EXAM 3- FSHN

Which of the following statements does NOT describe the role of minerals in the body?

They provide 4 kilocalories per gram.

Which of the following does NOT describe fat-soluble vitamins?

Excesses are excreted in the urine.

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?

They are stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

Consumption of vitamin C

enhances absorption of iron.

Which of the following statements about micronutrients is true?

It is likely that all essential vitamins and minerals have been identified.

All of the following vitamins are stored extensively in the liver EXCEPT

thiamin.

Vitamins A, C, and E work together to

protect the body from damage by free radicals.

Some nutrients can enhance or inhibit the absorption of minerals. Match the nutrient with its absorption-enhancing or -inhibiting action on another mineral:

Zinc: Decreases copper absorption Vitamin C: Increases iron absorption Vitamin D: Increases calcium absorption

Why aren't vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbal remedies as tightly regulated by the FDA as are drugs and food additives?

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 classified these items as "foods" as opposed to drugs; foods have less regulation than do drugs.

Oxalic acid can inhibit the absorption of

Calcium

A vitamin that combines with and activates an enzyme is known as a(n)

Coenzyme

The "Supplement Facts" panel on dietary supplements resembles the __ and is required on all dietary supplements.

Nutrition facts panel on food

"Micronutrients can be classified based on the presence of ______ in their chemical structures. According to this classification system, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic.

carbon

Minerals are classified in which way?

Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?

Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic.

"In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

Kidneys

"Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?

Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm.

Some nutrients can enhance or inhibit the absorption of minerals. Match the nutrient with its absorption-enhancing or -inhibiting action on another mineral:

Zinc: Decreases copper absorption, Vitamin C: Increases iron absorption, Vitamin D: increases calcium absorption

When buying a vitamin or mineral supplement, look for____on the label, as it assures purity, strength, and quality of the product.

USP

"Gabe is a nutrition student who is learning that a balanced diet involves consuming foods that have a variety of vitamins in them every day. Why is it advisable to consume vitamins every day?

The body has limited storage capacity for many vitamins, so they should be consumed daily in the diet.

A cooking class instructor states that certain preparation and cooking methods can help preserve water-soluble vitamin content of vegetables. Which method is the most likely to maximize water-soluble vitamin preservation?

Blanching vegetables (cooking in boiling water for a short period of time)

"Zinc competes with ___ for absorption.

Copper

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride mainly serve as structural components of

bones and teeth.

All of the following can be classified as B vitamins EXCEPT

choline.

Which of the following is most likely to result in vitamin toxicity if consumed daily over a long period of time?

Vitamin A supplements

Of the following minerals, daily requirements are highest for

Calcium

Vitamins A, C, and E work together to

protect the body from damage by free radicals

Which statement about vitamins is true?

Help regulate chemical reactions in the body

The vitamin content of foods is diminished by all of the following EXCEPT

Freezing

Besides being supplied in the diet, some micronutrients are synthesized in the body. For example, ______ can be synthesized by microorganisms in the intestinal tract.

Vitamin K

"Immediately after absorption from the small intestine, fat-soluble vitamins appear in the lymph as part of

chylomicrons

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 classified vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbal remedies as

foods

All the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption EXCEPT

increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi.

Most water-soluble vitamins are rapidly excreted from the body when consumed in excess. However, ______ is an example of a water-soluble vitamin that can accumulate to toxic levels in the liver.

Vitamin B6

Megadoses are defined as vitamin intakes ________ times the estimated human needs to prevent a deficiency.

2 to 10

Lino recently saw a "high-potency" mineral supplement being advertised on a late-night infomercial. He compared the amount of minerals in the supplement with the percent Daily Values recommended for minerals and determined that the supplement contained megadoses of minerals. Why can taking megadoses of individual mineral supplements be potentially harmful?

Taking megadoses of individual mineral supplements can greatly diminish the absorption and metabolism of other minerals.

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran

Fluid balance is dependent on

potassium

All the following are true of B vitamins EXCEPT

they are stored in adipose tissue.

Choose the correct side effect from the pull down menu that may occur when that vitamin is taken in excessive quantities.

Niacin: Skin flushing, Vitamin A: Birth defects, Vitamin C: diarrhea, Folic Acid: can mask vitamin B-12 Deficiency

Which of the following is an example of a vitamin that is more bioavailable in its synthetic form?

folate

When B vitamins are consumed in their coenzyme forms,

they are broken down to free vitamins in the stomach and small intestine prior to absorption.

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants.

The "Supplement Facts" panel on dietary supplements resembles the _______________________________ and is required on all dietary supplements.

Nutrition Facts panel on food

Micronutrients can be classified based on the presence of ______ in their chemical structures. According to this classification system, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic.

carbon

In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

kidneys

Donna has recently started taking the over-the-counter medication Alli (orlistat) for weight loss. Because she is taking this drug, she is at risk for deficiency of which of the following micronutrients?

Vitamin K

When B vitamins are consumed in their coenzyme forms,

they are broken down to free vitamins in the stomach and small intestine prior to absorption.

Which of the following does NOT describe fat-soluble vitamins?

Excesses are excreted in the urine

Lino recently saw a "high-potency" mineral supplement being advertised on a late-night infomercial. He compared the amount of minerals in the supplement with the percent Daily Values recommended for minerals and determined that the supplement contained megadoses of minerals. Why can taking megadoses of individual mineral supplements be potentially harmful?

Taking megadoses of individual mineral supplements can greatly diminish the absorption and metabolism of other minerals.

Vitamin C is a ______-soluble vitamin.

water

The vitamin that poses the greatest risk for toxicity is

Vitamin A

Vitamin content of fruits and vegetables is preserved by all of the following methods EXCEPT

trimming and peeling fruits and vegetables soon after purchase

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants.

All of the following vitamins are stored extensively in the liver EXCEPT

thiamin

Orlistat is a weight-loss medication with a possible side-effect of

limiting absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

A nutrient that has been deemed essential but has not been classified as a vitamin is

choline

Justine's son Tommy is an avid soccer player. After soccer practice, Tommy's coach told his parents they should purchase a certain "B-complex vitamin" he is selling to help improve the players' energy. Justine looked at the nutrient information and was surprised to see that it provided megadoses of a number of B vitamins. What is a megadose?

A megadose is a large intake of a nutrient that is 2-10 times human needs.

Consumption of vitamin C

enhances absorption of iron.

Why aren't vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbal remedies as tightly regulated by the FDA as are drugs and food additives?

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 classified these items as "foods" as opposed to drugs; foods have less regulation than do drugs.

When buying a vitamin or mineral supplement, look for___ on the label, as it assures purity, strength, and quality of the product.

USP

The B vitamins

facilitate chemical reactions that yield energy from the macronutrients.

Which of the following is an example of a trace mineral?

iron

Which of the following statements about micronutrients is true?

It is likely that all essential vitamins and minerals have been identified.

Most water-soluble vitamins are rapidly excreted from the body when consumed in excess. However, ______ is an example of a water-soluble vitamin that can accumulate to toxic levels in the liver.

vitamin B-6

All of the following vitamins are stored extensively in the liver EXCEPT

thiamin

Vitamin content of fruits and vegetables is preserved by all of the following methods EXCEPT

trimming and peeling fruits and vegetables soon after purchase.

All of the following can be classified as B vitamins EXCEPT

choline

The primary site of micronutrient absorption is the

small intestine.

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride mainly serve as structural components of

bones and teeth.

A cooking class instructor states that certain preparation and cooking methods can help preserve water-soluble vitamin content of vegetables. Which method is the most likely to maximize water-soluble vitamin preservation?

"Blanching vegetables (cooking in boiling water for a short period of time) The water-soluble vitamins - particularly thiamin, vitamin C, and folate - can be destroyed with improper storage and excessive cooking. Heat, light, exposure to the air, cooking in water, and alkalinity are all factors that can destroy vitamins. Blanching vegetables in boiling water destroys the enzymes that would otherwise degrade the vitamins."

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran

Which of the following does NOT describe fat-soluble vitamins?

Excesses are excreted in the urine.

Which of the following criteria qualifies a compound as a vitamin?

The compound is necessary for health, but the body is unable to synthesize enough of the compound to maintain health.

______ are mostly stored in the liver and adipose tissue.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Excessive intake of ______ can decrease absorption of ______.

zinc; copper

All the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption EXCEPT

increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi.

A vitamin that combines with and activates an enzyme is known as a(n)

coenzyme.

Which of the following is an example of a trace mineral?

iron

Megadoses are defined as vitamin intakes ________ times the estimated human needs to prevent a deficiency.

2 to 10

The vitamin content of foods is diminished by all of the following EXCEPT

freezing.

The vitamin that poses the greatest risk for toxicity is

vitamin A.

A nutrient that has been deemed essential but has not been classified as a vitamin is

choline.

Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?

Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm.

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.

Softening of hard water may increase its _______________ content.

sodium

Regulation of blood pH involves the coordination of buffer systems, the respiratory system, and the kidneys. Of the following minerals, which acts as a buffer to help maintain the pH of the blood?

Phosphate

Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?

Potassium

Potassium performs all the following functions EXCEPT

it maintains the ability to see at night.

As far as diet is concerned, a person wanting to reduce the risk of developing hypertension would want to do all of the following EXCEPT

eat lots of prepackaged and canned foods.

The amount of water in each body compartment mainly is controlled by

ion concentration.

Functions of chloride include all of the following EXCEPT

enzyme activation

For which of the following people are sports drinks with electrolytes most appropriate?

An athlete who competes in a marathon

The most practical advice for prevention of hypertension is

maintain a healthy weight.

During nerve impulse transmission, depolarization results in a ______ charge inside the cell membrane. Repolarization restores the ______ charge inside the cell membrane.

slightly positive; slightly negative

Symptoms of dehydration include all of the following EXCEPT

slowed heart rate.

Which of the following is NOT true about the regulation of fluid in the body?

Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids during illness.

The sodium concentration of the blood is primarily regulated by the

kidneys.

Which of the following populations is at risk for high blood potassium?

people with kidney disorders

The pH of blood is normally maintained at

7.4

Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve

sodium.

Metabolic water refers to

water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy

Elevated blood pressure has been linked to excess intake of

Na and Cl

The major source of chloride in the diet is

salt.

Which of the following population groups requires the least sodium?

Adults age 71 and older

Which of the following foods is NOT a good source of potassium?

Canola Oil

The pH of a solution is a measurement of the concentration of ______ ions in the solution.

Hydrogen

Choosing plastic containers with a recycling code of 2 or 4 will reduce exposure to which of the following?

Bisphenyl A

Diastolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is relaxed.

Of the following, the best source of potassium is

fresh spinach

"Lino is a linebacker on his college football team. He is concerned about achieving adequate hydration during intense, hot summer football practices. Lino weighs himself before and after practice and notices that he loses five pounds by the time practice is over. How many cups of water should he be drinking to replace these fluid losses?

10 to 15 cups of water

For a healthy adult, the largest percentage of daily water output is attributed to

urine

"Stephen's blood pressure is 135/88 and he wishes to follow the principles of the DASH diet. Which of the following is NOT included in DASH guidelines?

Include 2 - 3 servings per day of whole milk.

Obesity

is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension.

Aside from food and beverage intakes, hydration and fluid status are affected by a number of additional factors. Which of the following factors influence water loss? Check all that apply.

Typical water losses are affected by altitude, caffeine intake, alcohol intake, and humidity.

Which of the following populations is at risk for high blood potassium?

People with kidney disorders

While dehydration is problematic, over-consumption of water can also be harmful. Which of the following statements accurately describe over-consumption of water? Check all that apply.

Consuming too much water leads to ill health if concentrations of blood electrolytes become too low. An excessive amount of water would have to approach many quarts each day. When excessive water intake overwhelms the kidneys' capacity to excrete fluid. Severe headaches, confusion, seizures, and coma may also result.

Lino is a linebacker on his college football team. He is concerned about achieving adequate hydration during intense, hot summer football practices. Lino weighs himself before and after practice and notices that he loses five pounds by the time practice is over. How many cups of water should he be drinking to replace these fluid losses?

10 to 15 cups of water

Adult women need how much total water intake per day?

2.7 liters (11 cups)

Limiting dietary intake of sodium will ______ urine production.

decrease

Higher intake of which of the following minerals is associated with lowered blood pressure?

potassium

Which of the following 1-ounce portions of food would have the least sodium?

hamburger

About 95% of Americans exceed the Upper Level for

sodium

Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve

sodium

Of the following, the best source of potassium is

fresh spinach

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will

increase urinary excretion of sodium.

Metabolic water refers to

water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy.

Up to one or two alcoholic drinks per day

All of these choices are correct.

Bottled water is regulated by

FDA

Depletion of chloride is mostly likely to occur with excessive

vomiting

Potassium performs all the following functions EXCEPT

it maintains the ability to see at night.

Functions of chloride include all of the following EXCEPT

enzyme activation.

Which of the following population groups requires the least sodium?

Adults age 71 and older

Systolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is beating.

The AI for sodium for those under 51 years of age is

1500 mg/day

Diastolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is relaxed.

Limiting dietary intake of sodium will ______ urine production.

decrease

The simplest way to determine if your fluid intake is adequate is to:

observe the color of your urine; it should be clear or pale yellow.

If the intracellular concentration of ions is greater than the extracellular concentration of ions, which will happen in order to maintain balance?

Fluid will move into the cell.

There are numerous recommendations from a variety of bodies regarding sodium intake. Match the mg of sodium with its corresponding recommendation:

The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for men and women ages 9-50 years: 1,500 mg; The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium per day: 2,300 mg; The Daily Value (DV) for sodium used on food labels: 2,400 mg; The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for men and women ages 51-70 years: 1,300 mg

Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?

Potassium

The pH of blood is normally maintained at

7.4

Indicate whether each electrolyte is intracellular or extracellular and a positively charged ion or negatively charged ion.

Potassium: Intracellular positively charged; Sodium: Extracellular positively charged; Phosphate: Intracellular negatively charged; Chloride: Extracellular negatively charged

Which of the following conditions does NOT lead to the breakdown of plastic water bottles?

All of these conditions break down plastic.

Primary hypertension

has no clear-cut cause

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will

increase urinary excretion of sodium.

Because it increases loss of the acidic compound CO2, hyperventilation would ______ blood pH.

increase

Hypertension can lead to

All of these choices are correct.

Adult men need how much total water intake per day?

3.7 liters (15 cups)

All foods in their unprocessed form tend to be low in sodium EXCEPT

milk and dairy products.

Bottled water is often lower in _______________ than municipal tap water

fluoride

For a healthy adult, the largest percentage of daily water output is attributed to

urine.

Which of the following populations is at risk for high blood potassium?

People with kidney disorders

Obesity

is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension.

Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?

4 - 6 cups

The pH of a solution is a measurement of the concentration of ______ ions in the solution.

hydrogen

Which of the following meals would be suitable for a person following a low-sodium diet?

Homemade oven-baked chicken, buttered rice, and steamed fresh green beans

Hypertension can lead to

All of these choices are correct.

During the process of nerve impulse transmission, when sodium flows into the neuron, its cell membrane is

depolarized.

Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via

evaporation.

Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve

sodium

Lino is a linebacker on his college football team. He is concerned about achieving adequate hydration during intense, hot summer football practices. Lino weighs himself before and after practice and notices that he loses five pounds by the time practice is over. How many cups of water should he be drinking to replace these fluid losses?

10 to 15 cups of water

Active transport of ______ from the lumen of the intestine into the cells lining the intestine facilitates absorption of water from the gastrointestinal tract.

sodium

The simplest way to determine if your fluid intake is adequate is to:

observe the color of your urine; it should be clear or pale yellow.

Choosing plastic containers with a recycling code of 2 or 4 will reduce exposure to which of the following?

Bisphenyl A

Which of the following populations is NOT at risk for low blood potassium?

Vegetarians

All of the following forms of cancer are related to excessive calorie intake except

lung cancer.

The most bioavailable source of vitamin E is

plant oil.

Which of the following groups is at highest risk for negative consequences of marginal vitamin E status?

Preterm infants

The selenium level in a food is tightly associated with

selenium content of the soil.

The bioavailabilty of carotenoids is affected by

cooking.

Typical North American diets

fall short of the RDA for vitamin E.

Free radicals

are generated by normal metabolic processes.

Which of the following snacks provides the most vitamin C?

Vanilla ice cream topped with sliced strawberries

For cancer prevention, which of the following dietary components should be limited?

Cured meats

The American Institute for Cancer Research Recommendations for Cancer Prevention include all of the following except

Increase consumption of red meats (e.g., beef, pork, and lamb)

All of the following population groups are at risk for vitamin E deficiency EXCEPT:

people with high-fat diets.

Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content of the typical North American diet?

More Matters

Cruciferous vegetables such as ______________________________ are rich in cancer-preventing phytochemicals.

cabbage and cauliflower

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

vitamin C.

Vitamin E functions as

an antioxidant.

In general, the richest sources of vitamin E are _______________.

green leafy vegetables

_______________ is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes, especially of red blood cells, from damage.

Vitamin E

Which of the following qualities can help to identify produce that is rich in antioxidants?

Color

Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint pain are related to the role of vitamin C in

collagen synthesis.

Which of the following is a good source of provitamin A?

Apricot

In general, the richest sources of vitamin E are _______________.

green leafy vegetables

Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?

Tuna

Which of the following qualities can help to identify produce that is rich in antioxidants?

Color

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

vitamin C.

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and stanols are examples of

phytochemicals.

_______________ is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes, especially of red blood cells, from damage.

Vitamin E

Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content of the typical North American diet?

More Matters

The American Institute for Cancer Research Recommendations for Cancer Prevention include all of the following except

Increase consumption of red meats (e.g., beef, pork, and lamb)

All of the following population groups are at risk for vitamin E deficiency EXCEPT:

people with high-fat diets.

Which of the following recommendations is most appropriate concerning the role of carotenoids in disease prevention?

Foods (e.g., a diet rich in fruits and vegetables) are the best source of disease-preventing carotenoids; most studies of carotenoid supplements do not provide sufficient evidence to support their use in prevention of disease.

Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?

Smokers

Cell membranes are susceptible to damage by free radicals because

they are composed primarily of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Selenium plays a role in all of the following EXCEPT

regulation of fluid status

Consuming carotenoids may reduce the risk for all of the following EXCEPT

acne

Beta-carotene is a precursor to

vitamin A

Free radical damage has been implicated in increasing the risk of

atherosclerosis.

A rich source of vitamin E is

Corn Oil

Vitamin E is thought to be helpful in the prevention of heart disease because it

prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.

Which of the following is an antioxidant?

vitamin C, vitamin E

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?

Spinach

All of the following people are at risk for vitamin E deficiency except

those who follow a vegetarian diet

When a molecule loses an electron in a chemical reaction, the molecule has been

oxidized

Which of the following is an antioxidant?

Vitamin C

Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?

Beta-carotene

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

vitamin C

The selenium content of the typical North American diet is

adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.

Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?

tuna

When the intake of ___ is low, vitamin E aids in its absorption.

vitamin A

Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?

smokers

Vitamin C intake over 2 grams per day may cause

diarrhea

Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint pain are related to the role of vitamin C in

collagen synthesis

Lycopene is found in

tomatoes

Free radicals

are generated by normal metabolic processes.

Overconsumption of vitamins A and E can do all the following except

cure colds and prevent cancer

Antioxidants

donate electrons to free radicals

Typical North American diets

fall short of the RDA for vitamin E

Cruciferous vegetables such as __________ are rich in cancer-preventing phytochemicals.

cabbage and cauliflower

The leading cause of blindness among older Americans is macular degeneration. Eating a diet rich in ____ can decrease the risk of this condition.

carotenoids

Consuming excessive carotenoids may cause

yellowing of the skin

Food processing

decreases vitamin E content of foods.

Which of the following describes the antioxidant activity of selenium?

Selenium is required for the activity of glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that chemically converts peroxides into water.

The consensus among the scientific community regarding megadose supplementation of vitamin E is

it is premature to recommend vitamin E supplements to the general population for prevention of diseases linked to oxidative damage, based on the failure of large clinical trials to show any consistent benefit of vitamin E supplementation.

The Upper Level for vitamin E is 1000 mg per day of supplemental alpha-tocopherol. Which of the following is an outcome of vitamin E toxicity?

Hemorrhage

The best way to improve the body's defense against free radicals is to

consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of

selenium

The main form of vitamin E in the body is

alpha-tocopherol.

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

vitamin C

Overconsumption of vitamins A and E can do all the following except

cure colds and prevent cancer.

_______________ is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes, especially of red blood cells, from damage.

Vitamin E

In green vegetables, such as broccoli, the orange pigments of provitamin A carotenoids are masked by

chlorophyll.

Free radicals

are generated by normal metabolic processes.

Which of the following are potential outcomes of excessive intake of carotenoids?

Yellowing of the skin. Hypercarotenemia is the condition of yellowing of the skin due to high intakes of dietary carotenoids. This is not a harmful condition and resolves when excessive intake is stopped. Although carotenoids can be converted to retinoids in the body, high intake of carotenoids will not lead to vitamin A toxicity because 1.) the rate of conversion from carotenoids to retinoids is slow and regulated, and 2.) absorption efficiency of carotenoids decreases as intake increases. Thus, bone fractures and birth defects - potential outcomes of vitamin A toxicity - do not result from high carotenoid intake. Dietary carotenoids from food sources are associated with decreased risk of cancer."

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?

Spinach

Selenium toxicity would most likely result from

dietary supplementation.

Antioxidants

donate electrons to free radicals

Consuming excessive carotenoids may cause

yellowing of the skin.

Free radical damage has been implicated in increasing the risk of

atherosclerosis.

Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content of the typical North American diet?

More Matters

Selenium toxicity would most likely result from

dietary supplementation.

The consensus among the scientific community regarding megadose supplementation of vitamin E is

it is premature to recommend vitamin E supplements to the general population for prevention of diseases linked to oxidative damage, based on the failure of large clinical trials to show any consistent benefit of vitamin E supplementation.

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

vitamin C.

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and stanols are examples of

phytochemicals.

_______________ is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes, especially of red blood cells, from damage.

Vitamin E

Lycopene is found in

tomatoes.

The leading cause of blindness among older Americans is macular degeneration. Eating a diet rich in can decrease the risk of this condition.

carotenoids

Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of

selenium.

For most pregnancies, women need to consume supplemental

iron

The need for extra iron during pregnancy is greatest during which trimester(s)?

Second and third

Which of the following types of physical activity is NOT advised during pregnancy?

SCUBA diving

Extra kilocalories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?

Second and third

Dana is pregnant for the first time and she is reading a book about healthy pregnancies. The book says that the goal of pregnancy is to achieve optimal health for both the baby and the mother. Two widely accepted criteria for a healthy pregnancy are

gestational period longer than 37 weeks and birth weight greater than 5.5 pounds.

To reduce oxidative damage to her eggs, a woman should consume

brightly colored fruits and vegetables.

During pregnancy, a woman should follow MyPlate's Daily Food Plan and consume

3 cups of calcium-rich foods from the milk and cheese group.

A mineral that is especially important for male fertility is

zinc.

All of the following are barriers to breastfeeding EXCEPT

expense

Which of the following is true about lifestyle habits and pregnancy?

Repeated intake of four or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting is harmful to the fetus.

Dana is 33 years old and pregnant for the first time. She is concerned that she might be too old to have a healthy pregnancy. Her obstetrician informed Dana that the ideal age range for pregnancy is

20-35 years old.

Rachel is pregnant and has morning sickness. She should do all the following EXCEPT

eat large, less frequent meals.

Rich in immune factors, the milk made by the mother's breast during the first few days after birth is

colostrum.

Dana and her husband are on vacation at a resort that features a variety of outdoor activities. Because she is pregnant, Dana is cautious about what types of exercise she engages in. All of the following are appropriate exercises for pregnancy EXCEPT

SCUBA diving.

Adequate folate intake for neural tube development is especially important in the ______ trimester.

first

The hormone that stimulates milk synthesis is

prolactin.

HIV can be transmitted from mother to fetus, and approximately 1/3 of infected infants will die within a few years of birth. The risk of mother-infant transmission can be significantly reduced if the infected mother ______ while she is pregnant.

takes highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and receives routine obstetrical care

During the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, an average of ______ extra kilocalories per day are needed.

350 - 450

Advantages of breastfeeding include all of the following EXCEPT

breast milk provides more vitamin D than infant formula.

Low levels of body fat decrease ______ fertility.

both male or female

Dana is pregnant and she is dining at a restaurant with her husband. She has been reading about foodborne illness risk during pregnancy and knows which foods to avoid. Which meal choice is the best for her as it is the least likely to cause foodborne illness?

Medium-well steak with mashed potatoes and sautéed squash

Obesity during pregnancy is associated with all of the following EXCEPT

a low-birth-weight infant

Women who experience infertility related to high levels of testosterone and insulin may have

PCOS.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all infants be given ______ IU of vitamin D per day until they are consuming that much from food

400

All of the following are barriers to breastfeeding EXCEPT

expense.

The hormone that stimulates milk synthesis is

prolactin.

Which of the following statements is important for infant feeding?

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of a child's life.

A mineral that is especially important for male fertility is

zinc.

Mineral needs generally are increased during pregnancy. All of the following are needed in higher quantities EXCEPT

sodium.

Which of the following types of physical activity is NOT advised during pregnancy?

SCUBA diving

For a woman with a prepregnancy BMI of 22, total pregnancy weight gain should fall within the range of ______ pounds.

25 to 35

An infant born at 38 weeks of gestation and weighing 5 pounds is

LBW and SGA

Fertility can be impaired by

Either too much or too little body fat

During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate

essential fatty acids

During the first trimester, a woman should gain ______ pounds."

2 to 4

Most of the extra calcium for pregnancy is needed during which trimester(s)?

Calcium needs do not increase during pregnancy.

During the second and third trimesters, pregnant women should gain approximately ______ pound(s) per week

One

Preterm infants

may have problems sucking and swallowing.

The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the calcium she needs is to consume

low-fat milk and cheese

Carol has heartburn during her pregnancy. She should do all of the following EXCEPT

lie down after she eats

The duration of pregnancy normally is ______ weeks.

38-42

Low levels of body fat decrease ______ fertility.

both male or female

Advantages of breastfeeding include all of the following EXCEPT

breast milk provides more vitamin D than infant formula.

Dana and her husband are on vacation at a resort that features a variety of outdoor activities. Because she is pregnant, Dana is cautious about what types of exercise she engages in. All of the following are appropriate exercises for pregnancy EXCEPT

SCUBA diving.

Mineral needs generally are increased during pregnancy. All of the following are needed in higher quantities EXCEPT

sodium

Low iodide status during the first trimester of pregnancy may lead to

congenital hypothyroidism

During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate

essential fatty acids

Women who experience infertility related to high levels of testosterone and insulin may have

PCOS

The hormone that triggers "let down" or milk release is

oxytocin.

Dana is pregnant and she is dining at a restaurant with her husband. She has been reading about foodborne illness risk during pregnancy and knows which foods to avoid. Which meal choice is the best for her as it is the least likely to cause foodborne illness?

Medium-well steak with mashed potatoes and sautéed squash

All of the following are true about folate and pregnancy EXCEPT

it is impossible for pregnant women to meet their nutrient needs without supplementation.

During each feeding, human milk changes composition in which of the following ways?

fat increases

The U.S. Public Health Service and the March of Dimes recommend that all women of childbearing age should take a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains

400 micrograms of folic acid.

Advantages of breastfeeding include all of the following EXCEPT

breast milk provides more vitamin D than infant formula.

Which of the following is true about lactation?

The major reason why women do not breastfeed is lack of information.

The hormone that stimulates milk synthesis is

prolactin.

Consumption of non-food items such as laundry starch, ice, and dirt is known as

pica

Women who experience infertility related to high levels of testosterone and insulin may have

PCOS

Fertility can be impaired by

either too little or too much body fat.

Which of the following is NOT true about the let-down reflex?

It is triggered by the release of the hormone estrogen.

All of the following are true about dietary supplements during pregnancy EXCEPT

overdoses of vitamin B-12 could cause birth defects.

During the second and third trimesters, pregnant women should gain approximately ______ pound(s) per week.

1

A low-birth-weight infant weighs ______ pounds.

less than 5.5

Sue's prepregnancy BMI is 38. Her weight-gain goal should be ______ pounds.

11 to 20; <18.5: 28-40 lbs; 18.5-24.9: 25-35 lbs 25.0-29.9: 15-25 lbs >30.0: 11-20 lbs

Dana has a history of iron-deficiency anemia and she is being particularly careful during her pregnancy to ensure she is getting enough iron. Each morning, she has a prenatal vitamin and a bowl of iron-fortified, ready-to-eat cereal. Which of the following should she also have at breakfast that will help increase the absorption of iron from her prenatal vitamin and the cereal?

a glass of orange juice

Healthy People 2020 includes a goal of increasing by ______ the number of pregnancies that begin with optimal folate status.

10%

Requirements for ______ increase by 50% during pregnancy.

folate

Barb wants to make sure she gets adequate folate during her pregnancy. She should do which of the following?

Eat more ready-to-eat breakfast cereals.

"Patricia's physician tells her she needs more folate in her diet during pregnancy. She should do which of the following?

Drink orange juice.

The U.S. Public Health Service and the March of Dimes recommend that all women of childbearing age should take a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains

15 milligrams of iron.

During pregnancy, symptoms such as high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, edema, changes in blood clotting, and seizures are associated with a condition called

eclampsia

A low-birth-weight infant weighs ______ pounds.

less than 5.5

During the first trimester, a woman should gain ______ pounds.

2 to 4

"Rich in immune factors, the milk made by the mother's breast during the first few days after birth is

colostrum.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly known as the American Dietetic Association) and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that babies be breastfed exclusively for

the first 6 months of life

Healthy People 2020 includes a goal of increasing by ______ the number of pregnancies that begin with optimal folate status.

30%

To reduce oxidative damage to her eggs, a woman should consume

brightly colored fruits and vegetables.

Concerning the infant, two major indicators of a successful pregnancy are: 1) gestation period longer than ______ weeks and 2) birth weight greater than ______ pounds.

37; 5.5

Two widely accepted criteria for a healthy pregnancy are

gestational period longer than 37 weeks and birth weight greater than 5.5 pounds

Breast milk production requires approximately ____ kilocalories per day

800

The risk of mother-infant transmission can be significantly reduced if the infected mother ______ while she is pregnant.

takes highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and receives routine obstetrical care

Which of the following is a federal program for reducing infant mortality by providing nutritional support and counseling?

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all infants, including those who are exclusively breastfed, should be given how much supplemental vitamin D per day?

400 IU

Toxicity of ______ is linked to birth defects.

Vitamin A

All of the following are advantages of breastfeeding EXCEPT

breast milk is free of environmental contaminants.

Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint pain are related to the role of vitamin C in

collagen synthesis.

Which of the following is a good source of provitamin A?

Apricot

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and stanols are examples of

phytochemicals

Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?

Tuna

Which of the following recommendations is most appropriate concerning the role of carotenoids in disease prevention?

Foods (e.g., a diet rich in fruits and vegetables) are the best source of disease-preventing carotenoids; most studies of carotenoid supplements do not provide sufficient evidence to support their use in prevention of disease.

Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?

Smokers

Cell membranes are susceptible to damage by free radicals because

they are composed primarily of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Selenium plays a role in all of the following except

regulation of fluid status

Consuming carotenoids may reduce the risk for all of the following except

acne

Beta-carotene is a precursor to

vitamin A

A rich source of vitamin E is

Corn Oil

Vitamin E is thought to be helpful in the prevention of heart disease because it

prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.

Which of the following is an antioxidant?

vitamin C.

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?

Spinach

All of the following people are at risk for vitamin E deficiency except

those who follow a vegetarian diet

When a molecule loses an electron in a chemical reaction, the molecule has been

oxidized

Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?

Beta-carotene

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

vitamin C

The selenium content of the typical North American diet is

adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.

When the intake of ___ is low, vitamin E aids in its absorption.

vitamin A

Free radical damage has been implicated in increasing the risk of

atherosclerosis.

Vitamin C intake over 2 grams per day may cause

diarrhea

Lycopene is found in

tomatoes

Overconsumption of vitamins A and E can do all the following except

cure colds and prevent cancer

Antioxidants

donate electrons to free radicals

The leading cause of blindness among older Americans is macular degeneration. Eating a diet rich in ____ can decrease the risk of this condition.

carotenoids

Consuming excessive carotenoids may cause

yellowing of the skin

Food processing

decreases vitamin E content of foods.

Which of the following describes the antioxidant activity of selenium?

Selenium is required for the activity of glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that chemically converts peroxides into water.

The consensus among the scientific community regarding megadose supplementation of vitamin E is

it is premature to recommend vitamin E supplements to the general population for prevention of diseases linked to oxidative damage, based on the failure of large clinical trials to show any consistent benefit of vitamin E supplementation.

The Upper Level for vitamin E is 1000 mg per day of supplemental alpha-tocopherol. Which of the following is an outcome of vitamin E toxicity?

Hemorrhage

The best way to improve the body's defense against free radicals is to

consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of

selenium

The main form of vitamin E in the body is

alpha-tocopherol.

In green vegetables, such as broccoli, the orange pigments of provitamin A carotenoids are masked by

chlorophyll.

Selenium toxicity would most likely result from

dietary supplementation.

The main form of vitamin E in the body is

alpha-tocopherol.

When an atom or molecule is _______________, it gains electrons.

reduced

When the intake of is low, vitamin E aids in its absorption.

vitamin A

The vitamin C content of foods can be decreased by

exposure to heat. leaching into cooking water, exposure to oxygen

As part of the body's antioxidant defenses, vitamin C participates in the recycling of

vitamin E

The sodium concentration of the blood is primarily regulated by the

kidneys.

Which of the following populations is at risk for high blood potassium?

people with kidney disorders

The pH of blood is normally maintained at

7.4

Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve

sodium.

Metabolic water refers to

water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy

Elevated blood pressure has been linked to excess intake of

Na and Cl

The major source of chloride in the diet is

salt.

Which of the following population groups requires the least sodium?

Adults age 71 and older

Which of the following foods is NOT a good source of potassium?

Canola Oil

The pH of a solution is a measurement of the concentration of ______ ions in the solution.

Hydrogen

Choosing plastic containers with a recycling code of 2 or 4 will reduce exposure to which of the following?

Bisphenyl A

Diastolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is relaxed.

Of the following, the best source of potassium is

fresh spinach

"Lino is a linebacker on his college football team. He is concerned about achieving adequate hydration during intense, hot summer football practices. Lino weighs himself before and after practice and notices that he loses five pounds by the time practice is over. How many cups of water should he be drinking to replace these fluid losses?

10 to 15 cups of water

For a healthy adult, the largest percentage of daily water output is attributed to

urine

"Stephen's blood pressure is 135/88 and he wishes to follow the principles of the DASH diet. Which of the following is NOT included in DASH guidelines?

Include 2 - 3 servings per day of whole milk.

Obesity

is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension.

Aside from food and beverage intakes, hydration and fluid status are affected by a number of additional factors. Which of the following factors influence water loss? Check all that apply.

Typical water losses are affected by altitude, caffeine intake, alcohol intake, and humidity.

While dehydration is problematic, over-consumption of water can also be harmful. Which of the following statements accurately describe over-consumption of water? Check all that apply.

Consuming too much water leads to ill health if concentrations of blood electrolytes become too low. An excessive amount of water would have to approach many quarts each day. When excessive water intake overwhelms the kidneys' capacity to excrete fluid. Severe headaches, confusion, seizures, and coma may also result.

Adult women need how much total water intake per day?

2.7 liters (11 cups)

Limiting dietary intake of sodium will ______ urine production.

decrease

Higher intake of which of the following minerals is associated with lowered blood pressure?

potassium

Which of the following 1-ounce portions of food would have the least sodium?

hamburger

About 95% of Americans exceed the Upper Level for

sodium

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will

increase urinary excretion of sodium.

Up to one or two alcoholic drinks per day

All of these choices are correct.

Bottled water is regulated by

FDA

Depletion of chloride is mostly likely to occur with excessive

vomiting

Systolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is beating.

The AI for sodium for those under 51 years of age is

1500 mg/day

The simplest way to determine if your fluid intake is adequate is to:

observe the color of your urine; it should be clear or pale yellow.

If the intracellular concentration of ions is greater than the extracellular concentration of ions, which will happen in order to maintain balance?

Fluid will move into the cell.

There are numerous recommendations from a variety of bodies regarding sodium intake. Match the mg of sodium with its corresponding recommendation:

The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for men and women ages 9-50 years: 1,500 mg; The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium per day: 2,300 mg; The Daily Value (DV) for sodium used on food labels: 2,400 mg; The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for men and women ages 51-70 years: 1,300 mg

Indicate whether each electrolyte is intracellular or extracellular and a positively charged ion or negatively charged ion.

Potassium: Intracellular positively charged; Sodium: Extracellular positively charged; Phosphate: Intracellular negatively charged; Chloride: Extracellular negatively charged

Which of the following conditions does NOT lead to the breakdown of plastic water bottles?

All of these conditions break down plastic.

Primary hypertension

has no clear-cut cause

Because it increases loss of the acidic compound CO2, hyperventilation would ______ blood pH.

increase

Hypertension can lead to

All of these choices are correct.

Adult men need how much total water intake per day?

3.7 liters (15 cups)

All foods in their unprocessed form tend to be low in sodium EXCEPT

milk and dairy products.

Bottled water is often lower in _______________ than municipal tap water

fluoride

Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?

4 - 6 cups

Which of the following meals would be suitable for a person following a low-sodium diet?

Homemade oven-baked chicken, buttered rice, and steamed fresh green beans

During the process of nerve impulse transmission, when sodium flows into the neuron, its cell membrane is

depolarized.

Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via

evaporation.

Active transport of ______ from the lumen of the intestine into the cells lining the intestine facilitates absorption of water from the gastrointestinal tract.

sodium

Which of the following populations is NOT at risk for low blood potassium?

Vegetarians

About ______ of adults are sodium sensitive.

10-15%

The process of nerve impulse transmission starts with

flow of sodium ions into the cell

The typical American diet contains approximately ___ milligrams of sodium.

2,300 to 4,700

Chronic dehydration increases a man's risk of developing ___

kidney stones

When starting a reduced-salt diet, how long before you can sense salt at a lower taste threshold?

8 weeks

The ratio of sodium to chloride in table salt is

40-60

Regulation of blood pH involves the coordination of buffer systems, the respiratory system, and the kidneys. Of the following minerals, which acts as a buffer to help maintain the pH of the blood?

phosphate

Mucus, saliva, and synovial (joint) fluid exemplify water's role as a

lubricant

Interstitial fluid, lymph, gastrointestinal fluid, spinal fluid, plasma, and synovial fluid are part of ______ fluid.

extracellular

Which of the following people is likely to have the highest percentage of body water?

A highly trained male athlete

The DASH diet for reduction of hypertension

recommends 2 - 3 servings per day of low-fat dairy products

Composed primarily of water, metabolic wastes, and minerals, the body's major waste product is

urine.

Which of the following populations is especially sensitive to the effects of excess sodium intake on blood pressure?

African-Americans

After an intense workout, Christa's weight was down 3 pounds. To rehydrate adequately, Christa should drink

cups of water over the next hour or two. 6 - 9

The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is characterized by excessive production of ADH. A consequence of this disorder could be

hyponatremia

Earl is a strict vegan. He should take a supplemental source of

Vitamin B-12

What is a megadose?

A megadose is a large intake of a nutrient that is 2-10 times human needs

Which method is the most likely to maximize water-soluble vitamin preservation?

Blanching vegetables (cooking in boiling water for a short period of time)

Which of the following is an example of a fat-soluble vitamin?

Vitamin A

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?

They are stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

Compared to whole grain products, refined grains are ______ in trace minerals

lower

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Which of the following statements does NOT describe the role of minerals in the body?

They provide 4 kilocalories per gram.

Which of the following does NOT describe fat-soluble vitamins?

Excesses are excreted in the urine.

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?

They are stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

Consumption of vitamin C

enhances absorption of iron.

Which of the following statements about micronutrients is true?

It is likely that all essential vitamins and minerals have been identified.

All of the following vitamins are stored extensively in the liver EXCEPT

thiamin.

Vitamins A, C, and E work together to

protect the body from damage by free radicals.

Some nutrients can enhance or inhibit the absorption of minerals. Match the nutrient with its absorption-enhancing or -inhibiting action on another mineral:

Zinc: Decreases copper absorption Vitamin C: Increases iron absorption Vitamin D: Increases calcium absorption

Why aren’t vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbal remedies as tightly regulated by the FDA as are drugs and food additives?

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 classified these items as "foods" as opposed to drugs; foods have less regulation than do drugs.

Oxalic acid can inhibit the absorption of

Calcium

A vitamin that combines with and activates an enzyme is known as a(n)

Coenzyme

The "Supplement Facts" panel on dietary supplements resembles the __ and is required on all dietary supplements.

Nutrition facts panel on food

"Micronutrients can be classified based on the presence of ______ in their chemical structures. According to this classification system, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic.

carbon

Minerals are classified in which way?

Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?

Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic.

"In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

Kidneys

"Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?

Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm.

Some nutrients can enhance or inhibit the absorption of minerals. Match the nutrient with its absorption-enhancing or -inhibiting action on another mineral:

Zinc: Decreases copper absorption, Vitamin C: Increases iron absorption, Vitamin D: increases calcium absorption

When buying a vitamin or mineral supplement, look for____on the label, as it assures purity, strength, and quality of the product.

USP

"Gabe is a nutrition student who is learning that a balanced diet involves consuming foods that have a variety of vitamins in them every day. Why is it advisable to consume vitamins every day?

The body has limited storage capacity for many vitamins, so they should be consumed daily in the diet.

A cooking class instructor states that certain preparation and cooking methods can help preserve water-soluble vitamin content of vegetables. Which method is the most likely to maximize water-soluble vitamin preservation?

Blanching vegetables (cooking in boiling water for a short period of time)

"Zinc competes with ___ for absorption.

Copper

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride mainly serve as structural components of

bones and teeth.

All of the following can be classified as B vitamins EXCEPT

choline.

Which of the following is most likely to result in vitamin toxicity if consumed daily over a long period of time?

Vitamin A supplements

Of the following minerals, daily requirements are highest for

Calcium

Vitamins A, C, and E work together to

protect the body from damage by free radicals

Which statement about vitamins is true?

Help regulate chemical reactions in the body

The vitamin content of foods is diminished by all of the following EXCEPT

Freezing

Besides being supplied in the diet, some micronutrients are synthesized in the body. For example, ______ can be synthesized by microorganisms in the intestinal tract.

Vitamin K

"Immediately after absorption from the small intestine, fat-soluble vitamins appear in the lymph as part of

chylomicrons

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 classified vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbal remedies as

foods

All the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption EXCEPT

increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi.

Most water-soluble vitamins are rapidly excreted from the body when consumed in excess. However, ______ is an example of a water-soluble vitamin that can accumulate to toxic levels in the liver.

Vitamin B6

Megadoses are defined as vitamin intakes ________ times the estimated human needs to prevent a deficiency.

2 to 10

Lino recently saw a "high-potency" mineral supplement being advertised on a late-night infomercial. He compared the amount of minerals in the supplement with the percent Daily Values recommended for minerals and determined that the supplement contained megadoses of minerals. Why can taking megadoses of individual mineral supplements be potentially harmful?

Taking megadoses of individual mineral supplements can greatly diminish the absorption and metabolism of other minerals.

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran

Fluid balance is dependent on

potassium

All the following are true of B vitamins EXCEPT

they are stored in adipose tissue.

Choose the correct side effect from the pull down menu that may occur when that vitamin is taken in excessive quantities.

Niacin: Skin flushing, Vitamin A: Birth defects, Vitamin C: diarrhea, Folic Acid: can mask vitamin B-12 Deficiency

Which of the following is an example of a vitamin that is more bioavailable in its synthetic form?

folate

When B vitamins are consumed in their coenzyme forms,

they are broken down to free vitamins in the stomach and small intestine prior to absorption.

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants.

The "Supplement Facts" panel on dietary supplements resembles the _______________________________ and is required on all dietary supplements.

Nutrition Facts panel on food

Micronutrients can be classified based on the presence of ______ in their chemical structures. According to this classification system, vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic.

carbon

In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

kidneys

Donna has recently started taking the over-the-counter medication Alli (orlistat) for weight loss. Because she is taking this drug, she is at risk for deficiency of which of the following micronutrients?

Vitamin K

When B vitamins are consumed in their coenzyme forms,

they are broken down to free vitamins in the stomach and small intestine prior to absorption.

Which of the following does NOT describe fat-soluble vitamins?

Excesses are excreted in the urine

Lino recently saw a "high-potency" mineral supplement being advertised on a late-night infomercial. He compared the amount of minerals in the supplement with the percent Daily Values recommended for minerals and determined that the supplement contained megadoses of minerals. Why can taking megadoses of individual mineral supplements be potentially harmful?

Taking megadoses of individual mineral supplements can greatly diminish the absorption and metabolism of other minerals.

Vitamin C is a ______-soluble vitamin.

water

The vitamin that poses the greatest risk for toxicity is

Vitamin A

Vitamin content of fruits and vegetables is preserved by all of the following methods EXCEPT

trimming and peeling fruits and vegetables soon after purchase

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

Minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants.

All of the following vitamins are stored extensively in the liver EXCEPT

thiamin

Orlistat is a weight-loss medication with a possible side-effect of

limiting absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

A nutrient that has been deemed essential but has not been classified as a vitamin is

choline

Justine’s son Tommy is an avid soccer player. After soccer practice, Tommy’s coach told his parents they should purchase a certain "B-complex vitamin" he is selling to help improve the players’ energy. Justine looked at the nutrient information and was surprised to see that it provided megadoses of a number of B vitamins. What is a megadose?

A megadose is a large intake of a nutrient that is 2-10 times human needs.

Consumption of vitamin C

enhances absorption of iron.

Why aren’t vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbal remedies as tightly regulated by the FDA as are drugs and food additives?

The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 classified these items as "foods" as opposed to drugs; foods have less regulation than do drugs.

When buying a vitamin or mineral supplement, look for___ on the label, as it assures purity, strength, and quality of the product.

USP

The B vitamins

facilitate chemical reactions that yield energy from the macronutrients.

Which of the following is an example of a trace mineral?

iron

Which of the following statements about micronutrients is true?

It is likely that all essential vitamins and minerals have been identified.

Most water-soluble vitamins are rapidly excreted from the body when consumed in excess. However, ______ is an example of a water-soluble vitamin that can accumulate to toxic levels in the liver.

vitamin B-6

All of the following vitamins are stored extensively in the liver EXCEPT

thiamin

Vitamin content of fruits and vegetables is preserved by all of the following methods EXCEPT

trimming and peeling fruits and vegetables soon after purchase.

All of the following can be classified as B vitamins EXCEPT

choline

The primary site of micronutrient absorption is the

small intestine.

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride mainly serve as structural components of

bones and teeth.

A cooking class instructor states that certain preparation and cooking methods can help preserve water-soluble vitamin content of vegetables. Which method is the most likely to maximize water-soluble vitamin preservation?

"Blanching vegetables (cooking in boiling water for a short period of time) The water-soluble vitamins – particularly thiamin, vitamin C, and folate – can be destroyed with improper storage and excessive cooking. Heat, light, exposure to the air, cooking in water, and alkalinity are all factors that can destroy vitamins. Blanching vegetables in boiling water destroys the enzymes that would otherwise degrade the vitamins."

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran

Which of the following does NOT describe fat-soluble vitamins?

Excesses are excreted in the urine.

Which of the following criteria qualifies a compound as a vitamin?

The compound is necessary for health, but the body is unable to synthesize enough of the compound to maintain health.

______ are mostly stored in the liver and adipose tissue.

Fat-soluble vitamins

Excessive intake of ______ can decrease absorption of ______.

zinc; copper

All the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption EXCEPT

increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi.

A vitamin that combines with and activates an enzyme is known as a(n)

coenzyme.

Which of the following is an example of a trace mineral?

iron

Megadoses are defined as vitamin intakes ________ times the estimated human needs to prevent a deficiency.

2 to 10

The vitamin content of foods is diminished by all of the following EXCEPT

freezing.

The vitamin that poses the greatest risk for toxicity is

vitamin A.

A nutrient that has been deemed essential but has not been classified as a vitamin is

choline.

Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?

Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm.

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.

Softening of hard water may increase its _______________ content.

sodium

Regulation of blood pH involves the coordination of buffer systems, the respiratory system, and the kidneys. Of the following minerals, which acts as a buffer to help maintain the pH of the blood?

Phosphate

Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?

Potassium

Potassium performs all the following functions EXCEPT

it maintains the ability to see at night.

As far as diet is concerned, a person wanting to reduce the risk of developing hypertension would want to do all of the following EXCEPT

eat lots of prepackaged and canned foods.

The amount of water in each body compartment mainly is controlled by

ion concentration.

Functions of chloride include all of the following EXCEPT

enzyme activation

For which of the following people are sports drinks with electrolytes most appropriate?

An athlete who competes in a marathon

The most practical advice for prevention of hypertension is

maintain a healthy weight.

During nerve impulse transmission, depolarization results in a ______ charge inside the cell membrane. Repolarization restores the ______ charge inside the cell membrane.

slightly positive; slightly negative

Symptoms of dehydration include all of the following EXCEPT

slowed heart rate.

Which of the following is NOT true about the regulation of fluid in the body?

Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids during illness.

The sodium concentration of the blood is primarily regulated by the

kidneys.

Which of the following populations is at risk for high blood potassium?

people with kidney disorders

The pH of blood is normally maintained at

7.4

Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve

sodium.

Metabolic water refers to

water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy

Elevated blood pressure has been linked to excess intake of

Na and Cl

The major source of chloride in the diet is

salt.

Which of the following population groups requires the least sodium?

Adults age 71 and older

Which of the following foods is NOT a good source of potassium?

Canola Oil

The pH of a solution is a measurement of the concentration of ______ ions in the solution.

Hydrogen

Choosing plastic containers with a recycling code of 2 or 4 will reduce exposure to which of the following?

Bisphenyl A

Diastolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is relaxed.

Of the following, the best source of potassium is

fresh spinach

"Lino is a linebacker on his college football team. He is concerned about achieving adequate hydration during intense, hot summer football practices. Lino weighs himself before and after practice and notices that he loses five pounds by the time practice is over. How many cups of water should he be drinking to replace these fluid losses?

10 to 15 cups of water

For a healthy adult, the largest percentage of daily water output is attributed to

urine

"Stephen’s blood pressure is 135/88 and he wishes to follow the principles of the DASH diet. Which of the following is NOT included in DASH guidelines?

Include 2 – 3 servings per day of whole milk.

Obesity

is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension.

Aside from food and beverage intakes, hydration and fluid status are affected by a number of additional factors. Which of the following factors influence water loss? Check all that apply.

Typical water losses are affected by altitude, caffeine intake, alcohol intake, and humidity.

Which of the following populations is at risk for high blood potassium?

People with kidney disorders

While dehydration is problematic, over-consumption of water can also be harmful. Which of the following statements accurately describe over-consumption of water? Check all that apply.

Consuming too much water leads to ill health if concentrations of blood electrolytes become too low. An excessive amount of water would have to approach many quarts each day. When excessive water intake overwhelms the kidneys’ capacity to excrete fluid. Severe headaches, confusion, seizures, and coma may also result.

Lino is a linebacker on his college football team. He is concerned about achieving adequate hydration during intense, hot summer football practices. Lino weighs himself before and after practice and notices that he loses five pounds by the time practice is over. How many cups of water should he be drinking to replace these fluid losses?

10 to 15 cups of water

Adult women need how much total water intake per day?

2.7 liters (11 cups)

Limiting dietary intake of sodium will ______ urine production.

decrease

Higher intake of which of the following minerals is associated with lowered blood pressure?

potassium

Which of the following 1-ounce portions of food would have the least sodium?

hamburger

About 95% of Americans exceed the Upper Level for

sodium

Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve

sodium

Of the following, the best source of potassium is

fresh spinach

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will

increase urinary excretion of sodium.

Metabolic water refers to

water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy.

Up to one or two alcoholic drinks per day

All of these choices are correct.

Bottled water is regulated by

FDA

Depletion of chloride is mostly likely to occur with excessive

vomiting

Potassium performs all the following functions EXCEPT

it maintains the ability to see at night.

Functions of chloride include all of the following EXCEPT

enzyme activation.

Which of the following population groups requires the least sodium?

Adults age 71 and older

Systolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is beating.

The AI for sodium for those under 51 years of age is

1500 mg/day

Diastolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is relaxed.

Limiting dietary intake of sodium will ______ urine production.

decrease

The simplest way to determine if your fluid intake is adequate is to:

observe the color of your urine; it should be clear or pale yellow.

If the intracellular concentration of ions is greater than the extracellular concentration of ions, which will happen in order to maintain balance?

Fluid will move into the cell.

There are numerous recommendations from a variety of bodies regarding sodium intake. Match the mg of sodium with its corresponding recommendation:

The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for men and women ages 9-50 years: 1,500 mg; The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium per day: 2,300 mg; The Daily Value (DV) for sodium used on food labels: 2,400 mg; The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for men and women ages 51-70 years: 1,300 mg

Which of the following electrolytes is especially important for proper heart rhythm?

Potassium

The pH of blood is normally maintained at

7.4

Indicate whether each electrolyte is intracellular or extracellular and a positively charged ion or negatively charged ion.

Potassium: Intracellular positively charged; Sodium: Extracellular positively charged; Phosphate: Intracellular negatively charged; Chloride: Extracellular negatively charged

Which of the following conditions does NOT lead to the breakdown of plastic water bottles?

All of these conditions break down plastic.

Primary hypertension

has no clear-cut cause

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will

increase urinary excretion of sodium.

Because it increases loss of the acidic compound CO2, hyperventilation would ______ blood pH.

increase

Hypertension can lead to

All of these choices are correct.

Adult men need how much total water intake per day?

3.7 liters (15 cups)

All foods in their unprocessed form tend to be low in sodium EXCEPT

milk and dairy products.

Bottled water is often lower in _______________ than municipal tap water

fluoride

For a healthy adult, the largest percentage of daily water output is attributed to

urine.

Which of the following populations is at risk for high blood potassium?

People with kidney disorders

Obesity

is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension.

Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?

4 – 6 cups

The pH of a solution is a measurement of the concentration of ______ ions in the solution.

hydrogen

Which of the following meals would be suitable for a person following a low-sodium diet?

Homemade oven-baked chicken, buttered rice, and steamed fresh green beans

Hypertension can lead to

All of these choices are correct.

During the process of nerve impulse transmission, when sodium flows into the neuron, its cell membrane is

depolarized.

Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via

evaporation.

Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve

sodium

Lino is a linebacker on his college football team. He is concerned about achieving adequate hydration during intense, hot summer football practices. Lino weighs himself before and after practice and notices that he loses five pounds by the time practice is over. How many cups of water should he be drinking to replace these fluid losses?

10 to 15 cups of water

Active transport of ______ from the lumen of the intestine into the cells lining the intestine facilitates absorption of water from the gastrointestinal tract.

sodium

The simplest way to determine if your fluid intake is adequate is to:

observe the color of your urine; it should be clear or pale yellow.

Choosing plastic containers with a recycling code of 2 or 4 will reduce exposure to which of the following?

Bisphenyl A

Which of the following populations is NOT at risk for low blood potassium?

Vegetarians

All of the following forms of cancer are related to excessive calorie intake except

lung cancer.

The most bioavailable source of vitamin E is

plant oil.

Which of the following groups is at highest risk for negative consequences of marginal vitamin E status?

Preterm infants

The selenium level in a food is tightly associated with

selenium content of the soil.

The bioavailabilty of carotenoids is affected by

cooking.

Typical North American diets

fall short of the RDA for vitamin E.

Free radicals

are generated by normal metabolic processes.

Which of the following snacks provides the most vitamin C?

Vanilla ice cream topped with sliced strawberries

For cancer prevention, which of the following dietary components should be limited?

Cured meats

The American Institute for Cancer Research Recommendations for Cancer Prevention include all of the following except

Increase consumption of red meats (e.g., beef, pork, and lamb)

All of the following population groups are at risk for vitamin E deficiency EXCEPT:

people with high-fat diets.

Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content of the typical North American diet?

More Matters

Cruciferous vegetables such as ______________________________ are rich in cancer-preventing phytochemicals.

cabbage and cauliflower

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

vitamin C.

Vitamin E functions as

an antioxidant.

In general, the richest sources of vitamin E are _______________.

green leafy vegetables

_______________ is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes, especially of red blood cells, from damage.

Vitamin E

Which of the following qualities can help to identify produce that is rich in antioxidants?

Color

Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint pain are related to the role of vitamin C in

collagen synthesis.

Which of the following is a good source of provitamin A?

Apricot

In general, the richest sources of vitamin E are _______________.

green leafy vegetables

Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?

Tuna

Which of the following qualities can help to identify produce that is rich in antioxidants?

Color

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

vitamin C.

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and stanols are examples of

phytochemicals.

_______________ is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes, especially of red blood cells, from damage.

Vitamin E

Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content of the typical North American diet?

More Matters

The American Institute for Cancer Research Recommendations for Cancer Prevention include all of the following except

Increase consumption of red meats (e.g., beef, pork, and lamb)

All of the following population groups are at risk for vitamin E deficiency EXCEPT:

people with high-fat diets.

Which of the following recommendations is most appropriate concerning the role of carotenoids in disease prevention?

Foods (e.g., a diet rich in fruits and vegetables) are the best source of disease-preventing carotenoids; most studies of carotenoid supplements do not provide sufficient evidence to support their use in prevention of disease.

Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?

Smokers

Cell membranes are susceptible to damage by free radicals because

they are composed primarily of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Selenium plays a role in all of the following EXCEPT

regulation of fluid status

Consuming carotenoids may reduce the risk for all of the following EXCEPT

acne

Beta-carotene is a precursor to

vitamin A

Free radical damage has been implicated in increasing the risk of

atherosclerosis.

A rich source of vitamin E is

Corn Oil

Vitamin E is thought to be helpful in the prevention of heart disease because it

prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.

Which of the following is an antioxidant?

vitamin C, vitamin E

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?

Spinach

All of the following people are at risk for vitamin E deficiency except

those who follow a vegetarian diet

When a molecule loses an electron in a chemical reaction, the molecule has been

oxidized

Which of the following is an antioxidant?

Vitamin C

Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?

Beta-carotene

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

vitamin C

The selenium content of the typical North American diet is

adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.

Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?

tuna

When the intake of ___ is low, vitamin E aids in its absorption.

vitamin A

Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?

smokers

Vitamin C intake over 2 grams per day may cause

diarrhea

Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint pain are related to the role of vitamin C in

collagen synthesis

Lycopene is found in

tomatoes

Free radicals

are generated by normal metabolic processes.

Overconsumption of vitamins A and E can do all the following except

cure colds and prevent cancer

Antioxidants

donate electrons to free radicals

Typical North American diets

fall short of the RDA for vitamin E

Cruciferous vegetables such as __________ are rich in cancer-preventing phytochemicals.

cabbage and cauliflower

The leading cause of blindness among older Americans is macular degeneration. Eating a diet rich in ____ can decrease the risk of this condition.

carotenoids

Consuming excessive carotenoids may cause

yellowing of the skin

Food processing

decreases vitamin E content of foods.

Which of the following describes the antioxidant activity of selenium?

Selenium is required for the activity of glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that chemically converts peroxides into water.

The consensus among the scientific community regarding megadose supplementation of vitamin E is

it is premature to recommend vitamin E supplements to the general population for prevention of diseases linked to oxidative damage, based on the failure of large clinical trials to show any consistent benefit of vitamin E supplementation.

The Upper Level for vitamin E is 1000 mg per day of supplemental alpha-tocopherol. Which of the following is an outcome of vitamin E toxicity?

Hemorrhage

The best way to improve the body’s defense against free radicals is to

consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of

selenium

The main form of vitamin E in the body is

alpha-tocopherol.

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

vitamin C

Overconsumption of vitamins A and E can do all the following except

cure colds and prevent cancer.

_______________ is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes, especially of red blood cells, from damage.

Vitamin E

In green vegetables, such as broccoli, the orange pigments of provitamin A carotenoids are masked by

chlorophyll.

Free radicals

are generated by normal metabolic processes.

Which of the following are potential outcomes of excessive intake of carotenoids?

Yellowing of the skin. Hypercarotenemia is the condition of yellowing of the skin due to high intakes of dietary carotenoids. This is not a harmful condition and resolves when excessive intake is stopped. Although carotenoids can be converted to retinoids in the body, high intake of carotenoids will not lead to vitamin A toxicity because 1.) the rate of conversion from carotenoids to retinoids is slow and regulated, and 2.) absorption efficiency of carotenoids decreases as intake increases. Thus, bone fractures and birth defects – potential outcomes of vitamin A toxicity – do not result from high carotenoid intake. Dietary carotenoids from food sources are associated with decreased risk of cancer."

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?

Spinach

Selenium toxicity would most likely result from

dietary supplementation.

Antioxidants

donate electrons to free radicals

Consuming excessive carotenoids may cause

yellowing of the skin.

Free radical damage has been implicated in increasing the risk of

atherosclerosis.

Which of the following marketing campaigns aims to improve the antioxidant content of the typical North American diet?

More Matters

Selenium toxicity would most likely result from

dietary supplementation.

The consensus among the scientific community regarding megadose supplementation of vitamin E is

it is premature to recommend vitamin E supplements to the general population for prevention of diseases linked to oxidative damage, based on the failure of large clinical trials to show any consistent benefit of vitamin E supplementation.

Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

vitamin C.

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and stanols are examples of

phytochemicals.

_______________ is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin that protects cell membranes, especially of red blood cells, from damage.

Vitamin E

Lycopene is found in

tomatoes.

The leading cause of blindness among older Americans is macular degeneration. Eating a diet rich in can decrease the risk of this condition.

carotenoids

Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of

selenium.

For most pregnancies, women need to consume supplemental

iron

The need for extra iron during pregnancy is greatest during which trimester(s)?

Second and third

Which of the following types of physical activity is NOT advised during pregnancy?

SCUBA diving

Extra kilocalories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?

Second and third

Dana is pregnant for the first time and she is reading a book about healthy pregnancies. The book says that the goal of pregnancy is to achieve optimal health for both the baby and the mother. Two widely accepted criteria for a healthy pregnancy are

gestational period longer than 37 weeks and birth weight greater than 5.5 pounds.

To reduce oxidative damage to her eggs, a woman should consume

brightly colored fruits and vegetables.

During pregnancy, a woman should follow MyPlate’s Daily Food Plan and consume

3 cups of calcium-rich foods from the milk and cheese group.

A mineral that is especially important for male fertility is

zinc.

All of the following are barriers to breastfeeding EXCEPT

expense

Which of the following is true about lifestyle habits and pregnancy?

Repeated intake of four or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting is harmful to the fetus.

Dana is 33 years old and pregnant for the first time. She is concerned that she might be too old to have a healthy pregnancy. Her obstetrician informed Dana that the ideal age range for pregnancy is

20-35 years old.

Rachel is pregnant and has morning sickness. She should do all the following EXCEPT

eat large, less frequent meals.

Rich in immune factors, the milk made by the mother’s breast during the first few days after birth is

colostrum.

Dana and her husband are on vacation at a resort that features a variety of outdoor activities. Because she is pregnant, Dana is cautious about what types of exercise she engages in. All of the following are appropriate exercises for pregnancy EXCEPT

SCUBA diving.

Adequate folate intake for neural tube development is especially important in the ______ trimester.

first

The hormone that stimulates milk synthesis is

prolactin.

HIV can be transmitted from mother to fetus, and approximately 1/3 of infected infants will die within a few years of birth. The risk of mother-infant transmission can be significantly reduced if the infected mother ______ while she is pregnant.

takes highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and receives routine obstetrical care

During the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, an average of ______ extra kilocalories per day are needed.

350 – 450

Advantages of breastfeeding include all of the following EXCEPT

breast milk provides more vitamin D than infant formula.

Low levels of body fat decrease ______ fertility.

both male or female

Dana is pregnant and she is dining at a restaurant with her husband. She has been reading about foodborne illness risk during pregnancy and knows which foods to avoid. Which meal choice is the best for her as it is the least likely to cause foodborne illness?

Medium-well steak with mashed potatoes and sautéed squash

Obesity during pregnancy is associated with all of the following EXCEPT

a low-birth-weight infant

Women who experience infertility related to high levels of testosterone and insulin may have

PCOS.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all infants be given ______ IU of vitamin D per day until they are consuming that much from food

400

All of the following are barriers to breastfeeding EXCEPT

expense.

The hormone that stimulates milk synthesis is

prolactin.

Which of the following statements is important for infant feeding?

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of a child’s life.

A mineral that is especially important for male fertility is

zinc.

Mineral needs generally are increased during pregnancy. All of the following are needed in higher quantities EXCEPT

sodium.

Which of the following types of physical activity is NOT advised during pregnancy?

SCUBA diving

For a woman with a prepregnancy BMI of 22, total pregnancy weight gain should fall within the range of ______ pounds.

25 to 35

An infant born at 38 weeks of gestation and weighing 5 pounds is

LBW and SGA

Fertility can be impaired by

Either too much or too little body fat

During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate

essential fatty acids

During the first trimester, a woman should gain ______ pounds."

2 to 4

Most of the extra calcium for pregnancy is needed during which trimester(s)?

Calcium needs do not increase during pregnancy.

During the second and third trimesters, pregnant women should gain approximately ______ pound(s) per week

One

Preterm infants

may have problems sucking and swallowing.

The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the calcium she needs is to consume

low-fat milk and cheese

Carol has heartburn during her pregnancy. She should do all of the following EXCEPT

lie down after she eats

The duration of pregnancy normally is ______ weeks.

38-42

Low levels of body fat decrease ______ fertility.

both male or female

Advantages of breastfeeding include all of the following EXCEPT

breast milk provides more vitamin D than infant formula.

Dana and her husband are on vacation at a resort that features a variety of outdoor activities. Because she is pregnant, Dana is cautious about what types of exercise she engages in. All of the following are appropriate exercises for pregnancy EXCEPT

SCUBA diving.

Mineral needs generally are increased during pregnancy. All of the following are needed in higher quantities EXCEPT

sodium

Low iodide status during the first trimester of pregnancy may lead to

congenital hypothyroidism

During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate

essential fatty acids

Women who experience infertility related to high levels of testosterone and insulin may have

PCOS

The hormone that triggers "let down" or milk release is

oxytocin.

Dana is pregnant and she is dining at a restaurant with her husband. She has been reading about foodborne illness risk during pregnancy and knows which foods to avoid. Which meal choice is the best for her as it is the least likely to cause foodborne illness?

Medium-well steak with mashed potatoes and sautéed squash

All of the following are true about folate and pregnancy EXCEPT

it is impossible for pregnant women to meet their nutrient needs without supplementation.

During each feeding, human milk changes composition in which of the following ways?

fat increases

The U.S. Public Health Service and the March of Dimes recommend that all women of childbearing age should take a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains

400 micrograms of folic acid.

Advantages of breastfeeding include all of the following EXCEPT

breast milk provides more vitamin D than infant formula.

Which of the following is true about lactation?

The major reason why women do not breastfeed is lack of information.

The hormone that stimulates milk synthesis is

prolactin.

Consumption of non-food items such as laundry starch, ice, and dirt is known as

pica

Women who experience infertility related to high levels of testosterone and insulin may have

PCOS

Fertility can be impaired by

either too little or too much body fat.

Which of the following is NOT true about the let-down reflex?

It is triggered by the release of the hormone estrogen.

All of the following are true about dietary supplements during pregnancy EXCEPT

overdoses of vitamin B-12 could cause birth defects.

During the second and third trimesters, pregnant women should gain approximately ______ pound(s) per week.

1

A low-birth-weight infant weighs ______ pounds.

less than 5.5

Sue’s prepregnancy BMI is 38. Her weight-gain goal should be ______ pounds.

11 to 20; <18.5: 28-40 lbs; 18.5-24.9: 25-35 lbs 25.0-29.9: 15-25 lbs >30.0: 11-20 lbs

Dana has a history of iron-deficiency anemia and she is being particularly careful during her pregnancy to ensure she is getting enough iron. Each morning, she has a prenatal vitamin and a bowl of iron-fortified, ready-to-eat cereal. Which of the following should she also have at breakfast that will help increase the absorption of iron from her prenatal vitamin and the cereal?

a glass of orange juice

Healthy People 2020 includes a goal of increasing by ______ the number of pregnancies that begin with optimal folate status.

10%

Requirements for ______ increase by 50% during pregnancy.

folate

Barb wants to make sure she gets adequate folate during her pregnancy. She should do which of the following?

Eat more ready-to-eat breakfast cereals.

"Patricia’s physician tells her she needs more folate in her diet during pregnancy. She should do which of the following?

Drink orange juice.

The U.S. Public Health Service and the March of Dimes recommend that all women of childbearing age should take a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement that contains

15 milligrams of iron.

During pregnancy, symptoms such as high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, edema, changes in blood clotting, and seizures are associated with a condition called

eclampsia

A low-birth-weight infant weighs ______ pounds.

less than 5.5

During the first trimester, a woman should gain ______ pounds.

2 to 4

"Rich in immune factors, the milk made by the mother’s breast during the first few days after birth is

colostrum.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly known as the American Dietetic Association) and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that babies be breastfed exclusively for

the first 6 months of life

Healthy People 2020 includes a goal of increasing by ______ the number of pregnancies that begin with optimal folate status.

30%

To reduce oxidative damage to her eggs, a woman should consume

brightly colored fruits and vegetables.

Concerning the infant, two major indicators of a successful pregnancy are: 1) gestation period longer than ______ weeks and 2) birth weight greater than ______ pounds.

37; 5.5

Two widely accepted criteria for a healthy pregnancy are

gestational period longer than 37 weeks and birth weight greater than 5.5 pounds

Breast milk production requires approximately ____ kilocalories per day

800

The risk of mother-infant transmission can be significantly reduced if the infected mother ______ while she is pregnant.

takes highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and receives routine obstetrical care

Which of the following is a federal program for reducing infant mortality by providing nutritional support and counseling?

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends all infants, including those who are exclusively breastfed, should be given how much supplemental vitamin D per day?

400 IU

Toxicity of ______ is linked to birth defects.

Vitamin A

All of the following are advantages of breastfeeding EXCEPT

breast milk is free of environmental contaminants.

Deficiency symptoms of pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin, bleeding gums, and joint pain are related to the role of vitamin C in

collagen synthesis.

Which of the following is a good source of provitamin A?

Apricot

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and stanols are examples of

phytochemicals

Which of the following foods is highest in selenium?

Tuna

Which of the following recommendations is most appropriate concerning the role of carotenoids in disease prevention?

Foods (e.g., a diet rich in fruits and vegetables) are the best source of disease-preventing carotenoids; most studies of carotenoid supplements do not provide sufficient evidence to support their use in prevention of disease.

Which of the following population groups has increased vitamin C requirements?

Smokers

Cell membranes are susceptible to damage by free radicals because

they are composed primarily of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Selenium plays a role in all of the following except

regulation of fluid status

Consuming carotenoids may reduce the risk for all of the following except

acne

Beta-carotene is a precursor to

vitamin A

A rich source of vitamin E is

Corn Oil

Vitamin E is thought to be helpful in the prevention of heart disease because it

prevents oxidation of LDL cholesterol.

Which of the following is an antioxidant?

vitamin C.

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?

Spinach

All of the following people are at risk for vitamin E deficiency except

those who follow a vegetarian diet

When a molecule loses an electron in a chemical reaction, the molecule has been

oxidized

Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?

Beta-carotene

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

vitamin C

The selenium content of the typical North American diet is

adequate, due to consumption of a variety of animal and grain products.

When the intake of ___ is low, vitamin E aids in its absorption.

vitamin A

Free radical damage has been implicated in increasing the risk of

atherosclerosis.

Vitamin C intake over 2 grams per day may cause

diarrhea

Lycopene is found in

tomatoes

Overconsumption of vitamins A and E can do all the following except

cure colds and prevent cancer

Antioxidants

donate electrons to free radicals

The leading cause of blindness among older Americans is macular degeneration. Eating a diet rich in ____ can decrease the risk of this condition.

carotenoids

Consuming excessive carotenoids may cause

yellowing of the skin

Food processing

decreases vitamin E content of foods.

Which of the following describes the antioxidant activity of selenium?

Selenium is required for the activity of glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that chemically converts peroxides into water.

The consensus among the scientific community regarding megadose supplementation of vitamin E is

it is premature to recommend vitamin E supplements to the general population for prevention of diseases linked to oxidative damage, based on the failure of large clinical trials to show any consistent benefit of vitamin E supplementation.

The Upper Level for vitamin E is 1000 mg per day of supplemental alpha-tocopherol. Which of the following is an outcome of vitamin E toxicity?

Hemorrhage

The best way to improve the body’s defense against free radicals is to

consume plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Muscle pain, wasting, and heart damage result from a deficiency of

selenium

The main form of vitamin E in the body is

alpha-tocopherol.

In green vegetables, such as broccoli, the orange pigments of provitamin A carotenoids are masked by

chlorophyll.

Selenium toxicity would most likely result from

dietary supplementation.

The main form of vitamin E in the body is

alpha-tocopherol.

When an atom or molecule is _______________, it gains electrons.

reduced

When the intake of is low, vitamin E aids in its absorption.

vitamin A

The vitamin C content of foods can be decreased by

exposure to heat. leaching into cooking water, exposure to oxygen

As part of the body’s antioxidant defenses, vitamin C participates in the recycling of

vitamin E

The sodium concentration of the blood is primarily regulated by the

kidneys.

Which of the following populations is at risk for high blood potassium?

people with kidney disorders

The pH of blood is normally maintained at

7.4

Aldosterone signals the kidneys to conserve

sodium.

Metabolic water refers to

water that is formed as a byproduct of the breakdown of macronutrients for energy

Elevated blood pressure has been linked to excess intake of

Na and Cl

The major source of chloride in the diet is

salt.

Which of the following population groups requires the least sodium?

Adults age 71 and older

Which of the following foods is NOT a good source of potassium?

Canola Oil

The pH of a solution is a measurement of the concentration of ______ ions in the solution.

Hydrogen

Choosing plastic containers with a recycling code of 2 or 4 will reduce exposure to which of the following?

Bisphenyl A

Diastolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is relaxed.

Of the following, the best source of potassium is

fresh spinach

"Lino is a linebacker on his college football team. He is concerned about achieving adequate hydration during intense, hot summer football practices. Lino weighs himself before and after practice and notices that he loses five pounds by the time practice is over. How many cups of water should he be drinking to replace these fluid losses?

10 to 15 cups of water

For a healthy adult, the largest percentage of daily water output is attributed to

urine

"Stephen’s blood pressure is 135/88 and he wishes to follow the principles of the DASH diet. Which of the following is NOT included in DASH guidelines?

Include 2 – 3 servings per day of whole milk.

Obesity

is the number one lifestyle risk factor for hypertension.

Aside from food and beverage intakes, hydration and fluid status are affected by a number of additional factors. Which of the following factors influence water loss? Check all that apply.

Typical water losses are affected by altitude, caffeine intake, alcohol intake, and humidity.

While dehydration is problematic, over-consumption of water can also be harmful. Which of the following statements accurately describe over-consumption of water? Check all that apply.

Consuming too much water leads to ill health if concentrations of blood electrolytes become too low. An excessive amount of water would have to approach many quarts each day. When excessive water intake overwhelms the kidneys’ capacity to excrete fluid. Severe headaches, confusion, seizures, and coma may also result.

Adult women need how much total water intake per day?

2.7 liters (11 cups)

Limiting dietary intake of sodium will ______ urine production.

decrease

Higher intake of which of the following minerals is associated with lowered blood pressure?

potassium

Which of the following 1-ounce portions of food would have the least sodium?

hamburger

About 95% of Americans exceed the Upper Level for

sodium

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will

increase urinary excretion of sodium.

Up to one or two alcoholic drinks per day

All of these choices are correct.

Bottled water is regulated by

FDA

Depletion of chloride is mostly likely to occur with excessive

vomiting

Systolic pressure refers to the pressure in the

arteries when the heart is beating.

The AI for sodium for those under 51 years of age is

1500 mg/day

The simplest way to determine if your fluid intake is adequate is to:

observe the color of your urine; it should be clear or pale yellow.

If the intracellular concentration of ions is greater than the extracellular concentration of ions, which will happen in order to maintain balance?

Fluid will move into the cell.

There are numerous recommendations from a variety of bodies regarding sodium intake. Match the mg of sodium with its corresponding recommendation:

The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for men and women ages 9-50 years: 1,500 mg; The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium per day: 2,300 mg; The Daily Value (DV) for sodium used on food labels: 2,400 mg; The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for men and women ages 51-70 years: 1,300 mg

Indicate whether each electrolyte is intracellular or extracellular and a positively charged ion or negatively charged ion.

Potassium: Intracellular positively charged; Sodium: Extracellular positively charged; Phosphate: Intracellular negatively charged; Chloride: Extracellular negatively charged

Which of the following conditions does NOT lead to the breakdown of plastic water bottles?

All of these conditions break down plastic.

Primary hypertension

has no clear-cut cause

Because it increases loss of the acidic compound CO2, hyperventilation would ______ blood pH.

increase

Hypertension can lead to

All of these choices are correct.

Adult men need how much total water intake per day?

3.7 liters (15 cups)

All foods in their unprocessed form tend to be low in sodium EXCEPT

milk and dairy products.

Bottled water is often lower in _______________ than municipal tap water

fluoride

Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?

4 – 6 cups

Which of the following meals would be suitable for a person following a low-sodium diet?

Homemade oven-baked chicken, buttered rice, and steamed fresh green beans

During the process of nerve impulse transmission, when sodium flows into the neuron, its cell membrane is

depolarized.

Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via

evaporation.

Active transport of ______ from the lumen of the intestine into the cells lining the intestine facilitates absorption of water from the gastrointestinal tract.

sodium

Which of the following populations is NOT at risk for low blood potassium?

Vegetarians

About ______ of adults are sodium sensitive.

10-15%

The process of nerve impulse transmission starts with

flow of sodium ions into the cell

The typical American diet contains approximately ___ milligrams of sodium.

2,300 to 4,700

Chronic dehydration increases a man’s risk of developing ___

kidney stones

When starting a reduced-salt diet, how long before you can sense salt at a lower taste threshold?

8 weeks

The ratio of sodium to chloride in table salt is

40-60

Regulation of blood pH involves the coordination of buffer systems, the respiratory system, and the kidneys. Of the following minerals, which acts as a buffer to help maintain the pH of the blood?

phosphate

Mucus, saliva, and synovial (joint) fluid exemplify water’s role as a

lubricant

Interstitial fluid, lymph, gastrointestinal fluid, spinal fluid, plasma, and synovial fluid are part of ______ fluid.

extracellular

Which of the following people is likely to have the highest percentage of body water?

A highly trained male athlete

The DASH diet for reduction of hypertension

recommends 2 – 3 servings per day of low-fat dairy products

Composed primarily of water, metabolic wastes, and minerals, the body’s major waste product is

urine.

Which of the following populations is especially sensitive to the effects of excess sodium intake on blood pressure?

African-Americans

After an intense workout, Christa’s weight was down 3 pounds. To rehydrate adequately, Christa should drink

cups of water over the next hour or two. 6 – 9

The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is characterized by excessive production of ADH. A consequence of this disorder could be

hyponatremia

Earl is a strict vegan. He should take a supplemental source of

Vitamin B-12

What is a megadose?

A megadose is a large intake of a nutrient that is 2-10 times human needs

Which method is the most likely to maximize water-soluble vitamin preservation?

Blanching vegetables (cooking in boiling water for a short period of time)

Which of the following is an example of a fat-soluble vitamin?

Vitamin A

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?

They are stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

Compared to whole grain products, refined grains are ______ in trace minerals

lower

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