# financial b, Financial Math B- Consumer Credit 1, Borrowing Money

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 Connie has two credit cards, U and V. Card U has a balance of \$414.55, and Card V has a balance of \$751.81. The minimum monthly payment on Card U is 2.82% of the balance, and the minimum monthly payment on Card V is 3.09% of the total balance. How much greater is the minimum payment on Card V than on Card U? D Which of the following types of credits would best describes home equity loans? A The legally mandated disclosure of terms and conditions found on every credit card is called the "Schuyler Box." F Gary has a credit card with an APR of 13.57%, compounded monthly. He would like to pay off the \$1,847.42 card balance over the course of two and a half years by making identical monthly payments. Assuming that he makes no additional purchases on his card, how much must Gary pay every month to reach his goal? (Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) A Use the following compound interest formula to complete the problem. Rodney owes \$1,541.05 on his credit card. His card has an APR of 16.29%, compounded monthly. Assuming that he makes no payments and no purchases, how much will he owe after one year? b Greg has a credit card which requires a minimum monthly payment of 2.06% of the total balance. His card has an APR of 11.45%, compounded monthly. At the beginning of May, Greg had a balance of \$318.97 on his credit card. The following table shows his credit card purchases over the next few months. b What is an unsecured line of credit? A What is a closed line of credit? c Use the following compound interest formula to complete the problem. Sandra has two credit cards, P and Q. Card P has a balance of \$726.19 and an interest rate of 10.19%, compounded semiannually. Card Q has a balance of \$855.20 and an interest rate of 8.63%, compounded monthly. Assuming that Sandra makes no purchases and no payments with either card, after four years, which card’s balance will have increased by more, and how much greater will that increase be? c May currently has a balance of \$1,817.43 on her credit card. If she must make a minimum monthly payment of 3.44% of her total balance, what is her minimum payment, to the nearest cent? b What is an open line of credit? c Jeff has a balance of \$2,513.77 on his credit card. He would like to pay off his card over the course of a year and a half by making identical monthly payments. The APR on his card is 10.66%, compounded monthly. Assuming that Jeff makes no additional purchases with his card, how much will he have to pay every month to reach his goal? (Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) a Natasha had a \$922.93 balance on her credit card at the beginning of September. Her credit card has an APR of 9.89%, compounded monthly, and a minimum monthly payment of 3.08% of the total balance. The following table shows Natasha’s credit card purchases over the next two months. If Natasha makes only the minimum payments, what will her balance at the beginning of November? (Assume that the interest accrues before the monthly payment, and that the monthly payment occurs at the end of the month. Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) c What is the name of the legally mandated area on every credit solicitation which provides information about the terms and conditions of the card? c WRONG Darryl’s credit card has a minimum monthly payment of 2.51% of the card’s balance. If Darryl currently owes \$1,431.72, what is his minimum payment, to the nearest cent? d Which of the following types of credits would best describe credit cards? d Use the following compound interest formula to complete the problem. Currently you have two credit cards, H and I. Card H has a balance of \$1,186.44 and an interest rate of 14.74%, compounded annually. Card I has a balance of \$1,522.16 and an interest rate of 12.05%, compounded monthly. Assuming that you make no purchases and no payments with either card, after three years, which card’s balance will have increased by more, and how much greater will that increase be? b WRONG Rachel has developed a plan to start paying off her credit card debt, and has stopped making purchases with her credit card. She has a credit card balance of \$1,120.87. Her card has an APR of 14.12%, compounded monthly, and has a minimum monthly payment of 3.15% of the total balance, which is calculated after the monthly interest. Rachel has decided to pay off her debt by making identical monthly payments over a period of two years. If she starts this month, how much greater will her first payment be than the minimum payment required? (Round final answer to the nearest dollar.) a WRONG What is the prime rate? a Fran is going to transfer her credit card balance over to a new card. She has an existing balance of \$752.69. Her current card charges her a transfer fee of 12.5%, added to her balance, for transferring her debt. The new card has an opening fee of \$50, which is also added to her balance. She will also have to make an immediate minimum payment, which is 3.35% of her total balance. How much will her balance be after she makes this payment, assuming that she pays the minimum amount? Round all dollar values to the nearest cent. a Which of the following statements is not true of cash advances? b Looking for some furniture for her new apartment, Susan visits the local swap meet in search of something cheap. Knowing that most swap meet vendors will not accept credit cards and that she will not have any money until her next payday, Susan decides to take out a \$200 cash advance on her credit card at an interest rate of 32%. If Susan had no previous balance on her credit card, and she manages to pay off the balance within 1 month, how much will she have to pay in interest? a Which of the following is not an advantage of using a credit card instead of cash? a Tom has offered to sell Julian his motorcycle for \$1,200. Julian know this is a very good deal, since the same motorcycle can be purchased at the dealership for \$1,800. Since Julian doesn’t have \$1,200 and Tom does not accept credit cards, they both think a cash advance might be a good idea. Julian’s credit card company can offer him a cash advance for the \$1,200 he needs at an interest rate of 26%. He would then pay off the balance in 24 months. Should Julian use the cash advance to purchase the motorcycle? b Ralph is purchasing a new gaming system for \$300.00. He is trying to decide whether he wants to use cash or his credit card to pay. He has \$600.00 available in his checking account. Which of the following is not an argument that justifies Ralph’s use of his cash to purchase the gaming system? a Which of the following is not a disadvantage to cash advances on a credit card? b Tom is in dire need of a new washing machine. He knows what model he would like to get, but doesn’t have the cash to pay for it. He plans to get a line of credit (credit card) at the store when he purchases his new washer. He found four different stores that carry the same washing machine for different prices. The lines of credit they offer also come with different APRs. Tom’s primary goal is to minimize his monthly payment as he pays the washing machine off over the next 18 months. From which of the four stores should Tom purchase his washing machine? b Which of the following is not a benefit to using credit instead of cash? b Which of the following is not a disadvantage of using credit instead of cash? b Sam is getting ready for a big date when he realizes that he has no money. His roommate, Bill, also has no money, but he has a credit card. Knowing that nobody will let Sam use Bill’s credit card, Sam asks Bill to pull out a cash advance for \$120.00. Bill agrees under the condition that Sam is responsible for all interest that accrues on the cash advance which is a 30% interest rate, compounded monthly. 5 full years go by before the \$120 cash advance is repaid. How much should Bill ask Sam to pay in interest for the cash advance? b Ellen purchased a dishwasher, which cost \$315 before the 9.22% sales tax. She used the machine an average of 10 times per week for the next six years, at which point she replaced it. Each time she ran the dishwasher it cost her \$0.09 for water and \$0.13 for electricity. What was the lifetime cost of Ellen’s dishwasher? a Brian bought a new air conditioning unit on his credit card. The unit had a base price of \$435. Brian made no other purchases on his credit card. Brian’s credit card has an interest rate of 9.4%, compounded monthly, and Brian paid off the balance by making monthly payments for a year and a half. If the sales tax in Brian’s area is 8.51%, how much did Brian pay in total? (Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) d Robert plans on using his deep fryer about eight times per month. After six years, which brand will have the lower lifetime cost, and by how much? Hint: Assume that either deep fryer can be repurchased at the same price, if needed to provide the desired length of service. a Kevin is looking at two brands of washing machines. Between water and electricity, a Brand C washer uses about \$0.65 per load, and a Brand D washer uses about \$0.27 per load. Kevin averages about five loads of laundry per month. After one year, how much more would the utility costs for a Brand C washer be than the utility costs for a Brand D washer? a You are considering making a major purchase on your credit card. You should ask yourself the following questions, except which answer choice? b Carlos bought a \$235 water heater with his credit card. He used the water heater for five years before replacing it. He paid off the water heater after two years, making monthly payments. The water heater cost him an average of \$1.56 per week in electricity, and \$0.78 per week in water. If Carlos’s credit card has an APR of 14.15%, compounded monthly, and he made no other purchases with it, what percentage of the lifetime cost of the water heater was interest? (Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) c Seth has just decided to replace his computer. His old computer cost him \$1,433 when he bought it exactly seven years ago. Seth paid for it with his credit card, which has an APR of 11.70%, compounded monthly. He made no other purchases with the card and paid off his balance after two and a half years of making identical monthly payments. The computer consumed about \$0.79 of electricity every day. In total, what percentage of the lifetime cost of the computer did the electricity make up? (Assume that two out of the seven years were leap years, and round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) c WRONG Pam has just moved into a new home and wants to purchase an oven. She expects to live in this house for the foreseeable future. She has narrowed her choices down to two options. Consider the following table, which describes the prices, daily electricity costs, and lifespans of the two ovens she is considering: Which brand will have the lower lifetime cost, and how much lower will it be? Hints: If the product’s expected lifespans differ, assume that repurchase(s) at the same price is possible to equalize the lifespans. Remember that six of the twenty-four years will be leap years, and round all dollar values to the nearest cent. b Paul paid \$663 for a new freezer. He paid for the freezer with his credit card, which has an interest rate of 15.28% compounded monthly, and made monthly payments for five years until the freezer was paid off. He kept the freezer for seven years, and it used an average of \$2.14 of electricity per week. Paul made no other purchases or payments with his credit card until the freezer was paid off. Between the interest and the electricity, which component of the lifetime cost of the freezer was greater, and how much greater was it? (Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) c Of the following, which statement or statements accurately reflect a way in which credit can be safer than cash? a Eric is comparing the credit scores of his friends. The scores he gathered are found in the table below. Among this batch of credit scores, find whether the mean or the median is higher, and how much higher it is. (Round to the nearest whole point, if applicable.) b Sophie did an anyonymous survey and collected her friends’ credit scores. The scores she found are listed in the table below. What is the mean credit score in this group? (Round to the nearest whole point, if applicable.) a You are a loan officer trying to decide which clients deserve your best rates. The table below shows the credit scores of several loan applicants. Based on each applicant’s median credit score, who deserves your best interest rates? d Who can access your credit report? b Tony is a loan officer. He determines his clients’ eligibility for loans and for good interest rates by using their credit scores. The scores of several clients are shown in the following table. Help Tony evaluate his applicants based on their mean and median credit scores. b Of the following statements, which one or ones describe actions harmful to your credit score? a Hal is going over the credit scores he received from the three major credit bureaus. He Experian score is 711, his Equifax score is 736, and his TransUnion score is 736. What is the mode of Hal’s credit scores? (Round to the nearest whole point, if applicable.) a Will’s boss has asked him to compile the credit scores of everyone in his department. The data that Will collected is shown in the table below. What is the mode of the credit scores in Will’s department? (Round to the nearest whole point, if applicable.) d Of the following statements, which one or ones indicate possible effects of a low credit score? d Rank the following factors in order from those that have the most effect on your credit score to those that have the least effect on your credit score. c WRONG Laura’s credit card has an APR of 12.04%, and it computes finance charges using the daily balance method and a 30-day billing cycle. On June 1st, Laura had a balance of \$606.40. She made exactly one transaction in June: a payment of \$55.25. If Laura’s finance charge for June was \$5.71, on which day did she make the payment? a WRONG To minimize finance charges calculated by the daily balance method, when in the billing cycle is it best to make purchases and payments? c Jessica’s credit card is on a 30-day billing cycle, and it computes finance charges using the adjusted balance method. The following table details Jessica’s use of her credit card in the month of October. What is Jessica’s adjusted balance for October? b Which method of calculating finance charge results in the lowest finance charge? d Gregory has a credit card with a 30-day billing cycle and an APR of 11.95%. The following table shows Gregory’s credit card transactions for the month of April. Between the adjusted balance method and the daily balance method, which method of computing Gregory’s April finance charge will result in a greater finance charge, and how much greater will it be? b Which method used to calculate finance charges is most favorable to the card issuer? c Calvin’s credit card computes finance charges using the daily balance method. His card has a billing cycle of 30 days and an APR of 14.75%. The following table details Calvin’s transactions in the month of September. What will Calvin’s starting balance be next month? c Yolanda’s credit card has an APR of 16.22% and a billing cycle of 30 days. The table below shows her transactions with that credit card in the month of November. Find Yolanda’s finance charge in November using the previous balance method, the adjusted balance method, and the daily balance method. Among those three possible finance charges, what is the value of the one which is neither lowest nor highest? b Yvonne’s credit card has an APR of 17.79% and a 30-day billing cycle. The following table details her credit card transactions in the month of June. Between the previous balance method and the daily balance method, which method of calculating Yvonne’s June finance charge will result in a greater finance charge, and how much greater will it be? c WRONG Adam’s credit card calculates finance charges using the adjusted balance method and a 30-day billing cycle. The table below shows his use of that credit card over three months. If Adam’s credit card has an APR of 14.63%, what is Adam’s balance at the end of June? c Jason is looking for an engagement ring to offer his girlfriend. He has found a similar ring at each of four different jewelry stores. He doesn’t have enough money to pay for the ring in cash, so he is planning on opening a line of credit (credit card) at the store he ends up buying the ring from. The chart below outlines the difference in the price of the rings the different stores offer as well as the difference in credit options. Jason plans to pay off the ring purchase in 36 months. According to the information in the table, which of the jewelry stores will have the cheapest ring in the end? c Roger has a credit card with an APR of 19.40% and a billing cycle of 30 days. The following table shows his transactions with that credit card in the month of June. If Roger’s finance charge for June is \$3.56, which method of calculating the finance charge does Roger’s credit card company use? a Hannah has a credit card with an APR of 11.90% and a billing cycle of 30 days. The following table shows Hannah’s transactions in the month of April. If Hannah’s credit card company calculates finance charges using the daily balance method, what will her April finance charge be? c How can credit cards be safer than cash? c Of the following statements, which one or ones describe actions helpful to your credit score? c Gareth has just remodeled his kitchen and wants to buy one of two stand-alone freezers. Consider the following table, which displays the prices, electricity costs, and lifespans of the two freezers he is considering: No matter which brand he chooses, Gareth will pay for the freezer on his credit card, which has an APR of 9.31%, compounded monthly. It takes Gareth eighteen months to pay off a Brand S freezer and four years to pay off a Brand R freezer. Assuming that Gareth makes no other purchases or payments with his credit card, over the next ten years, which brand of freezer will have a lower lifetime cost, and how much lower will it be? (Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) a Use the following compound interest formula to complete the problem. Sandra has two credit cards, P and Q. Card P has a balance of \$726.19 and an interest rate of 10.19%, compounded semiannually. Card Q has a balance of \$855.20 and an interest rate of 8.63%, compounded monthly. Assuming that Sandra makes no purchases and no payments with either card, after four years, which card’s balance will have increased by more, and how much greater will that increase be? c Which of the following types of credits would best describes home equity loans? a Connie has two credit cards, U and V. Card U has a balance of \$414.55, and Card V has a balance of \$751.81. The minimum monthly payment on Card U is 2.82% of the balance, and the minimum monthly payment on Card V is 3.09% of the total balance. How much greater is the minimum payment on Card V than on Card U? d May currently has a balance of \$1,817.43 on her credit card. If she must make a minimum monthly payment of 3.44% of her total balance, what is her minimum payment, to the nearest cent? b Jason’s credit card has an APR of 17.02% and a 30-day billling cycle. The following table details Jason’s transactions with that card in the month of June. Between the adjusted balance method and the daily balance method, which method of computing Jason’s June finance charge will result in a greater finance charge, and how much greater will it be? a Elizabeth’s credit card computes her finance charges using the previous balance method and a 30-day billing cycle. The table below shows Elizabeth’s credit card transactions in July. If Elizabeth has an APR of 14.61%, how much will her July finance charge be? c Credit The ability to borrow money. Principal A prime sum of money borrowed, excluding interest. interest rate A percentage of the money borrowed, added to the principal sum when paying back. finance charge A fee for using credit. installments The cost of something divided into equal payments over a specified period of time. annual percentage rate (APR) Interest rate on the balance of a loan, paid in installments. credit limit The highest amount a creditor is willing to lend a specific person. Explain what is meant by credit. What is the function of interest? Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Credit is the ability to borrow money. For the borrower, it is the ability to get a product or service based on the promise to pay for it in the future. Interest is the fee paid for using someone else’s money and its function is to make lending money worthwhile for the lender. The ability to borrow money defines the term __________. Credit A loan that is backed by collateral is __________. secured When repaying a loan with interest calculated at an annual percentage rate, the dollar amount paid in interest __________ each month. decreases Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using cash instead of a credit card to obtain goods and services. Responses will vary. A sample response follows: The advantages of using cash instead of credit cards include no annual fees, no way to acquire debt, more incentive to budget money, and spending less because it is more painful to part with cash. The disadvantages of using cash include purchases may have to be delayed due to a lack of available cash and no protection resulting from the loss of stolen cash or goods. Explain how credit card companies make money on their cards. What is a credit card issuer? Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Credit card companies make money on their cards by charging banks a fee to issue their cards. They also charge merchants to accept their credit cards when customers use them to pay for products and services. Credit card issuers are financial institutions that establish credit accounts for their customers and provide them with a pre-approved credit limit. Describe the factors that determine the amount you ultimately pay for borrowing money. How is it possible to reduce the amount you end up paying? Responses will vary. A sample response follows: The factors that determine the amount paid for borrowing money are the amount of the loan, the length of the loan, and the annual percentage rate of the loan. The larger the amount borrowed and the longer that it takes to pay the money back determine how much interest will be paid on the loan. It is possible to reduce the amount you end up paying by shopping for the lowest annual percentage rate and paying off the loan as quickly as possible. Explain how a credit card works when a customer makes a purchase. Responses will vary. A sample response follows: When a customer buys something with a credit card, the bank pays the store on the customer’s behalf. The customer will then receive a bill and usually has between 20 to 30 days to pay the balance. If the balance is not paid in full, then a finance charge will be added to the remaining balance. Finance charges are added each month until the balance is completely paid off. Most loans are paid back in __________ installments. monthly Explain the difference between an interest rate and finance charge. An interest rate is a percentage of the amount of money borrowed. A finance charge is the interest paid stated as a dollar amount. When a customer buys something with a credit card, the ____ pays the store on the customer’s behalf. Bank The annual percentage rate is the interest on a loan paid in ____. Installements The interest rate is based on a percentage of the amount of __________. money borrowed Visa and MasterCard are examples of credit card __________. Brands A fee paid for using someone else’s money is called __________. interest The function of interest is to make lending money worthwhile and profitable for the __________. Lender interest The difference between the amount paid over the lifetime of a loan, that is compounded n times in a given year, and the principal amount borrowed is defined as the interest. service charge A service charge is the sum of lender fees for taking out a loan. finance charge A finance charge is the total cost of taking out a loan, which includes the interest paid over the lifetime of the loan and any service fees applied by the lender. Carlos took seven years to pay off his loan by making identical quarterly payments. The loan had a principal of \$22,375 and 5.49% interest, compounded quarterly. Carlos paid a total of \$28,821.67. How much did Carlos pay in service charges? Round all dollar values to the nearest cent. \$1,721.31 You have just finished paying off your \$35,125 loan, a feat which took ten years of quarterly payments. The loan had an interest rate of 7.44%, compounded quarterly. If you also paid \$5,180.70 in service charges, what percentage of the total cost was made up by your finance charges? Round all dollar values to the nearest cent. 36.47% Niki makes the same payment every two months to pay off his \$61,600 loan. The loan has an interest rate of 9.84%, compounded every two months. If Niki pays off his loan after exactly eleven years, how much interest will he have paid in total? Round all dollar values to the nearest cent. \$39,695.48 Jerry’s loan had a principal of \$22,000. He made quarterly payments of \$640 for nine years until the loan was paid in full. How much did Jerry pay in interest? \$1,040 Maria is going to take out a loan with a principal of \$19,700. She has narrowed down her options to two banks. Bank M charges an interest rate of 7.1%, compounded monthly, and requires that the loan be paid off in five years. Bank N charges an interest rate of 7.8%, compounded monthly, and requires that the loan be paid off in four years. How would you recommend that Maria choose her loan? Maria should choose Bank M’s loan if she cares more about lower monthly payments, and she should choose Bank N’s loan if she cares more about the lowest lifetime cost. Kevin has just finished paying off his loan. He was assessed a service charge of \$422. He paid off the principal and the interest by making weekly payments of \$36.13 for four years. If the principal was \$7,150, how much did Kevin pay in finance charges, to the nearest dollar? \$787 Paul has an eight-year loan with a principal of \$26,900. The loan has an interest rate of 8.18%, compounded quarterly. If Paul pays \$1,527 in service charges and makes quarterly payments on his loan, what will his total finance charge be when the loan is repaid? Round all dollar values to the nearest cent. \$11,546.36 Brian took eight years to pay off his \$71,900 loan. The loan had an interest rate of 8.16%, compounded quarterly. If Brian paid quarterly and made the same payment every time, how much was each payment that he made? \$3,081.54 Kay has decided to take out a \$23,100 loan, and she wants to pay it back in quarterly installments. She has narrowed her options down to two banks. Bank V offers a six-year loan with an interest rate of 4.6%, compounded quarterly, and has a service charge of \$822.45. Bank W offers an eight-year loan with an interest rate of 3.9%, compounded quarterly, and a service charge of \$722.25. Which loan will have the greater total finance charge, and how much greater will it be? Round all dollar values to the nearest cent. Loan W’s finance charge will be \$335.96 greater than Loan V’s. The principal on Jan’s loan was \$4,700, but by the time she had paid it off after four years, the interest and principal totaled \$5,388. If Jan made regular quarterly payments of \$355 until the loan was paid off, how much did Jan pay for service charges? \$292 Yvette is considering taking out a loan with a principal of \$16,200 from one of two banks. Bank F charges an interest rate of 5.7%, compounded monthly, and requires that the loan be paid off in eight years. Bank G charges an interest rate of 6.2%, compounded monthly, and requires that the loan be paid off in seven years. How would you recommend that Yvette choose her loan? Yvette should choose Bank F’s loan if she cares more about lower monthly payments, and she should choose Bank G’s loan if she cares more about the lowest lifetime cost. Which of these best fits the definition of interest, as it applies to finance? Interest is the cost of borrowing money. Travis took out a six-year loan with a principal of \$15,000. He made monthly payments of \$225 for the entire period, at which point the loan was paid off. How much did Travis pay in interest? \$1200 What is the difference between a service charge and a finance charge? A service charge is a fee assessed by a lender other than interest, and a finance charge is the total of the interest paid on a loan and the service charge. Dahlia is trying to decide which bank she should use for a loan she wants to take out. In either case, the principal of the loan will be \$19,450, and Dahlia will make monthly payments. Bank P offers a nine-year loan with an interest rate of 5.8%, compounded monthly, and assesses a service charge of \$925.00. Bank Q offers a ten-year loan with an interest rate of 5.5%, compounded monthly, and assesses a service charge of \$690.85. Which loan will have the greater total finance charge, and how much greater will it be? Round all dollar values to the nearest cent. Loan Q’s finance charge will be \$83.73 greater than Loan P’s. Dana just finished paying off the \$15,400 loan she took out four years ago. The loan had 6.68% interest, compounded monthly. If Dana paid a total of \$18,321.60, how much did she pay in service charges? \$730.08 How does Truth-in-lending benefit consumers when shopping for a loan? Truth-in-lending allows consumers to know every cost that is associated with the loans they research and apply for, and helps them reach the optimal decision. Say you take out a loan with a principal of \$44,500. The interest rate is 13.11%, compounded monthly. If you make consistent monthly payments and pay off the loan over the course of six and a half years, how much interest will you have paid in total? Round dollar amounts to the nearest cent. \$21,849.92 Why is the interest rate of a loan one of the most important things to consider when shopping around for loans? The interest rate can drastically change the total amount paid to the lender, in the case of mortgages, up to thousands of dollars. Service Credit Service credit is consumer credit that allows for the use of utilities. Installment Credit Installment credit is issued by a store and is used when financing smaller purchases such as appliances, furniture, and electronics. Credit Card Credit cards are the most common form of credit in which borrowers use credit cards to charge purchases. Open line of credit An open line of credit allows for repeated transactions by the borrower while the borrower pays a calculated amount each month until the borrowed amount is repaid. Closed line of Credit A closed line of credit refers to an installment or personal loan where a fixed total amount is loaned with repayment at a fixed monthly amount over time. Secured loan Secured loans are loans that require collateral which can be used to pay off the loan in the event of non-payment. unsecured loan Unsecured loans, which do not require collateral, are based on the borrower’s credit score and the borrower’s ability to repay the loan. APR APR, or annual percentage rate, is the cost of credit expressed as a percentage rate and can be either fixed or variable. Penalty charges Penalty charges are incurred when a consumer makes a late payment. Balance transfer A balance transfer is when a consumer will transfer outstanding credit debt from one account to another. Darlene has an offer to move her debt from a card with 13% APR to a card with 7% APR. There is a \$25 balance transfer charge for this offer. Darlene has \$400 in debt on her card. Should she transfer her balance to the 7% APR card? (400)(0.13)= \$52/year (400)(0.07)= \$28/year \$24 Connie has two credit cards, U and V. Card U has a balance of \$414.55, and Card V has a balance of \$751.81. The minimum monthly payment on Card U is 2.82% of the balance, and the minimum monthly payment on Card V is 3.09% of the total balance. How much greater is the minimum payment on Card V than on Card U? Card U: (414.55)(0.0282)=\$11.69 Card V: (751.81)(0.0309)=\$23.23 23.23-11.69= \$11.54 What is an unsecured line of credit? A line of credit which does not require collateral. What is a closed line of credit? A line of credit with a fixed total amount. Sandra has two credit cards, P and Q. Card P has a balance of \$726.19 and an interest rate of 10.19%, compounded semiannually. Card Q has a balance of \$855.20 and an interest rate of 8.63%, compounded monthly. Assuming that Sandra makes no purchases and no payments with either card, after four years, which card’s balance will have increased by more, and how much greater will that increase be? Card P: 726.19(1+ 0.1019/2)^8 =1080.70-726.19= 354.51 Card Q: 855.20(1+0.0863/12)^48 =1206.28-855.20= 351.08 354.51-351.08= \$3.43 The legally mandated disclosure of terms and conditions found on every credit card is called the "Schuyler Box." False Gary has a credit card with an APR of 13.57%, compounded monthly. He would like to pay off the \$1,847.42 card balance over the course of two and a half years by making identical monthly payments. Assuming that he makes no additional purchases on his card, how much must Gary pay every month to reach his goal? (Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) 1847.42 [(0.1357/12)/1-(1+0.1357/12)^-30] P= \$72.96 Rodney owes \$1,541.05 on his credit card. His card has an APR of 16.29%, compounded monthly. Assuming that he makes no payments and no purchases, how much will he owe after one year? 1541.05(1+0.1629/12)^12 =\$1811.70 Which of the following types of credits would best describes home equity loans? closed and secured May currently has a balance of \$1,817.43 on her credit card. If she must make a minimum monthly payment of 3.44% of her total balance, what is her minimum payment, to the nearest cent? \$62.52 If Jordan makes only the minimum monthly payments in March, April, and May, what will his balance be after he makes the minimum payment for May? (Assume that interest is compounded before the monthly payment is made, and that the monthly payment is applied at the end of the month. Round all dollar values to the nearest cent.) \$988.97 What is a secure line of credit? A line of credit backed by collateral. Darryl’s credit card has a minimum monthly payment of 2.51% of the card’s balance. If Darryl currently owes \$1,431.72, what is his minimum payment, to the nearest cent? \$35.94 Victor has a credit card with an APR of 13.66%, compounded monthly. He currently owes a balance of \$1,349.34. Assuming that Victor makes no purchases or payments, how much will he owe after one year, to the nearest cent? \$1,545.65 You are looking for your first credit card. You plan to use this credit card only for emergencies and to pay the credit card balance in full each month. Which credit card feature is most important? No annual fee What is the prime rate? The prime rate is the best interest rate that banks offer their most creditworthy customers. What is the name of the legally mandated area on every credit solicitation which provides information about the terms and conditions of the card? Schumer Box Currently you have two credit cards, H and I. Card H has a balance of \$1,186.44 and an interest rate of 14.74%, compounded annually. Card I has a balance of \$1,522.16 and an interest rate of 12.05%, compounded monthly. Assuming that you make no purchases and no payments with either card, after three years, which card’s balance will have increased by more, and how much greater will that increase be? Card I’s balance increased by \$53.16 more than Card H’s balance. APR APR, or annual percentage rate, is the cost of credit expressed as a percentage rate and can be either fixed or variable. Impulse buying Impulse buying is the act of making an unplanned or otherwise spontaneous purchase. Consumer Protection Consumer protection is a law or measure that protects the consumer from fraudulent or deceptive sales practices. Credit Card Credit cards are the most common form of credit in which borrowers use credit cards to charge purchases. Cash Advance A cash advance is a service provided by most credit card and charge card issuers which allows cardholders to withdraw cash up to a certain limit. Alissa needs to determine the amount needed in her account that pays an APR of 3.2% so that she can draw an annual salary of \$10262.32 for 10 years. 10262.32(1-(1+0.032)^-10/0.032) = \$86652.91 Bob’s car needs a new transmission, a repair that will cost \$1,763.00. Bob does not have enough money in his savings account to cover the cost of the repair. To make matters worse, Bob’s mechanic, who works out of his home, is unable to accept credit cards. Bob is hesitant to take out a cash advance on his credit card knowing that it will take him 12 months to pay of the balance and that a cash advance comes with a 30% interest rate. If Bob uses a cash advance to pay for the repairs, how much extra will he have to pay in interest? =1763[(.3/12)/1-(1+.3/12)^-12 =\$171.87 171.87X12=2062.44-1763=\$299.44 Jason is looking for an engagement ring to offer his girlfriend. He has found a similar ring at each of four different jewelry stores. He doesn’t have enough money to pay for the ring in cash, so he is planning on opening a line of credit (credit card) at the store he ends up buying the ring from. The chart below outlines the difference in the price of the rings the different stores offer as well as the difference in credit options. Jason plans to pay off the ring purchase in 36 months. According to the information in the table, which of the jewelry stores will have the cheapest ring in the end? Diamonds Forever Describe the effect an increase in n, the number of payment periods, has on the monthly payment P in the formula P=PV(i/1-(1+i)^-n An increase in n, the number of payment periods, will create a decrease in P, the monthly payment. Robby is considering taking out a cash advance on his credit card to purchase a new television. His credit card offers cash advances up to \$500.00 at an interest rate of 28%. If the television costs \$350.00 and Robby plans to pay the balance of in 6 months, how much extra will he pay in interest to purchase the television? =350[(.28/12)/1-(1+.28/12)^-6] P=\$63.19 63.19X6=279.14-350=\$29.14 Ralph is purchasing a new gaming system for \$300.00. He is trying to decide whether he wants to use cash or his credit card to pay. He has \$600.00 available in his checking account to pay for the system in full. Which of the following is not an argument that justifies Ralph’s use of his credit card to purchase the gaming system? With credit, he is not required to pay off his balance for a very long time. That’s \$300 more in his pocket. Sally needs to have some drywall and insulation work done in her house. She has received a quote from a professional drywall contractor to complete her repairs for \$1,200. Her neighbor Steve says he can complete the same job for \$800. Sally could use a credit card to pay the contractor, but Steve can only accept cash. Sally’s credit card has a 14% APR for credit purchases and a 32% interest rate for cash advances. Expecting to pay \$50 of the principle plus appropriate interest each month, Sally estimates that it would take her 24 months to pay off the contractor balance and 16 months to pay off the cash advance balance. In the end, would it be cheaper for Sally to hire the contractor or her neighbor to complete the repairs? Contractor: For \$1,200 at 14% for 24 months, Sally would be have to pay \$57.62 per month, or \$1,382.88 after 24 months. Neighbor Steve: For \$800 at 32% for 16 months, Sally would have to pay \$62.08 per month or \$993.28 after 16 months. Even with the (much) higher interest rate, Sally would pay \$389.60 less if she went with Neighbor Steve. Even better is that the monthly payments would be about the same for the given timelines. Sally would still want to weight the benefits of contracted work vs. non-contracted work. The higher interest rate of a cash advance on a credit card with an existing balance can be eliminated by paying the cash advance back within four weeks. False Tim would like to use his income tax return to pay off one of his four credit cards. His previous plan was to pay off all four credit cards in the same timeline of 36 months. He wants to eliminate the card that is charging him the most interest on a monthly basis. The chart below outlines Tim’s four credit cards, their balances, and their APRs. Which credit card should Tim use his tax return to pay off? 1260[(.12/12)/1-(1+.12/12)^-36] =\$41.85 41.85X36=1506.60 \$246.60 32.54X36=1171.44 \$271.44 41.02X36=1476.72 \$186.72 42.19X36=1518.84 \$318.84 Card D As a New Year’s resolution, Jimmy has agreed to pay off his 4 credit cards and completely eliminate his credit card debt within the next 12 months. Listed below are the balances and annual percentage rates for Jimmy’s credit cards. In order to pay his credit card debt off in the next 12 months, what will Jimmy’s total minimum credit card payment be? \$411.25 Credit cards can only lead to debt that is difficult to eliminate and should be avoided at all costs. False Describe the effect an increase in i, the interest rate applied to the present value, has on the monthly payment P in the formula P=PV(i/1-(1+i)^-n An increase in i, the interest rate, will create an increase in P, the monthly payment. Ralph is purchasing a new gaming system for \$300.00. He is trying to decide whether he wants to use cash or his credit card to pay. He has \$600.00 available in his checking account. Which of the following is not an argument that justifies Ralph’s use of his cash to purchase the gaming system? Using cash can help Ralph improve his credit score. Tom has offered to sell Julian his motorcycle for \$1,200. Julian know this is a very good deal, since the same motorcycle can be purchased at the dealership for \$1,800. Since Julian doesn’t have \$1,200 and Tom does not accept credit cards, they both think a cash advance might be a good idea. Julian’s credit card company can offer him a cash advance for the \$1,200 he needs at an interest rate of 26%. He would then pay off the balance in 24 months. Should Julian use the cash advance to purchase the motorcycle? Yes. Even with the interest, the total cost of the motorcycle would be less than at the dealership. Sam is getting ready for a big date when he realizes that he has no money. His roommate, Bill, also has no money, but he has a credit card. Knowing that nobody will let Sam use Bill’s credit card, Sam asks Bill to pull out a cash advance for \$120.00. Bill agrees under the condition that Sam is responsible for all interest that accrues on the cash advance which is a 30% interest rate, compounded monthly. 5 full years go by before the \$120 cash advance is repaid. How much should Bill ask Sam to pay in interest for the cash advance? \$112.80 Listed below are the balances and annual percentage rates for Jimmy’s credit cards. If Jimmy makes the same payment each month to pay off his entire credit card debt in the next 12 months, how much will he have paid in interest in the 12 month period?(Hint, find out how much interest Jimmy pays to each card over the 12 months seperately, and then add them together.) \$449.24 Which of the following is not a benefit to using credit instead of cash? Using credit allows you to make impulsive buys. Tim has four credit cards with the balances and APRs listed in the chart below. What will Tim’s total monthly minimum credit card payment need to be to pay off all four credit cards in 24 months? \$221.93 Credit report A credit report is a detailed report of an individual’s credit history prepared by a credit bureau and used by a lender in determining a loan, including information about late payments and bankruptcy. Credit score Credit score is a measure of credit risk calculated from a credit report using a standardized formula. Credit rating A credit rating is an estimate, based on previous dealings, of a person’s ability to fulfill their financial commitments. Credit history A credit history is a record of an individual’s past borrowing and repaying. FICO score FICO score is a score given by the scoring system used by the three credit reporting agencies and represents the creditworthiness of a person. Debt A debt is an amount owed to a person or organization for funds borrowed. If a credit card balance is not paid in full within the grace period then the customer will receive a __________. finance charge A loan in which the borrower pledges a car that may be sold if the loan is not repaid is __________. secured

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