Exam 2 MC

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_____ memories are to experiences as _____ memories are to facts.

Episodic : semantic

Suppose you have been studying for your Japanese vocabulary test for several hours and are making many
mistakes. You switch to studying for your biology mid-term and do much better. You are experiencing;

release from proactive interference

These multiple choice questions are examples of a _____ test.

recognition memory

Your text discusses how episodic and semantic memories are interconnected. This revealed that when we experience events;

the knowledge making up semantic memories is initially attained through a personal experience based in episodic memory.

Our brief sensory memory for sound is called _____ memory


Lamar is attending a company function at his new workplace. His supervisor introduces him to his new coworkers in small groups over the course of the event, introducing each of the coworkers by first name. At the end of the event, Lamar realizes he can only remember the names of the people in the last group of people he met. This is an example of;

retroactive interference

Wickens’ "fruit, meat, and professions" experiment failed to show a release from proactive interference in the "fruit" group because;

stimulus category remained the same

Work with brain injured patients such as Clive and Henry reveals that _____ memory does not depend on conscious awareness.

implicit and procedural

Which of the following is NOT an example of implicit memory?

semantic memory

Your text describes an Italian woman who after an attack of encephalitis, had difficulty remembering people or facts she knew before. She could, however, remember her life events and daily happenings. Her memory deficit reflects;

intact episodic memory, but defective semantic memory

The primacy effect is attributed to;

recall of info stored in LTM

An experimental task with the instructions "Read the following word list while repeating "the" out-loud, look way,
and then write down the words from the list" would most likely be studying;

articulatory suppression

A property of control processes in the modal model of attention of memory is that they;

may differ from one task to another

Info in sensory memory remains there before decaying for;

seconds or a fraction of a second

The statement "The Beatles broke up in the early 1970’s" is an example of what kind of memory?


The predominant type of coding in LTM is;


In Sperling’s study of iconic memory, compared to the whole report task, the partial report task involves;

smaller response set

The propaganda effect demonstrates that we evaluate familiar statements as being true;

simply because we have been exposed to them before

Explicit memory is to _____, as implicit memory is to _____.

awareness: unawareness

Given what you have learned about how the phonological loop works, which of the following lists would be the MOST difficult for people to retain for 15 seconds?


When studying the serial position curve, delaying the memory test for 30 seconds;

decrease recency effect

A person with a brain injury resulting in impaired episodic memory would most likely have the greatest difficulty;

remembering having aced the final in her Cognitive Psychology class.

Imagine that you’re walking to class, starting at the Psychology department, and form a mental picture of the route you take to the lecture hall from the department office. Your ability to perform this mental feat relies upon;

the visuospatial sketch pad.

Working memory (WM) differs from short-term memory in that;

WM both holds and processes information.

The dramatic case of Clive Wearing clearly illustrates that _____ is crucial for formation of explicit memories, and
that the _____ is important for the formation of implicit memories.

hippocampus: basal ganglia

Your text discusses the case of Henry Molaison, who underwent brain surgery as a teenager to relieve severe
epilepsy. Henry’s case has been extremely important for psychology by demonstrating that;

STM can operate normally while LTM is impaired

Chandra has frontal lobe trauma. She is being tested on a problem solving task to assess the nature of her deficits.
She is choosing a red object out of others of different color. However, when the doctor asks her to now pick out the
blue object, she continues to pick our the red object, even after the doctor tells her she’s made an incorrect choice.
Chandra is displaying evidence of;


Imagine you’re driving to a friend’s new apartment. As you drive you rehearse the address until you arrive. Once
there, you start thinking about a nice house-warming gift for your friend. To remember her new address you used
a(n) _____ process in STM.


Which of the following is NOT a conclusion based on the cases of Clive Wearing and Henry Molaison?

LTM is unaffected by hippocampus damage.

Peterson & Peterson found their participants could remember the three letter strings (like QEX and RDZ) with 80% accuracy after 3 seconds, but only about 12% accuracy after 18 seconds. They concluded this performance
decrease was due to _____, but Keppel & Underwood later showed it was due to _____.

decay: interference

Carrie answers the phone with "Hello?" The response "Hi, Carrie!" comes from the other end of the line. Carrie
responds with "Hi, Dad!" Carrie processed the response "Hi, Carrie" using an;

auditory code in LTM

Murdoch’s "remembering a list" experiment described the serial position curve and found that memory is best for
_____ of a list.

both the first and last words

Research seems to indicate that the duration of STM, when rehearsal is prevented, is;

15-20 seconds

According to Endel Tulving, the defining property of episodic memory is that it;

involves mental time travel

According to Baddeley & Hitch’s model of working memory, which of the following tasks would LEAST affect a
person’s driving performance on an unfamiliar winding road?

Thinking about the definition of an unusual word they just learned.

Lucy is helping Kendra get used to her new racing bicycle. She explains that the shifters and brake levers are
integrated, and that different actions with the levers either shift the gears, or activate the brakes. These skills that
Lucy has acquired from her own experience with cycling are an example of _____ memory.


It’s easier to do two mental tasks at the same time if;

one is handled by the sketchpad, and the other by the phonological loop

According to subsequent research on George Miller’s proposal about the capacity of STM is 7 (plus or minus 2);

meaningful units

A memory research participant is given a list of words to memorize. One week later she is tested on the list. If one
of the words was "Pear", which of the following words, which actually didn’t occur on the memorized list, would
most likely be incorrectly recalled?


Sperling’s experiment using the delayed partial report task demonstrate that;

information in visual sensory memory decays in less than a second.

In an experiment where participants are briefly flashed (for approximately 50 ms) a sequence of letters and are then
told to write them down in the same sequence they were presented, it is most likely that the letter "P" will be
misidentified as;


In the classic Bill Murray move "Groundhog Day", his character Phil Connors grows increasingly frustrated as he
experiences the same day over and over again. With each "new" day, he is able to respond to people’s actions more
and more quickly because of;

Repetition Priming

The word-length effect means it is more difficult to remember;

a list of long words than a list of short words.

Failures of the modal model to explain some kinds of memory behaviors, such as rehearsal, challenged the model’s conceptualization of;

short term memory

Remembering that a tomato is actually a fruit rather than a vegetable is an example of _____ memory.


Which of the following is the most accurate with regard to autobiographical memory?

Autobiographical memory can involve both episodic and semantic content.

The primary function of "chunking" is to;

increase capacity of STM.

When the beam from a flashlight is moved quickly around on a wall in a dark room, it can appear as if there’s a
trail of light on the wall, even though the beam is at a given spot for only a fraction of a second. This experience
occurs because of

visual persistence

Models designed to explain mental functioning are constantly refined and modified to explain new results. Which of the following exemplifies this concept based on the results presented in your textbook?

Replacing the STM component of the modal model with working memory.

Jill’s friends tell her they think she has a very good memory, so one day she decides to test herself on it. At work
each day her supervisor gives her a to-do list, but instead of checking them off the list, she decides to memorize the
list. On Monday she is able to memorize 90% of the tasks. On Tuesday her recall drops to 80%. By Friday it has
dropped to 30%. This drop in her memory performance is most likely due to;

proactive interference

A study had participants listen to a passage which turned out to be about a man on the street serenading his girlfriend in a tall building. The wording made it difficult for participants to understand, but looking at a picture made it easier. The results of this study illustrate the importance of _____ in forming long-term memories.

Organizational context during learning

One of the key properties of the _____ approach is that a specific concept is represented by activity that is distributed over many units in the network.


The maintenance rehearsal task of learning a word by repeating it over again is most likely to;

produce some short-term remembering, but fail to produce long-term memories.

Memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval. This is

transfer-appropriate processing

The learning mechanism proposed by Hebb is associated with;

both changes at the synapse, and long-term potentiation.

According to Levels of Processing theory, deep processing produces better memory. However, studies have shown
that shallow processing can result in good memory when the individual encodes _____ and is tested _____.

auditorially: auditorially

Which of the following is true of the semantic network approach?

Concepts are represented by patterns of activation in the network.

Not all the members of everyday categories have the same set of features. Most fish have gills, fins, and scales. Sharks lack scales yet are still categorized as fish. This poses a problem for the _____ approach to categorization


According to the typicality effect;

items that are high in prototypicality are judged more rapidly as being in a group.

If you were to say "A German Shepherd" is my idea of a typical kind of dog", you’d be using the _____ approach
to categorization.


Which of the following is is the best example of a basic level category?


Which of the following members most likely be ranked highest in prototypicality in the "bird" category?


Experimental evidence suggesting the standard model of consolidation needs to be revised are data showing that
the hippocampus was activated during retrieval of _____ memories.

recent and remote episodic

Mantyla’s "banana/yellow, bunches, edible" experiment demonstrated that for the best memory performance,
retrieval cues should be created;

by the person whose memory will be tested

Based on the behavior of HM who had his hippocampus removed to cure epilepsy, we can conclude that the
hippocampus is important in;

long-term memory acquisition

Hebb proposed that memory is represented in the brain by structural changes in all of the following EXCEPT the;


How would you describe the relationship between elaborative rehearsal and maintenance rehearsal in terms of
establishing long-term memories?

Elaborative is more effective than maintenance.

Learning in a connectionist network is represented by adjustments to network;

connection weight

Collins and Quillian explained the results of priming experiments by introducing the concept of _____ into their
network model.

spreading activation

When cleaning her closet, Nadia finds a box of 20 year old photos from her wedding. As she sorts through the pictures she can’t help but feel a sense of joy and cries gently. Seeing those photos of her wedding day has activated her;


_____ transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted or altered, to a more permanent state in which they are resistant to this


How is cognitive economy represented in the following example: "The property _____ is stored at the _____ node."

can fly: bird

Recent research on memory, based largely on classical conditioning of a fear response in rats, indicates that;

when a memory is reactivated, it becomes capable of being changed or altered, just as it was immediately after it was formed.

The Standard Model of Consolidation proposes that the hippocampus is;

strongly active when memories are first formed and consolidated, but less active when retrieving older memories that are already consolidated.

_____ is a mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functions, including memory, reasoning, and using
and understanding language.

a concept

Rosch found that participants respond more rapidly in a same-different identification task when presented with "good" examples of colors such as red and green, than when presented with "poor" examples such as fuschia or
teal. The result of this experiment was interpreted as supporting the _____ approach to categorization.


The example of a brief episode of retrograde amnesia, such as when a football player is hit particularly hard and can’t recall the last play, reflects;

a failure of memory consolidation

Which of these statements best describes Levels of Processing theory?

Deep processing involves paying closer attention to a stimulus than shallow processing and results in better encoding.

Which of the following is MOST CLOSELY modeled on the way the nervous system operates?

Parallel Distributed Processing Theory

_____ is an average representation of the members of a category

A prototype

The principle illustrated when most people are able to recognize a variety of chairs even though no one category
member may have <b>all</b> the characteristic properties of chairs is known as;

family resemblance

Which of the following examples best demonstrates state-dependent learning?

Although Emily doesn’t often think about her first boyfriend, she can’t help but have memories of him when "their song" (the first song they danced to) comes on the radio.

Retrograde amnesia is typically less severe for _____ memories


According to Rosch, the _____ level of categories is the "psychologically privileged" level of category reflecting
people’s everyday experience.


The principle that we encode information together with its context is known as;

encoding specificity

According to your text, imagery enhances memory because;

imagery can be used to create connections between items to be remembered.

According to Levels of Processing theory, which of the following tasks will produce the best long-term memory
for a list of words?

Making a connection between each word and something you’ve previously learned.

Jenkins &amp; Russell (1952) presented a list of words such as "chair, apple, dish, shoe, cherry, sofa" to participants. When tested, they recalled the words in a different order. This happened because of the;

tendency of objects in the same category to become organized.

Jeanne loves to dance, and has done ballet for many years. She’s now learning Salsa; although the steps are very different from what she’s familiar with, she’s developed a strategy of linking the new steps she’s learning with her
previous experiences in ballet and her own love of dancing. This is a _____ encoding strategy.


Collins and Quillian’s semantic network model predicts that the reaction time to verify "a canary is a bird" is _____ the reaction time to verify "an ostrich is a bird".

the same as

Kim and Laura have been studying most of the evening for their psychology exam the following day. Both are tired of studying; Kim decides to go to bed and get some sleep, while Laura decides to watch a movie. Based on this info, who do you think will do better on their psychology exam the next day?

Kim does better because of reactivation

Hebb’s idea of long-term potentiation, which provides a physiological mechanism for the long-term storage of
memories, includes the idea of;

increased transmission efficiency between the neurons.

In a lexical decision task, participants have to decide whether;

a presented stimulus is a word.

Priming occurs when presentation of one stimulus;

facilitates the response to another stimulus that usually follows closely after.

The _____ model includes associations between concepts and the property of spreading activation.

semantic network

Evidence that language is a social process that must be learned comes from the fact that when deaf children find
themselves in an environment where there are no people who use sign language, they;

invent their own sign language.

When two people engage in conversation, if one produces a specific grammatical construction and then the other
person does the same, it is referred to as;

syntactic priming.

Brain imaging studies reveal that semantics and syntax are associated with which two lobes of the cortex?

Frontal and temporal.

Your text describes cross-cultural studies of categorization with US and Itzai participants. Given the results, we
know that if asked to name basic level objects for a category, US participants would answer _____ and Itzai
participants would answer _____.

tree : oak

Learning takes place in a connectionist network through a process of _____ in which an error signal is transmitted
from the property units.

back propagation

Which of the following is a connectionist model proposing that concepts are represented by activity that is spread
across a network?

Parallel distributed processing theory.

Playing "20 Questions" requires using hierarchical organization strategies. The questions usually start at a general level and get more specific to determine the identity of the object. An example of an initial question would be "Is it an animal?", or "Is it a mineral?" These describe which level of categorization?


The _____ states that the nature of a culture’s language can affect the way its people think.

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Chomsky proposed;

humans are genetically predisposed to acquire and use language.

An experiment studying the phonemic restoration effect would most likely include;

an extraneous cough.

When we look at an acoustigram of conversational speech, we see the speech signal;

has no breaks and is continuous.

The definitional approach to categorization;

doesn’t work well for most natural objects like plants and animals.

Syntax is;

the rules for combining words into sentences.

A researcher had participants read each of the following sentences and measured the time to read each one.
Sentence 1: The lamb ran past the cottage into the pasture. Sentence 2: The dog ran past the house into the yard.

sentence 1 : word frequency

To say "A Labrador retriever is my idea of a typical dog", you would be using the _____ approach to categorization.


Which of the following is NOT one of the types of units found within a parallel distributed processing model?

Working units.

Language consists of smaller components, like words, that can be combined to form larger ones, to create sentences, which can then be components of larger structures. This demonstrates the _____ property of language.


The word frequency effect refers to the fact we respond more;

slowly to low-frequency words than high-frequency words.

When the first part of a sentence can be interpreted more than one way, but the end clarifies which meaning is
correct, we say the sentence is an example of;

a garden-path sentence.

Which of the following is NOT associated with the semantic network model?

Family resemblance

The semantic network model predicts that the time it takes for a person to retrieve information about a concept should be determined by;

the distance that must be traveled through the network.

The idea that the rules governing grouping words in a sentence is the primary determinant of the way a sentence is parsed is part of the _____ approach to parsing.

syntax first

Consider the following sentences: "The sidewalk was covered with ice." And, "Ramona fell down". The inference
we use to link these sentences together would most likely be a(n);

causal inference

Coherence refers to the;

representation of the text in a reader’s mind, so that information in one part of the text is related to information in another part.

Two different definitions of _____ offered by the text include (a) "the mental representation of a class or individual", and (b) "the meaning of objects, events, and abstract ideas".


Which of the following is NOT a property/characteristic of the connectionist approach?

Before any learning has occurred in the network, the weights in the network all equal zero.

According to the situation model of text processing;

people create a mental representation of what the text is about in terms of people, objects, locations, and events.

Which of the following is an example of the "sentence verification technique"?

Indicate whether the following statement is true: "An apple is a fruit" Y/N

Ron is an avid reader. He has a large vocabulary because every time he comes across a word he doesn’t know, he
looks it up. The process of looking up unfamiliar words to learn their meaning will increase Ron’s;


Consider the sentence "Because he always jogs a mile seem like a short distance to him." The principle of late
closure states this sentence would first be parsed into which of the following phrases?

"Because he always jogs a mile…"

The prototype approach to categorization state that a standard representation of a category is based on;

an idealized or abstract model that includes all the most common features of the category.

If we conducted an experiment on the effect knowledge has on categorization, we might compare the results of
expert and non-expert groups. Suppose we compare botanists to those with no specialized knowledge of plants. If we asked each group to name as specifically as possible, five different plants seen on campus, we’d predict the
expert group would label plants on the _____ level, while the non-expert group would primarily label plants on the
_____ level.

subordinate : basic

The given-new contract is a method for creating;

comprehension between a speaker and a listener in a conversation

One of Chomsky’s most persuasive arguments against Skinner’s explanation of language learning is that children;

produces sentences they’ve never heard before.

Former boxing champion George Foreman recently described his family vacation with the statement "At our ranch in Texas there are lots of ponds and we take the kids out to fish. And then of course, we grill them." A reader
understands that Foreman is referring to grilling the fish, rather than the children, because of a(n) _____ inference.


Lexical ambiguity studies show that people access ambiguous words based on;

the meaning dominance of each definition of the word.

Assume a psycholinguist conducts an experiment with two groups from highly different social and cultural backgrounds. She asked participants in both groups to describe some color tiles and in both cases each group of
people could only report as many colors as their primary language had. Such results;

would support the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Not all the members of everyday categories have the same features. Most fish have gills, fins, and scales. Sharks lack scales, yet are still categorized as fish. This poses a problem for the _____ approach to categorization.


Metcalfe and Wiebe gave participants problems to solve and asked the to make "warmth" judgments every 15 sec.
to indicate how close they felt they were to a solution. The purpose of the experiment was to;

demonstrate a difference between how people solve insight and non-insight problems.

Glick and Holyoak proposed that analogical problem solving involves following three steps;

noticing, mapping, and applying.

Amber lives between two parallel streets that both connect to a freeway. Usually she takes the street to the south to
work each morning, but it’s now closed for repairs, but is now taking the street to the north instead. Once the closed street is reopened, if she continues taking the street to the north, even though it’s a little longer, it would be
an example of;

mental set

A heuristic is

a quick ‘rule of thumb’ to make decisions quickly and efficiently, sometimes at the cost of accuracy.

Considering the fortress and the radiation problems together, the fortress problem represent the _____ problem.


Newell and Simon called the conditions at the beginning of the problem, the;

initial state

A researcher records a brainstorming session in an industrial research and development department rather than in an artificial laboratory setting. Later, analyzing the discussions, she identifies particular problem solving
techniques. This an example of _____ research.

in-vivo problem solving

Kaplan and Simon’s experiment presented different versions of the mutilated checkerboard problem. The main
purpose of their experiment was to demonstrate that;

the way the problem is represented can influence the ease of solving

Which of the following statements about the differences between novices and experts when solving a problem is
NOT true?

Being an expert in one field can transfer to better problem solving in another field.

Jack is a psychology grad student studying _____. To study this topic, he researches several sources, but decides not to consult several of them after more than a cursory inspection because he doesn’t feel they accurately represent the current state of psychological knowledge on the topic

myside bias.

Functional fixedness would be LOWEST for a(n);

novel object.

Newell and Simon’s early work on problem solving was based on the idea that it is a processing involving;


_____ identified people’s tendency to focus on a specific characteristic of a problem that keeps them from arriving
at a solution as a major obstacle to successful problem solving.

Gestalt psychologists

Decisions based on _____ are usually going to be correct, but there’s always the chance they could be mistaken.

inductive reasoning

The Gestalt psychologists consider problem solving a process that involves;

reorganization or restructuring

In the two-string problem, tying the pliers to one of the strings best represents a(n) _____ state.


Ali works for Citrus Squeeze, a juice company. Sales of their calcium enhanced OJ were poor, and the product was
cancelled. Her factory still had three cases of the produce, and she was told she could have them. With the cartons,
she made several bird feeders and seedling planters, and a fort for her four year old son. This use of the cartons

divergent thinking.

The best description of think aloud protocols is that they are used to determine;

what info a person is attending to while solving a problem.

Janet is alone in a room that contains a chair and a shelf with a book resting on top. She attempts to retrieve the
book, but the shelf is a foot above her reach. Psychologists would NOT classify this scenario as a problem because;

the solution is immediately obvious.

The _____ is assuming something belongs in a particular group because it shares features with that group, but is
actually a member of a different group.

representativeness heuristic

The ability to shift experience from one problem solving situation to a similar problem is known as;

analogical transfer

The _____ states that the probability of two events occurring together cannot be higher than the probability of either
even occurring alone.

conjunction rule

_____ is the behavioral tendency to avoid _____.

Risk aversion : unnecessary risks

Actions that take the problem from one state to another are called;


In analogical problem solving, the _____ problem is the one the participant is trying to solve, and the _____
problem, which has been solved in the past, is used as a guide for reaching a solution.

target : source

Insight refers to;

the sudden realization of a problem’s solution.

_____ refers to the idea that the participants in a sample will accurately portray the characteristics of the population
the sample is drawn from.

Representativeness of observations

The base rate is;

the relative frequency at which an event/person occurs in the population.

Which problem provides an example of how functional fixedness can hinger solution of a problem?


The water-jug problem demonstrates that one consequence of having a procedure that does provide a solution to a problem is that, if well learned, it may prevent us from;

seeing more efficient solutions.

The _____ is mistakenly assuming the cause of an event because of frequency of exposure to the event, rather than
the actual frequency of all instances of that event.

availability heuristic

Experts categorize problems based on;

general principles the problems share.

The Gestaltist’s "circle problem" in which the task is to determine the length of a line inside a circle, was proposed
to illustrate;

representation and restructuring.

_____ is the idea that people will always seek to maximize their personal gain whenever making a decision.

Expected utility theory

The solution to the "candle problem" involves realizing that the;

match box can be used as a shelf

_____ refers to the idea that more evidence (data, or how many examples can be cited) increases the support for a

Number of observations

Confirmation bias is;

where we favor info confirming our position, and discount evidence contradicting it.

An algorithm is;

an exhaustive search through all possible decisions to arrive at the best possible decision

The "fortress problem" involves a castle and marching soldiers, while the "radiation problem" involves a tumor
and X-rays. Therefore, the two problems have very different;

surface feature

The _____ states that as the size of the sample increases, it will become steadily more representative of the
population it’s drawn from.

law of large numbers

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