient’s chest when you notice that she has several body piercings with jewelry. What would be the most appropriate action for the EMR to take in this situation?

Apply the chest, avoiding the jewelry.

You are performing CPR alone when a second rescuer arrives to help. What should the second rescuer do first?

Check to see whether EMS has been activated

The cycle of a CPR given to a 6 year old is

30 compressions and 2 ventilations

What action should an emergency medical responder take if the AED gives a no shock advised method?

Perform CPR for tw ominutes

After applying the AED pads to a patient’s chest and plugging the pads connnector, the next stop would be to

Tell someone to stand clear

The most important action taken by the EMR to ensure that chest compressions are effective is to

Allow the chest to fully recoil between compressions

The first step in the cardiac chain of survival is?

Early recognition and access to the EMS system

You are providing care to a patient with chest pain who may be having a heart attack. Your first action would be to

Summon EMS

The target number of chest compressions to give in 1 minute to an adult, child, or infant is

C. 100

Where should an EMR place the AED pads on an infant or a child?

One pad on the center of the chest and one pad on the center of the back

The most common rhythm associated with sudden cardiac arrest

Ventricular fibrillation

Another term used to denote a heart attack is

myocaridal infarction

Four links in the Cardiac Chain of Survival:

1. Early recognition of the emergency and early access to the emergency medical services systems 2.Early CPR 3. Early definrillation 4. Early advanced medical care

A patient who has problems with blood sugar levels has a problem with which body system?
A. Circulatory
B. Digestive
C. Endocrine
D. Urinary

D. Endocrine

You are assessing a patient who has kidney failure and is receiving hemodialysis three times per week. The patient has been ill and has gone without hemodialysis for 5 days. What sign would you expect to see in your assessment of the patient?
A. Generalized Edema
B. Hypotension
C. Tachychardia
D. Flushed, dry skin

A. Generalized Edema

You arrive at the scene of an emergency and find that the patient is in status epilepticus. Your first action would be to
A. Administer emergency oxygen
B. Suction the patient’s mouth
C. Place the patient in a modified H.A.IN.E.S. recovery position
D. Summon more advanced medical personnel

D. Summon more advanced medical personnel

Which of the following actions would be most appropriate for an EMR to do when assessing and providing care to a patient who has a stroke?
A. Use a finger sweep on a conscious patient who vomited during a stroke
B. If fluid or vomit is in an unresponsive stroke patient’s mouth, position him or her on one side to allow fluids to drain out of the moth
C. Try to get the patient to speask as must as possible
D. If the patient is conscious, place in a supine position

B. If fluid or vomit is in an unresponsive stroke patient’s mouth, position him or her on one side to allow fluids to drain out of the mouth

You are providing care to a patient having a seizure. Which of the following actions would be a priority?
A. Offering comfort and reassurance
B. Maintaining an open airway
C. Puting an object in the mouth to prevent the patient from biting the tongue
D. Positioning the patient in the supine position

B. Maintaining an open airway

A stroke can best be defined as
A. A temporary episode due to reduced blood flow to the brain
B. A condition having a sudden onset and rapid disappearance of symptoms
C. A disruption of blood flow to a part of the brain, which may cause permanent damage to brain tissue
D. A condition that causes irreversible brain damage each time

C. A disruption of blood flow to a part of the brain, which may cause permanent damage to brain tissue

You are assessing an older adult for signs and symptoms of a stroke using the FAST mnemonic. What does the "T" stand for?
A. The patient is unable to keep both arms raised
B. The patient is able to repeat words clearly and correctly
C. Drooling was observed from the left side of the patient’s mouth
D. The onset of the symptoms was 1 hour ago

D. The onset of the symptoms was 1 hour ago

What does the F stand for in the FAST mnemonic?

Face- ask them to smile , see if there is a droopy face

What does the A stand for?

Arm- ask to raise arms. Does one arm drift?

What does the S stand for?

Speech- ask to repeat sentence. Words slurred?

What does the T stand for?

Time-determine time of onset

SCENARIO Q :
You are an instructor in a first aid class. During the middle of a lesson, you suddenly hear a student sitting in the front row cry out loud and then start to jerk violently.

Identify two priorities of first aid management for this patient:

1. Protect airway 2. Call 911

Of the following signs and symptoms, which one would alert the EMR that the patient is experiencing an overdose of a stimulant?
A. Irritability
B. Lethargy
C. Incoherent speech
D. Increased hear rate

D. Increased heart rate

When you arrive at the scene of an emergency, you suspect substance abuse. Which of the following would be a priority for the EMR?
a. Summon more advance medical personnel
B. Identify the exact substance and dose that was involved
C. Restrain the patient to prevent self-injury
D. Maintain the patient’s body temp

A. Summon more advance medical personnel

A child who was bitten by a venomous snake was poisoned through which route?
A. Inhalation
B. Absorption
C. Ingestion
D. Injection

D. Injection

Oxycodone belongs to which category of medication?
A. Narcotic
B. Depressant
C. Stimulants
D. Hallucinogens

A. Narcotic

Caring for a person who is experiencing heat cramps should include:
A. Giving salt tablets
B. Activating EMS
C. Resting in a cool place
D. All of the above

C. Resting in a cool place

A patient was swimming in the ocean off the eastern coast of the US and was stung by a jellyfish. As an EMR, what should you do first?
A. Flush the injured part with vinegar for 30 seconds.
B. Apply meat tenderizer to the area
C. Rinse the area with fresh water
D. Apply aluminum sulfate to the area

A. Flush the injured part with vinegar for 30 seconds

The signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include:
A. Deep breathing
B. Cool, moist, pale skin
C. Loss of consciousness
D. High blood pressure

B. Cool, moist, pale skin

How can an EMR establish rapport with a patient who is experiencing a behavioral emergency?
A. Speak directly to the patient
B. Avoid making eye contact with the patient
C. Touch the patient on the shoulder
D. Tell the patient that everthing will be fine

A. Speak directly to the patient

An EMR may place a patient in restraints for which of the following?
A. The patient is unresponsive
B. The patient is refusing care
C. The patient is thrashing and kicking
D. The patient is shouting for help

C. The patient is thrashing and kicking

An EMR arrives at the scene of an emergency where the patient is threatening to commit suicide. Which of the following actions would be most appropriate?
A. Call the patient’s bluff about the threat to commit suicide
B. Deny that the patient want to commit suicide
C. Call for additional trained personnel and do not approach the scene
D. tell the patient that he or she is too scared to commit suicide

C. Call for additional trained personnel and do not approach the scene

Another name for shock is __________, a decrease in the amount of oxygenated blood being circulated to vital organs and body tissues

hypoperfusion

In a healthy body, what three conditions must be necessary in order to maintain adequate blood flow?

1. The heart must be working well 2. The blood vessels must be intact and able to adjust blood flow 3. An adequate amount of blood must be circulating in the body

Explain why the early signs and symptoms of shock are absent in young children

Because their bodies can compensate for some of the factors that cause shock by maintaining blood pressure at normal levels

Which of the following is characteristic of venous bleeding?
A. It is bright and red color
B. It flows steadily
C. It spurts from a wound
D. It is difficult for the blood to form a clot

B. It flows steadily

How can an EMR protect oneself from disease transmission when caring for a patient who is bleeding?
A. Wear disposable gloves
B. Wash hands thoroughly for 30 seconds after providing care
C. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer after providing care
D. Wear two pari of disposable gloves

A. Wear disposable gloves

You are attempting to control external bleeding. Which of the following steps should you do first?
A. Apply direct pressure to the wound
B. Check for circulation beyond the injury
C. Cover the wound with a dressing
D. Secure the dressing with a roller bandage

C. Cover the wound with a dressing

You are providing care to a patient with a thermal burn injury. The patient has been removed from the source of the heat. What is the first stem that an EMR should take to provide care for this patient?
A. Cool the burned area
B. Maintain the patient’s body temperature
C. Cover the burned area
D. Minimize occurrence of shock

A. Cool the burned area

You arrive on the scene where a building has collapsed. One of the construction workers is trapped in the debris. His left leg is caught between two large pieces of cement. This type of injury is called an
A. Amputation
B. Crush injury
C. Puncture wound
D. Avulsion

B. Crush injury

Your patient is a 32 year old man who has sustained an electrical burn to his right hand due to a malfunctioning toaster oven. What is the first step in the care of this patient?
A. Inspect the hand for entry and exit wounds
B. Perform a primary assessment
C. Care for any life-threatening conditions
D. Make sure the current is secured

D. Make sure the current is secured

List the two "C" words that help an EMR remember the basic principles in caring for a patient with a burn

1. Cool 2. Cover

What is meant by the term critical burn?

Burns that require immediate attention

List six situation that are characterized as critical burns:

1. When they cause difficulty breathing 2. Signs of burns around mouth and nose 3. Burn covering more than one part of body 4. Burns to head, face, neck, hands, feet 5. Partial or full burn to a child or an elderly person 6. Burns from chemical, explosions, electricity

An object that passes through the body will have both an _____ and ______

entry and exit

Your neighbor accidently spilled concentrated dry powdered weed killer bare hands and arms. He begins screaming in pain. When you go to his house, he is complaining of severe burning and itchin gof his skin. The skin is red and irritated. What is the first thing that you should do in this situation?
A. Scrub the hands and arms vigorously with soap and water
B. Tell your neighbor to apply a topical antihistamine to his hands and arms
C. Brust the material off with a gloved hand or towel
D. Rinse the area with copious amounts of tap water

C. Brush the material off with a gloved hand or towel

You arrive at the scene of an emergency and complete your primary assessment of a patient. You notice what appears to be a bone protruding from an open and bleeding wound on the patient’s lower leg. Which of the following actions should you take?
A. Apply direct pressure immediately above the open wound
B. Apply a tourniquet to the leg above the wound to stop the bleeding
C> Raise the lower leg above the level of the heart
D. Pack the area around the wound with sterile guaze

D. Pack the area around the wound with sterile guaze

You are preparing to apply a splint to an open fracture of a patient’s arm. The wound is oozing blood. What is the first action that you should take?
A. Apply a dressing over the wound
B. Attempt to straighten the arm
C. Apply ice directly over the wound
D. Check the circulation below the level of the wound

A. Apply a dressing over the wound

How can a dislocation best be described?
A. The bone is broken or chipped
B. Two bones that are normally together become separated
C. The ligament at a joint is partially torn
D. A broken bone protrudes from the skin

B. Two bones that are normally together become separated

Another name for the collarbone is the_______

clavicle

You need to stabilize a patient’s head and neck. Because the patient’s head is turned sharply to the right, what is the first action that an EMR should take?
A. Place one hand on the side of the patient’s head to hold it in that position
B. Apply a cervical collar
C. Make sure that the patient’s head is facing forward
D. Maintain the head in the position found

D. Maintain the head in the position found

You arrive at the scene of an emergency and suspect that the patient has an imjury to her head and neck. the patient is lying on her back. How would you perform manual stabilization on the patient?
A. Place your hands on both sides of the patient’s head
B. Position her head in line with the rest of her body
C. Apply a cervical collar
D. Maintain the patient’s airway

A. Place your hands on both sides of the patient’s head

You assess a pregnant woman who thinks she might be in labor. You suspect that she is having Braxton-Hicks contractions because
A. the contractions do not get closer together
B. the contractions do not get stronger in intensity
C. The contractions do not increase in how long the lase
D. All the above

D. all the above

Labor can best be described as:
A. The rapid development of the embryo into a fetus after implantation
B. Rhythmic uterine contractions with cervical dilation leading to the birth of the baby
C. Complete dialation of the cervix as the baby moves through the birth canal
D. Birth of the baby with separation and delivery of the placenta

B. Rhythmic uterine contractions with cervical dilation leading to the birth of the baby

Which of the following leads you to suspect that the baby’s birth is iminent?
A. The woman reports no uge to push
B. Contractions are about 4 minutes apart
C. Contractions are about 2 minutes apart
D. The woman’s abdomen is soft and relaxes

C. The contractions are about 2 minutes apart

As an EMR, you are caring for an infant with a possible broken arm and ribs. The parent’s explanation for the infant’s injurings seems questionable. In this situation, which of the following actions is a priority?
A. Confront the parents regarding the infant’s injuries
B. Treat the infant’s injuries
C. Report your observations and suspicions to your superviosr
D. Notify local law enforcement

B. Treat the infant’s injuries

Which of the following is the most appropriate way to cool a child down who has a high fever?
A. Place the child in a tube of ice water
B. Sponge the child with cold tap water
C. Sponge the child with rubbing alcohol
D. Remove excess clothing or blankets

D. Remove excess clothing or blankets

When providing care to a child with autism, Which of the following actions is most appropriate?
A. Tell the child to look directly at you
B. Use verbal explanations of emotions
C. Expect the child to exhibit age-approprate behaviors
D. Use touch to communicate with the child

B. Use verbal explanations of emotions

You are providing care to a 3 year old boy with a respiratory problem. Which of the following should you identify as contributing to his increased risk for airway obstruction?
A. Use of abdominal muscles for breathing
B. Flatter shape of the nose
C. Larger tongue within the pharynx
D. Increased flexibility of the ribs

C. Larger tongue within the pharynx

You are performing a 360 degree assessment. this means that you are:
A. Ensuring that all equipment in the vehicle is secured
B. Looking in all directions for possible dangers
C. Identifying the need for lights and siren
D. Checking the vehicle to make sure that it is in working order

B. Looking in all directions for possible dangers

In which of the following emergency situations is air transport least likely to be required?
A. Passengers unrestrained in a vehicle that has rolled over
B> A patient experiencing chest pain
C. A patient who fell out of a third story window
D. A building fire involving multiple patients with severe burns

B. A patient experiencing chest pain

Which of the following is most appropriate to remember when assessing and providing emergency care to an older adult?
A. Clear, slow, calm explanations are important
B. SIgnificant pressure is needed when giving ventilations
C. Dentures rarely interfere with maintaining an open airway
D. the older adults skin requires less gentle handling because it toughens with aging

A. Clear, slow, calm explanations are important

A normal age-related change in an older adult is:
A. Diminished stiffening of blood vessels
B. Enhanced sense of smell
C. Widening of the aortic valve
D. Reduced ability to hear high pitched-sounds

D. Reduced ability to hear high-pitched sounds

The safe and appropriate removal of a patient trapped in a motor vehicle or in a dangerous situation is called:
A. Complex access
B. Extrication
C. Chocking
D. Packaging

B. Extrication

Which of the following is used to manage an emergency situation and provide appropriate care?
A. An incident command system
B. The triage system
C. The National Response Feedback (NRF)
D. The National Incident Management System (NIMS)

A. An incident command system

Which statement best describes the National Incident Management Systems(NIMS)?
A. It coordinates the response to and recovery from disasters in the US when those disasters overwhelm local and state resources
B. It is a comprehensive framework that outlines the structures for response activities from command and management
C. It is responsible for bringing together facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications within a single organizational structure
D. It is structured in five functional areas, including command, operations, planning, logistics, and finance/administration

B. It is a comprehensive framework that outlines the structures for response activities for command and management

You are preparing to use the DuoDote antidote kit based on an understanding that the patient has been exposed to which of the following?
A. Radiological/nuclear agent
B. Nerve agent
C. Biological agent
D. Explosive

B. Nerve agent

Nerve agents are classified as to which type of weapons of mass destruction (WMD)?
A. Biological
B. Chemical
C. Radiologic/nuclear
D. Explosive

B. Chemical

A person is trapped in a farm silo. What type of situation is this?
A. Hazardous terrain
B. Cave-in
C. Confined space
D. High-angle situation

C. Confined space

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