Exam 4

No exchange of gases occurs here.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

A) Segmental bronchi

Secrete a fluid containing surfactant.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

B) Type II cells

Where the respiratory zone of the lungs begins.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

D) Respiratory bronchioles

Compose the structural wall of the alveolus.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

E) Type I cells

Terminates in alveoli.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

C) Alveolar duct

The respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membrane of the capillary walls and ________.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

E) Type I cells

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

A) Peristalsis

Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed.
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

C) Digestion

Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

D) Hydrolysis

Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

B) Absorption

T/F: Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.

T

T/F: The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell.

T

T/F: The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.

T

T/F: The lungs are perfused by two circulations: the pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is for oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures (tissue).

T

T/F: Changes in arterial pH can modify respiration rate and rhythm even when carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are normal.

T

T/F: Intra-pleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli.

T

T/F: During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.

F; 500

T/F: The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.

T

T/F: In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree.

F; Increased mucous production

T/F: Labored breathing is termed dyspnea.

T

T/F: The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase.

F

T/F: Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin.

F

T/F: The epiglottis is a smooth muscle that covers the glottis during swallowing.

F

T/F: Valsalva's maneuver involves closing off the glottis (preventing expiration) while contracting the muscles of expiration, causing an increase in intra-abdominal pressure.

T

T/F: Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.

T

T/F: The parietal pleura lines the inner wall of the thorax.

T

T/F: The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs.

F

T/F: Atelectasis (alveolar collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation.

T

T/F: Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers.

T

T/F: Dalton's law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.

T

T/F: Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic.

T

T/F: Nasal conchae mainly work on inhalation to warm and moisten air. They serve minor functions for exhalation.

T

T/F: Under certain conditions, the vocal folds (cords) act as a sphincter that prevents air passage.

T

T/F: The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine.

T

T/F: As food passes through the digestive tract, it becomes less complex and the nutrients are more readily available to the body.

T

T/F: Some of the microbes that live happily in the colon are rarely found in the stomach. The reason for this is the presence of HCl.

T

T/F: Kupffer cells are found in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and worn-out cells.

T

T/F: The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons.

F

T/F: All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.

T

T/F: Pepsinogen is the precursor to the gastric enzyme for protein digestion and is secreted by the parietal cells.

F

T/F: The main chemical activity of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.

T

T/F: The major role of absorption in the ileum is to reclaim bile salts to be recycled back to the liver.

T

T/F: The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.

T

T/F: Peyer's patches are found in the submucosa of the distal end of the small intestine.

T

T/F: The myenteric nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI tract wall and controls GI motility.

T

T/F: The first teeth to appear are the deciduous teeth.

T

T/F: Dentin anchors the tooth in place.

F

T/F: The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile.

T

T/F: The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.

T

T/F: Another term for swallowing is deglutition.

T

T/F: The stomach's contractile rhythm is set by pacemaker cells found in the spinal cord.

F

T/F: The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme.

T

T/F: Most nutrients are absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villi by active transport.

T

T/F: Ionic iron is actively transported into the mucosal cells, where it binds to the protein ferritin, a phenomenon called the mucosal iron barrier.

T

T/F: Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach.

T

T/F: The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food.

F

The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.
A) thickness of vestibular folds
B) length of the vocal folds
C) strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
A) secrete surfactant
B) trap dust and other debris
C) replace mucus in the alveoli
D) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

A) secrete surfactant

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is:
A) less than atmospheric pressure.
B) greater than atmospheric pressure
C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
B) the expansion of respiratory muscles that were contracted during inspiration and the lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall
C) the negative feedback of expansion fibers used during inspiration and the outward pull of surface tension due to surfactant
D) combined amount of CO2 in the blood and air in the alveoli

A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
A) surface tension of water
B) surfactant
C) cartilage rings
D) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

C) cartilage rings

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
A) pressure within the pleural cavity
B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
C) negative pressure in the intrapleural space
D) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
A) humidifying the air before it enters
B) warming the air before it enters
C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
D) protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations

C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
A) at least 3 micrometers thick
B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
C) between 5 and 6 micrometers thick
D) The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange.

B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.
A) decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
B) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
C) increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
D) increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

B) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
A) loss of oxygen in tissues
B) increase of carbon dioxide
C) pH (acidosis)
D) pH (alkalosis)

B) increase of carbon dioxide

Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
A) the ventral respiratory group in the medulla
B) the chemoreceptor center
C) Broca's center
D) the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus

A) the ventral respiratory group in the medulla

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
B) about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
C) greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
D) not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules

A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid.
B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.
C) Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing.
D) The chest wall becomes more rigid with age.

B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
A) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
B) compliance and transpulmonary pressures
C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures
D) compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures

Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?
A) Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles.
B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
C) Proportionally, smooth muscle increases uniformly.
D) Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli.

B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.

Tidal volume is air ________.
A) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
B) exchanged during normal breathing
C) inhaled after normal inspiration
D) forcibly expelled after normal expiration

B) exchanged during normal breathing

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
A) solubility in water
B) partial pressure gradient
C) the temperature
D) molecular weight and size of the gas molecule

B) partial pressure gradient

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.
A) tidal volume
B) vital capacity
C) inspiratory capacity
D) expiratory reserve volume

B) vital capacity

Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
A) Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus.
B) Respiratory exchanges are not necessary.
C) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
D) Because the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange.

C) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
A) rising carbon dioxide levels
B) rising blood pressure
C) arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg
D) arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention

B) rising blood pressure

Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
A) midbrain and medulla
B) medulla and pons
C) pons and midbrain
D) upper spinal cord and medulla

B) medulla and pons

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
A) reserve air
B) expiratory reserve
C) inspiratory reserve
D) vital capacity

C) inspiratory reserve

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
A) Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation.
B) Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH.
C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
D) CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.

C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
A) osmosis
B) diffusion
C) filtration
D) active transport

B) diffusion

Select the correct statement about the pharynx.
A) The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx.
B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.
C) The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx.
D) The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.

The larynx contains all except ________.
A) the thyroid cartilage
B) a cricoid cartilage also called the Adam's apple
C) a pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds
D) mucosal folds above the true cords called false vocal cords

A) the thyroid cartilage

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
A) diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax
B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
C) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax
D) diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax

B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
A) chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells
B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
C) as carbonic acid in the plasma
D) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?
A) allows the lungs to inflate and deflate with minimal friction
B) helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers
C) helps limit the spread of local infections
D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

Which of the following is not a correct description of CO2 transport?
A) 7-10% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma
B) 20% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin
C) as bicarbonate ion in plasma
D) attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

D) attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
A) bronchioles
B) alveoli
C) resp. bronchioles
D) alveolar ducts

B) alveoli

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
A) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
C) atria and alveolar sacs
D) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs

B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

Inspiratory capacity is ________.
A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
B) the total amount of exchangeable air
C) functional residual capacity
D) air inspired after a tidal inhalation

A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
A) as a passageway for air movement
B) as the initiator of the cough reflex
C) warming and humidifying the air
D) cleansing the air

B) as the initiator of the cough reflex

A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival as early as ________.
A) 17 weeks
B) 24 weeks
C) 28 weeks
D) 36 weeks

C) 28 weeks

Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?
A) The respiratory rate of a newborn is slow.
B) The respiratory rate of a newborn varies between male and female infants.
C) The respiratory rate of a newborn is approximately 30 respirations per minute.
D) The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.

D) The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
A) partial pressure of oxygen
B) temperature
C) partial pressure of carbon dioxide
D) number of red blood cells

D) number of red blood cells

The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
A) the smooth muscles of the lung
B) the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone
C) the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs
D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.
A) temperature is lower at higher altitudes
B) basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
C) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes
D) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

D) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose
B) abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa
C) porous structure of turbinate bones
D) action of the epiglottis

A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose

Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
A) During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2.
B) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently.
C) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity.
D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
A) pneumonia
B) tuberculosis
C) emphysema
D) coryza

C) emphysema

Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?
A) temperature
B) DPG
C) carbon dioxide
D) nitric oxide

D) nitric oxide

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.
A) digestion
B) absorption
C) ingestion
D) secretion

A) digestion

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
A) absorption
B) secretion
C) chemical digestion
D) mechanical digestion

C) chemical digestion

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
A) mesenteries
B) lamina propria
C) serosal lining
D) mucosal lining

A) mesenteries

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
B) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
C) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
A) thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus
B) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells
C) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells
D) rennin

D) rennin

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
A) muscularis mucosae
B) serosa
C) adventitia
D) lamina propria

D) lamina propria

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
A) gastrin
B) secretin
C) cholecystokinin
D) gastric inhibitor peptide

C) cholecystokinin

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
A) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.
B) Bile functions to emulsify fats.
C) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.
D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi
B) the vast array of digestive enzymes
C) Brunner's glands
D) the rugae

A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.
B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.
C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
D) There are 32 primary teeth, and most children lose these teeth due to decay because they are never very strong.

C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
B) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.
C) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.
D) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.

A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

Which of the following is not true of saliva?
A) cleanses the mouth
B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
C) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus
D) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
A) only salts and minerals
B) only proteases and amylase
C) mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals
D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
B) is the first site where absorption takes place
C) is the only place where fats are completely digested
D) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place

A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

Chyme is created in the ________.
A) mouth
B) stomach
C) esophagus
D) small intestine

B) stomach

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
A) chief cells
B) parietal cells
C) serous cells
D) mucous neck cells

B) parietal cells

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
A) enteroendocrine cells
B) parietal cells
C) zymogenic cells
D) mucous neck cells

A) enteroendocrine cells

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
B) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients
C) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time
D) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

Peristaltic waves are ________.
A) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract
B) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
A) starches and complex carbohydrates
B) protein and peptide fragments
C) simple carbohydrates and alcohols
D) fatty acids

B) protein and peptide fragments

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
A) chief cells of the stomach
B) parietal cells of the duodenum
C) Brunner's glands
D) goblet cells of the small intestine

A) chief cells of the stomach

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
A) gastrin
B) amylase
C) cholecystokinin
D) trypsin

B) amylase

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.
A) portal vein
B) pancreatic acini
C) bile canaliculus
D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
A) diffusion
B) active transport
C) hydrolysis
D) denatured

C) hydrolysis

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
A) rennin
B) pepsin
C) lipase
D) cholecystokinin

C) lipase

Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
A) mucin
B) pepsinogen
C) hydrochloric acid
D) rennin

C) hydrochloric acid

Hepatocytes do not ________.
A) produce digestive enzymes
B) process nutrients
C) store fat-soluble vitamins
D) detoxify

A) produce digestive enzymes

Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
A) cephalic
B) gastric
C) intestinal
D) enterogastric

D) enterogastric

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
A) B12
B) K
C) A
D) C

A) B12

Chief cells ________.
A) occur in the intestine
B) produce HCl
C) are found in the basal regions of gastric glands
D) produce mucin

C) are found in the basal regions of gastric glands

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
A) mastication
B) catabolism
C) anabolism
D) fermentation

B) catabolism

The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
A) liver
B) spleen
C) pancreas
D) stomach

A) liver

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
A) serosa
B) mucosa
C) muscularis externa
D) submucosa

A) serosa

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
A) duodenum
B) ileum
C) jejunum
D) pyloric sphincter

B) ileum

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
A) incisor tooth
B) molar tooth
C) premolar tooth
D) canine tooth

D) canine tooth

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
A) lipids
B) carbohydrates
C) proteins
D) starches

A) lipids

________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.
A) Iron
B) Sodium
C) Phosphorus
D) Calcium

D) Calcium

The lamina propria is composed of ________.
A) loose connective tissue
B) dense irregular connective tissue
C) dense regular connective tissue
D) reticular connective tissue

A) loose connective tissue

________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.
A) Distension
B) Carbohydrates
C) Peptides
D) Moderately low acidity

B) Carbohydrates

Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.
A) accessory pancreatic duct
B) main pancreatic duct
C) cystic duct
D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

C) cystic duct

The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
A) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
C) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral
D) provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food

B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
A) produce gas
B) absorb bilirubin
C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
D) synthesize vitamins C and D

C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
A) somatic neurons in the spinal cord
B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
C) the rubrospinal tracts
D) the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts

B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
A) parietal cells
B) zymogenic cells
C) mucous neck cells
D) enteroendocrine cells

A) parietal cells

Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
A) tongue
B) esophagus
C) nasal cavity
D) salivary glands

A) tongue

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
A) bile
B) pancreatic juice
C) intestinal juice
D) gastric juice

A) bile

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
A) mucosa
B) submucosa
C) muscularis externa
D) serosa

B) submucosa

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
A) does not contain villi
B) exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli
C) is longer than the small intestine
D) has haustra

C) is longer than the small intestine

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
A) HCl
B) pepsinogen
C) intrinsic factor
D) gastric lipase

C) intrinsic factor

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
A) simple diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy
D) bulk flow

C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
A) Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice.
B) The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion.
C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
D) Gastric secretion is enhanced by very low pH (below a pH of 2).

C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.

Paneth cells ________.
A) are more common in the ileum than in the jejunum
B) are absorptive cells in the small intestine
C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
D) are located next to the lacteal in a villus

C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

Select the correct statement about digestive processes. A) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.
B) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.
C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
D) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.

C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
A) a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa
B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
C) secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion
D) bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action

B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
A) the pancreas
B) the buccal glands
C) the thyroid gland
D) the parotid glands

A) the pancreas

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
A) Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.
B) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive upset.
C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
D) The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food.

C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from ________.
A) ectoderm
B) mesoderm
C) endoderm
D) pachyderm

C) endoderm

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.
A) acidosis
B) ketosis
C) alkalosis
D) dysphagia

C) alkalosis

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
A) ACh
B) secretin
C) gastrin
D) histamine

B) secretin

Which of these is not part of the splanchnic (gut) circulation?
A) hepatic portal vein
B) inferior vena cava
C) superior mesenteric artery
D) celiac artery

B) inferior vena cava

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
A) D
B) A
C) M
D) E

B) A

The distinctive line demarcating the lips from the face is the:
a. nasion
b. coumella
c. philtrum
d. vermillion border

...

Ideally, ventilation closely matches perfusion in the lung. Autoregaulatory mechanisms exist for this purpose. Which circumstance would most directly result in bronchodilation?
a. high alveolar CO2
b. low alveolar CO2
c. high alveolar O2
d. low alveolar CO2

...

The atmosphere is 21% oxygen. The total atomospheric pressure at sea level is 760 torr. This means the partial pressure for atmospheric oxygen is 160. The partial pressure of O2 in the alveolus is _________ because of mixing with water vapor and higher levels of CO2. The alveolar pO2 is about____________ .
a. higher/200
b. higher/ 240
c. lower/100
d. lower/140

...

Though alveoli are tiny, there are about 8 million of them! This creates a surface area of about _________ square feet for gas exchange to occur.
a. 120
b. 500
c. 760
d. 1000

...

Acid-base balance is an important pulmonary function. When a molecule that highly dissociates to release many hydrogen ions is replaced by one that binds hydrogen ions but dissociates less well (holds tighter to H+ ions), we call the second molecule a ___________ .
a. acid
b. base
c. buffer
d. neutralizer

...

When chemical buffers are not sufficient, physiological buffers come into play. The more rapid physiological buffering is provided by the __________ system.
a. hepatic
b. renal
c. pulmonary
d. intestinal

...

Like the epidermis relies on the dermis to provide its nutritive blood supply via diffusion, the mucosa relies on the ____________ .
a. muscularis
b. muscularis mucosa
c. sereosa
d. lamina propria

...

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No exchange of gases occurs here.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

A) Segmental bronchi

Secrete a fluid containing surfactant.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

B) Type II cells

Where the respiratory zone of the lungs begins.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

D) Respiratory bronchioles

Compose the structural wall of the alveolus.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

E) Type I cells

Terminates in alveoli.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

C) Alveolar duct

The respiratory membrane is composed of fused basement membrane of the capillary walls and ________.
A) Segmental bronchi
B) Type II cells
C) Alveolar duct
D) Respiratory bronchioles
E) Type I cells

E) Type I cells

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

A) Peristalsis

Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed.
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

C) Digestion

Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

D) Hydrolysis

Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.
A) Peristalsis
B) Absorption
C) Digestion
D) Hydrolysis

B) Absorption

T/F: Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli.

T

T/F: The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell.

T

T/F: The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.

T

T/F: The lungs are perfused by two circulations: the pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is for oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures (tissue).

T

T/F: Changes in arterial pH can modify respiration rate and rhythm even when carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are normal.

T

T/F: Intra-pleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli.

T

T/F: During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.

F; 500

T/F: The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation.

T

T/F: In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree.

F; Increased mucous production

T/F: Labored breathing is termed dyspnea.

T

T/F: The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase.

F

T/F: Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin.

F

T/F: The epiglottis is a smooth muscle that covers the glottis during swallowing.

F

T/F: Valsalva’s maneuver involves closing off the glottis (preventing expiration) while contracting the muscles of expiration, causing an increase in intra-abdominal pressure.

T

T/F: Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia.

T

T/F: The parietal pleura lines the inner wall of the thorax.

T

T/F: The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs.

F

T/F: Atelectasis (alveolar collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation.

T

T/F: Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers.

T

T/F: Dalton’s law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.

T

T/F: Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic.

T

T/F: Nasal conchae mainly work on inhalation to warm and moisten air. They serve minor functions for exhalation.

T

T/F: Under certain conditions, the vocal folds (cords) act as a sphincter that prevents air passage.

T

T/F: The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine.

T

T/F: As food passes through the digestive tract, it becomes less complex and the nutrients are more readily available to the body.

T

T/F: Some of the microbes that live happily in the colon are rarely found in the stomach. The reason for this is the presence of HCl.

T

T/F: Kupffer cells are found in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and worn-out cells.

T

T/F: The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons.

F

T/F: All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.

T

T/F: Pepsinogen is the precursor to the gastric enzyme for protein digestion and is secreted by the parietal cells.

F

T/F: The main chemical activity of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.

T

T/F: The major role of absorption in the ileum is to reclaim bile salts to be recycled back to the liver.

T

T/F: The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.

T

T/F: Peyer’s patches are found in the submucosa of the distal end of the small intestine.

T

T/F: The myenteric nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI tract wall and controls GI motility.

T

T/F: The first teeth to appear are the deciduous teeth.

T

T/F: Dentin anchors the tooth in place.

F

T/F: The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile.

T

T/F: The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.

T

T/F: Another term for swallowing is deglutition.

T

T/F: The stomach’s contractile rhythm is set by pacemaker cells found in the spinal cord.

F

T/F: The major stimulus for production of intestinal fluid is distention or irritation of the intestinal mucosa by hypertonic or acidic chyme.

T

T/F: Most nutrients are absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villi by active transport.

T

T/F: Ionic iron is actively transported into the mucosal cells, where it binds to the protein ferritin, a phenomenon called the mucosal iron barrier.

T

T/F: Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach.

T

T/F: The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food.

F

The loudness of a person’s voice depends on the ________.
A) thickness of vestibular folds
B) length of the vocal folds
C) strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

D) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
A) secrete surfactant
B) trap dust and other debris
C) replace mucus in the alveoli
D) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion

A) secrete surfactant

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is:
A) less than atmospheric pressure.
B) greater than atmospheric pressure
C) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

D) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.

Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
B) the expansion of respiratory muscles that were contracted during inspiration and the lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall
C) the negative feedback of expansion fibers used during inspiration and the outward pull of surface tension due to surfactant
D) combined amount of CO2 in the blood and air in the alveoli

A) the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
A) surface tension of water
B) surfactant
C) cartilage rings
D) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

C) cartilage rings

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
A) pressure within the pleural cavity
B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
C) negative pressure in the intrapleural space
D) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

B) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
A) humidifying the air before it enters
B) warming the air before it enters
C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
D) protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations

C) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
A) at least 3 micrometers thick
B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
C) between 5 and 6 micrometers thick
D) The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange.

B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.
A) decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
B) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
C) increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
D) increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

B) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
A) loss of oxygen in tissues
B) increase of carbon dioxide
C) pH (acidosis)
D) pH (alkalosis)

B) increase of carbon dioxide

Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
A) the ventral respiratory group in the medulla
B) the chemoreceptor center
C) Broca’s center
D) the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus

A) the ventral respiratory group in the medulla

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
B) about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
C) greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
D) not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules

A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
A) During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid.
B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.
C) Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing.
D) The chest wall becomes more rigid with age.

B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants.

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
A) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
B) compliance and transpulmonary pressures
C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures
D) compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures

Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?
A) Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles.
B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
C) Proportionally, smooth muscle increases uniformly.
D) Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli.

B) Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.

Tidal volume is air ________.
A) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
B) exchanged during normal breathing
C) inhaled after normal inspiration
D) forcibly expelled after normal expiration

B) exchanged during normal breathing

Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
A) solubility in water
B) partial pressure gradient
C) the temperature
D) molecular weight and size of the gas molecule

B) partial pressure gradient

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.
A) tidal volume
B) vital capacity
C) inspiratory capacity
D) expiratory reserve volume

B) vital capacity

Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
A) Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus.
B) Respiratory exchanges are not necessary.
C) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
D) Because the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange.

C) Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.

Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
A) rising carbon dioxide levels
B) rising blood pressure
C) arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg
D) arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention

B) rising blood pressure

Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
A) midbrain and medulla
B) medulla and pons
C) pons and midbrain
D) upper spinal cord and medulla

B) medulla and pons

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
A) reserve air
B) expiratory reserve
C) inspiratory reserve
D) vital capacity

C) inspiratory reserve

Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
A) Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation.
B) Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH.
C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
D) CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.

C) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
A) osmosis
B) diffusion
C) filtration
D) active transport

B) diffusion

Select the correct statement about the pharynx.
A) The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx.
B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.
C) The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx.
D) The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

B) The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.

The larynx contains all except ________.
A) the thyroid cartilage
B) a cricoid cartilage also called the Adam’s apple
C) a pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds
D) mucosal folds above the true cords called false vocal cords

A) the thyroid cartilage

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
A) diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax
B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
C) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax
D) diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax

B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
A) chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells
B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
C) as carbonic acid in the plasma
D) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin

B) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells

Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura?
A) allows the lungs to inflate and deflate with minimal friction
B) helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers
C) helps limit the spread of local infections
D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

D) aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

Which of the following is not a correct description of CO2 transport?
A) 7-10% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma
B) 20% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin
C) as bicarbonate ion in plasma
D) attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

D) attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
A) bronchioles
B) alveoli
C) resp. bronchioles
D) alveolar ducts

B) alveoli

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
A) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
C) atria and alveolar sacs
D) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs

B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

Inspiratory capacity is ________.
A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
B) the total amount of exchangeable air
C) functional residual capacity
D) air inspired after a tidal inhalation

A) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
A) as a passageway for air movement
B) as the initiator of the cough reflex
C) warming and humidifying the air
D) cleansing the air

B) as the initiator of the cough reflex

A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival as early as ________.
A) 17 weeks
B) 24 weeks
C) 28 weeks
D) 36 weeks

C) 28 weeks

Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn?
A) The respiratory rate of a newborn is slow.
B) The respiratory rate of a newborn varies between male and female infants.
C) The respiratory rate of a newborn is approximately 30 respirations per minute.
D) The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.

D) The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute.

Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
A) partial pressure of oxygen
B) temperature
C) partial pressure of carbon dioxide
D) number of red blood cells

D) number of red blood cells

The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
A) the smooth muscles of the lung
B) the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone
C) the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs
D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.
A) temperature is lower at higher altitudes
B) basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
C) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes
D) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

D) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose
B) abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa
C) porous structure of turbinate bones
D) action of the epiglottis

A) ciliated mucous lining in the nose

Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
A) During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2.
B) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently.
C) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity.
D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

D) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
A) pneumonia
B) tuberculosis
C) emphysema
D) coryza

C) emphysema

Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?
A) temperature
B) DPG
C) carbon dioxide
D) nitric oxide

D) nitric oxide

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.
A) digestion
B) absorption
C) ingestion
D) secretion

A) digestion

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
A) absorption
B) secretion
C) chemical digestion
D) mechanical digestion

C) chemical digestion

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
A) mesenteries
B) lamina propria
C) serosal lining
D) mucosal lining

A) mesenteries

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
B) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa
C) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa
D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
A) thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus
B) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells
C) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells
D) rennin

D) rennin

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
A) muscularis mucosae
B) serosa
C) adventitia
D) lamina propria

D) lamina propria

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
A) gastrin
B) secretin
C) cholecystokinin
D) gastric inhibitor peptide

C) cholecystokinin

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
A) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.
B) Bile functions to emulsify fats.
C) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.
D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi
B) the vast array of digestive enzymes
C) Brunner’s glands
D) the rugae

A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.
B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.
C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
D) There are 32 primary teeth, and most children lose these teeth due to decay because they are never very strong.

C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
B) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.
C) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.
D) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.

A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

Which of the following is not true of saliva?
A) cleanses the mouth
B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
C) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus
D) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
A) only salts and minerals
B) only proteases and amylase
C) mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals
D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
B) is the first site where absorption takes place
C) is the only place where fats are completely digested
D) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place

A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

Chyme is created in the ________.
A) mouth
B) stomach
C) esophagus
D) small intestine

B) stomach

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
A) chief cells
B) parietal cells
C) serous cells
D) mucous neck cells

B) parietal cells

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
A) enteroendocrine cells
B) parietal cells
C) zymogenic cells
D) mucous neck cells

A) enteroendocrine cells

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
B) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients
C) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time
D) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

Peristaltic waves are ________.
A) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract
B) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
A) starches and complex carbohydrates
B) protein and peptide fragments
C) simple carbohydrates and alcohols
D) fatty acids

B) protein and peptide fragments

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
A) chief cells of the stomach
B) parietal cells of the duodenum
C) Brunner’s glands
D) goblet cells of the small intestine

A) chief cells of the stomach

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
A) gastrin
B) amylase
C) cholecystokinin
D) trypsin

B) amylase

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.
A) portal vein
B) pancreatic acini
C) bile canaliculus
D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
A) diffusion
B) active transport
C) hydrolysis
D) denatured

C) hydrolysis

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
A) rennin
B) pepsin
C) lipase
D) cholecystokinin

C) lipase

Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
A) mucin
B) pepsinogen
C) hydrochloric acid
D) rennin

C) hydrochloric acid

Hepatocytes do not ________.
A) produce digestive enzymes
B) process nutrients
C) store fat-soluble vitamins
D) detoxify

A) produce digestive enzymes

Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
A) cephalic
B) gastric
C) intestinal
D) enterogastric

D) enterogastric

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
A) B12
B) K
C) A
D) C

A) B12

Chief cells ________.
A) occur in the intestine
B) produce HCl
C) are found in the basal regions of gastric glands
D) produce mucin

C) are found in the basal regions of gastric glands

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
A) mastication
B) catabolism
C) anabolism
D) fermentation

B) catabolism

The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
A) liver
B) spleen
C) pancreas
D) stomach

A) liver

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
A) serosa
B) mucosa
C) muscularis externa
D) submucosa

A) serosa

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
A) duodenum
B) ileum
C) jejunum
D) pyloric sphincter

B) ileum

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
A) incisor tooth
B) molar tooth
C) premolar tooth
D) canine tooth

D) canine tooth

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
A) lipids
B) carbohydrates
C) proteins
D) starches

A) lipids

________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.
A) Iron
B) Sodium
C) Phosphorus
D) Calcium

D) Calcium

The lamina propria is composed of ________.
A) loose connective tissue
B) dense irregular connective tissue
C) dense regular connective tissue
D) reticular connective tissue

A) loose connective tissue

________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.
A) Distension
B) Carbohydrates
C) Peptides
D) Moderately low acidity

B) Carbohydrates

Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.
A) accessory pancreatic duct
B) main pancreatic duct
C) cystic duct
D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

C) cystic duct

The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
A) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
C) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral
D) provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food

B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
A) produce gas
B) absorb bilirubin
C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
D) synthesize vitamins C and D

C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
A) somatic neurons in the spinal cord
B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
C) the rubrospinal tracts
D) the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts

B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
A) parietal cells
B) zymogenic cells
C) mucous neck cells
D) enteroendocrine cells

A) parietal cells

Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
A) tongue
B) esophagus
C) nasal cavity
D) salivary glands

A) tongue

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
A) bile
B) pancreatic juice
C) intestinal juice
D) gastric juice

A) bile

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
A) mucosa
B) submucosa
C) muscularis externa
D) serosa

B) submucosa

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
A) does not contain villi
B) exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli
C) is longer than the small intestine
D) has haustra

C) is longer than the small intestine

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
A) HCl
B) pepsinogen
C) intrinsic factor
D) gastric lipase

C) intrinsic factor

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
A) simple diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy
D) bulk flow

C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
A) Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice.
B) The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion.
C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
D) Gastric secretion is enhanced by very low pH (below a pH of 2).

C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.

Paneth cells ________.
A) are more common in the ileum than in the jejunum
B) are absorptive cells in the small intestine
C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
D) are located next to the lacteal in a villus

C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

Select the correct statement about digestive processes. A) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.
B) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.
C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
D) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.

C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
A) a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa
B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
C) secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion
D) bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action

B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
A) the pancreas
B) the buccal glands
C) the thyroid gland
D) the parotid glands

A) the pancreas

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
A) Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.
B) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive upset.
C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
D) The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food.

C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from ________.
A) ectoderm
B) mesoderm
C) endoderm
D) pachyderm

C) endoderm

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby’s loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.
A) acidosis
B) ketosis
C) alkalosis
D) dysphagia

C) alkalosis

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
A) ACh
B) secretin
C) gastrin
D) histamine

B) secretin

Which of these is not part of the splanchnic (gut) circulation?
A) hepatic portal vein
B) inferior vena cava
C) superior mesenteric artery
D) celiac artery

B) inferior vena cava

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
A) D
B) A
C) M
D) E

B) A

The distinctive line demarcating the lips from the face is the:
a. nasion
b. coumella
c. philtrum
d. vermillion border

Ideally, ventilation closely matches perfusion in the lung. Autoregaulatory mechanisms exist for this purpose. Which circumstance would most directly result in bronchodilation?
a. high alveolar CO2
b. low alveolar CO2
c. high alveolar O2
d. low alveolar CO2

The atmosphere is 21% oxygen. The total atomospheric pressure at sea level is 760 torr. This means the partial pressure for atmospheric oxygen is 160. The partial pressure of O2 in the alveolus is _________ because of mixing with water vapor and higher levels of CO2. The alveolar pO2 is about____________ .
a. higher/200
b. higher/ 240
c. lower/100
d. lower/140

Though alveoli are tiny, there are about 8 million of them! This creates a surface area of about _________ square feet for gas exchange to occur.
a. 120
b. 500
c. 760
d. 1000

Acid-base balance is an important pulmonary function. When a molecule that highly dissociates to release many hydrogen ions is replaced by one that binds hydrogen ions but dissociates less well (holds tighter to H+ ions), we call the second molecule a ___________ .
a. acid
b. base
c. buffer
d. neutralizer

When chemical buffers are not sufficient, physiological buffers come into play. The more rapid physiological buffering is provided by the __________ system.
a. hepatic
b. renal
c. pulmonary
d. intestinal

Like the epidermis relies on the dermis to provide its nutritive blood supply via diffusion, the mucosa relies on the ____________ .
a. muscularis
b. muscularis mucosa
c. sereosa
d. lamina propria

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