Exam 1 WIS2040

Mountain Lions

The CWPA (Prop 117) banned hunting of what?

False

Mountain Lions have never been known to kill humans.

Grey Heron

BTO researchers found that the _________ had increased to higher numbers than ever reported throughout history.

Sparrow Hawks

Agriculturalists in Britain blamed the declines in some species on predation by ___________

True

At the 2002 CITES meeting, the US agreed with the motion to allow a one time sale of ivory stockpiled in 5 African nations.

breeding

A study of 24 species of __________ birds in Britain conducted by the BTO found that although many species were declining..

Zimbabwe

___________ is one of the African nations that argued for lifting the ban on ivory trade.

India

___________ is the nation that joined Kenya fought against permantly lifting the ban on ivory trade

hounds

Voters in Oregon banned the hunting of mountain lions with __________

20%

In a study, British farmland birds researchers found that about ______ of all european birds are now a conservation concern

Minnesota

Cougars have recently been found in SD and ___________

Two

_____ species of kangaroo are only harvested on Flinders Island and Tasmania

1989

In _______, CITES banned international trade in ivory

Oregon

The Predator Defense Institute attacked ________ state wildlife agency over its methods for studying mountain lion population size.

Viva!

________ is the animal rights advocacy group that led the campaign against the sale of kangaroo meat in UK grocery stores.

China

Although Japan supported the one time sale of ivory, the sale was opposed by _______

farming practices

Researchers believe that the declines seen in British farmland birds are due to ______________

Bulgaria

According to Viva!, _______ is the nation that imports the greatest amount of kangaroo meat.

Japan

__________ was the non-African nation that wanted the ivory trade to be reinstated.

European

Most of the kangaroo meat commercially harvested in Australia is exported to ____________ countries.

Five

________ species of kangaroo are harvested commercially on the mainland of Australia.

population size

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on _______________

Sylvatic Plague

Prarie dogs are especially vunerable to ______________

Six

The state of Louisiana constructed ______ plants to process nutria for human consumption.

40,000

The population of Black-tailed Prarie Dogs in Lubbock, Texas could be as high as _________

destroy wetland and farmland vegetation

The main problem caused by Nutria in Louisiana is that they ___________________________

hydrogen phosphide

When exposed to air, phostoxin reacts to form ___________________

prairie dogs

The range of Black-footed Ferret historically coincided more or less with the range of ____________

fun

Varmint hunters shoot praire dogs chiefly for _____

False

The black-tailed prairie dog is protected by state law in several states

Argentina

Nutria was introduced to the US from _____________

South Dakota

The largest population of re-introduced black-footed ferrets (164 individuals) is in ____________

not be listed

In August 2004, based on new information, the USFWS ruled that the Black-tailed Prairie Dog should ____________________

Black-tailed

The _____________ Prairie Dog inhabots the short grass prairie zone of the Great Planes

0

A total of ____ nutria was processed in 1996-1997 for human consumption

8

When first considered for listing under the ESA, the Black-tailed Prairie dog was assigned a priority number of ___

USDA Wildlife Services

Wide scale poisoning of prairie dogs was undertaken between 1920 and 1970 by the agency now known as _________________

captive breeding

The individuals used in re-introductions of the black-footed ferret came from _________________

$17,000

The cost of removing 300 prairie dogs from the Lubbock site was ______________

hurricane

About 150 nutria were able to escape from escape proof cages in LA in 1940 following a ____________

Utah

The _______ Prairie Dog is listed as endangered.

99%

Since European contact, the Black-tailed Prairie dog has lost about _____ of its original 100 million acres of habitat.

Wyoming

in 1981, a population of Black-footed ferrets was found near Meeteese in _______________

canine distemper

Black-footed ferrets are vulnerable to ________________ as well as sylvatic plague

muskrat

The ___________ is a once commercially important native North American furbearer that weighs about 2 lbs.

False

In 1999, the USFWS ruled that there was sufficient evidence to warrant an emergency listing for the Black-tailed Praire Dog

three

In 1999 petitoners listed ______ threats to the Black-tailed Prairie Dog

$<3

Recently trappers in LA were earning ______ per nutria pelt.

candidate 2

Petitioners originally sought an "emergency" ___________ categorization for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog in 1994.

to establish a fur industry

Nutria were originally introduced ______________

South Dakota

Once thought to be extinct, a population of Black-footed ferrets was found in _______________ in 1964

phostoxin

Officials in Lubbock plan to use _____________ to kill prairie dogs

H20

Phostoxin reacts with ________ in the atmosphere to become activated.

population size

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on _______________________

20 million

By the late 1950s there roughly _________________ nutria in the US

5 billion

According to Seton, at the start of the 20th century there were _____________ prairie dogs on the Great Plains

False

All ranchers in the US oppose wolf re-introductions

>18000

A hunter from Louisiana, who shot a radio-collared lynx in Colorado, was fined _________

China

Sea Horses are especially popular in markets in traditional medicine in ___________

fair market value for the loss

When re-introduced wolves kill livestock where they are re-introduced, the livestock owner is ________________

National Forest

Re-introductions of Canada Lynx in Colorado all took place on ______________

Migratory Bird Treaty

Management of snow geese legally falls under the ________________ of 1918

Snowshoe Hares

Canada Lynx feed principally on _______________

Tennessee

Fishers (Martes pennati) have recently been re-introduced to the state of __________________

beds of sea grass

Sea horses commonly live over _______________

False

The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow spends the winter in Cuba.

Farm Burea

The _____________ is the organization that has vehemently opposed Lynx re-introductions to Colorado.

one meter tall saw grass

Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows typically nest in ____________________

weasel

Fishers are members of the _______ family

the Philippines

Many sea horses are harvested by fishers from ____________________

bony fish

Sea Horses are actually _____________

Tarpon Springs

Moulton was able to buy some dried seahorses at a market in _________________

Development

The Dusky Seaside Sparrow that went extinct in Florida was a victim of _______________

porcupine

A favorite food of fishers in some areas is ___________

40%

A female snow goose can lose _____ of her body mass producing a single clutch.

Duracell

The fisher re-introductions were funded in part by ____________

75%

In a poll, ____ of Australians favored the killing of feral cats.

Defenders of Wildlife

_______________________ is the non-governmental organization that pushed for and participated in the re-introduction of gray wolves to Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.

HSUS

When the USFWS increased the bag limit on snow geese, the _____ sued them to stop the increase.

Ducks Unlimited

_______________ is the non-governmental organization that claims increased numbers of snow geese are destroying arctic vegetation.

nests are far from any people

"Egging", means the removal of eggs from snow goose nests will likely be ineffective in managing snow geese because _____________________

12 million

There are an estimated ___________________ feral cats in Australia.

Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows

One concern regarding the harvest in Big Cypres NP was the amount of airboat damage to the habitats of the Snail Kites and __________________

Great Black-backed

2. Piping plovers in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge were mostly preyed on by ___________ gulls.

False

Piping Plovers are restricted to the east coast of the United States.

True

Black Skimmers benefited from gull control at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

multi-pronged spear

A frog gig is basically a ________________

$700

According to the Miami Herald in 1996 people were killing _____ worth of frogs per night.

2

As noted in lecture, there are __ main foraging types (not species!) of gulls.

Protein pellets

Wisconsin deer may have been infected with CWD by eating ______________

frogs

In 1996, public outcry led to a ban on the harvest of _____ in Big Cypress National Preserve.

True

Before 1996, frog gigging for consumption by a person's family was legal in Big Cypress National Preserve.

killing federally listed Piping Plovers

USFWS scientists wanted to kill certain gulls at the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts because the gulls were ___________________________

Prions

CWD is caused by _____________

4500

In April 1996 a ranger in Big Cypress found that 67 boats of frog leg catches weighed _____ lbs.

DRC-1339

The USFWS used ________ to kill gulls in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

Colorado

CWD was first seen in captive deer in ______________

25,000

In Wisconsin, authorities plan to kill _______ deer in a circle with a 10 mile radius around a spot where 18 deer tested positive for CWD.

Common Terns

_____________ is one of the species that benefited most from gull culling at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

Squirrel

18. People in Kentucky developed Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease like symptoms after eating _________ brains.

Mad Cow Disease

19. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is similar to ____________ seen in England.

pig

The frog most sought after in Big Cypress National Preserve was the ____ frog

Elk

CWD has been known to infect ____ as well as deer.

Laughing

The ________ Gull is a common scavenging species of the Gulf Coast of Florida.

corals

White line disease is found in certain _______ in Florida.

CITES

_________ is an example of a wildlife classification scheme based on an international agreement.

sponges

The structurally simplest animals we discussed are the _________

Box Jellyfish

____________ are extremely dangerous species found in the region of tropical Australia

have high reproductive rates

Cannonball jellyfish are a good species for commercial harvest because they ________________

enviornmental stress

Bleaching of coral reefs can be caused by ___________

Cell wall of chitin

__________________ is a cellular structure that is typical only of species in the kingdom Fungi.

Key West

Sponges once were, but no longer are, commercially harvested out of ______________

protista

Red tides are caused by a species from the kingdom ____________

Monera

Species in the kingdom ________ are characterized by having prokaryotic cells.

Dinoflagellates

Red Tides toxins are produced by _______________

Collar cells

______________ are cells that trap tiny food particles as water flows through the body wall of sponges.

Cnidaria

Coral reefs are formed by species in the phylum ___________

Korea

Currently the market for US caught cannonball jellyfish exists especially in _________

False

Plants are not listed by CITES.

sponges

Intracellular digestion by amoebocytes is typical of _____________

II

Most of the species listed by CITES are categorized in Appendix ___

164

Roughly _____ nations have signed the CITES agreement.

3

There are basically ___ kinds of red tides.

True

Red tides are not always characterized by a change in the water color.

Cnidaria

Cannonball jellyfish belong to the Phylum _________

Life>Domain>Kingdom>Phylum>Class>Order>Family>Genus>Species

What is the correct sequence of classification headings?

distribution and abundance

Most non-phylogenetic wildlife classification schemes are based on ______________

Tarpon Springs

Today sponges are commercially harvested in Florida only out of _______________

resources

When ___________ are low, some organisms that cause red tides revert to sexual reproduction.

CITES

International trade in endangered species is monitored by ___________

CMVs

According to MPM many wildlifers, if given a choice would study _______

insecta

Only species in the class ________ can be exempt of provisions in the Endangered Species Act.

Mollusca

Scallops are members of the phylum ___________

False

The Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly once occurred statewide in Florida.

Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly

Creating stepping-stone habitat is a technique used by Dr. Tom Emmel to aid the ______________________

hollow ball of cells

The blastula is a ____________

economic pressure

The MFC left the recreational scallop season open for 2 months because of ____________________

statewide

After the scallops declined, the state (through the MFC) banned commercial harvest of scallops ______________

south of the Suwanee river

Scallops began to disappear in the region of the Gulf of Mexico ______________

8

The FWC lists __ species of invertebrates as being threatened, or endangered.

Anthropoda

Lobsters and shrimp are species in the phylum ____________

Platyhelminthes

Flatworms belong to the phylum ______________

morula

The solid ball of cells formed through cleavage is called a _____________

nematodes

A pseudocoelom is characteristic of the ____________

golfing

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly may avoid extinction in the wild because of a partnership between conservation scientists and a _________ association.

no

Members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) have ___ secondary body cavity.

9

Before 1997 the scallop season ran for __ months in Florida.

none of these

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly survived because a few individuals were _______________

anus

In deuterostomes the ______ froms from the blastopore.

protostomes

The blastopore becomes the mouth in the development of __________________

Cnidaria

_________________ is one of the three most represented phyla of invertebrates listed by FCREPA.

Porifera

The invertebrate phylum ___________ has no species listed by the FWC.

Zebra Mussel

The ___________ is an introduced species in North America that belongs to the phylum Mollusca.

mesoderm and mesoderm

A true coelom is a secondary body cavity that is surrounded by ______________________

70

By 1984 the Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly was reduced to a total of ____ individuals.

The Florida Keys

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly is found only in _______________

have not been studied extensively

Moulton believes that few invertebrate species are federally listed in Florida because invertebrates ___________________

gastrula

Embyonic genes switch on during the __________ phase of development.

Hurricane Andrew

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly was nearly wiped out in 1992 because of ______________________

lampreys

When the Welland canal was deepened ___________ invaded Lake Erie

lampreys

Natives on the Yukon River harvest nemeryaq which are actually ____________

urochordata

The ____________ are chordates that are sessile as adults and/but have a free-swimming larva.

False

All lampreys are parasitic.

lampreys

TFM is a chemical once used to control _______________

an oral disk

The parasitic sea lamprey is characterized by having ____________________

dorsal hollow nerve cord

All chordates have _________________

Metamorphisis

_____________________ refers to the developmental change from juvenile to adult.

3

The phylum chordate is subdivided into __ subphyla.

anadromous

Fish that live in marine environments and ascend creeks and streams to breed are called ___________

False

The four chordate characteristics are all visible in the adults of all chordate species.

eels

Some species of _________ are catadromous species.

Hagfish

________________ use slime production as a defense mechanism.

pharyngeal gill slits

All chordates have _________________

70

There are about ____ species of jawless vertebrates in the world today.

False

Lampreys are chiefly catadromous.

Lake Trout

When lampreys reached the upper Great Lakes the _____________ fishery collapsed.

feeding

Typically, invertebrates use their gills for _________.

marine

Modern hagfishes are found only in ______________ environments.

Garstang's

The currently accepted theory among biologists on the evolution of the vertebrates is based on ____________ hyphothesis.

Baylucide

TFM may be replaced in the future by _____________.

a mineral reservoir

The Ostracoderms may have used the bone in their skin for ________________

urochordata

The sea squirts belong to the subphylum __________________

Echinodermata

Sea urchins belong to the phylum _________________

protection

The Ostracoderms may have used their bony skin for ________________

cephalochordate

Amphioxus is a typical member of the subphylum _____________________

Hemichordata

__________________is the phylum of marine, acorn worms.

connected to the digestive tube

In the vertebrates the gills are internal and _____________________

Agnatha

Among the vertebrates a prominent notochord is found in adult members of the class ____________

lamprey

Scientists once thought (incorrectly) that Amphioxus was a larval __________ that underwent paedomorphosis.

ostracoderms

The _________ were the first vertebrates.

CCAMLR

The Patagonian Toothfish is managed by a group of 24 nations that make up the _______________.

roll

In order for jaws to function properly an animal must be able to overcome ______, pitch, and yaw.

marlin

According to Sea Web as many as 1.1 million pounds of ________ were discarded by the swordfish industry between 1995-1996.

cartilage

Sharks are now commonly harvested for their _________, which is said to function as a cancer preventative.

put up an electrical barrier

To protect Lake Michigan from possible invasion by Asian carp, fishery managers __________________

False

The Patagonian Toothfish is officially listed as endangered.

thrown overboard

Any swordfish that are caught that are not large enough by established standards are ____________________

swordfish nursery areas

The US government recently closed more than 132,000 square miles of the Atlantic to commercial swordfishing because these areas are __________________

30 million pounds

According to SUSA about _______________ of Swordfish are consumed by the US public each year

Ostracoderms

The Placoderms are thought to have evolved from the _____________.

Eurasia

The common carp is native to __________

250

Swordfish USA (SUSA) claims there are roughly 17 million recreational fishers and ________ commercial swordfish boats in the North Atlantic.

viviparous

One problem with harvesting sharks commercially is that they are ____________.

Natural Resources Defense Council

The "Give Swordfish a Break" campaign was run by Sea Web and _______________________

formally ended the campaign

When the US government closed more than 132,000 square miles to commercial swordfishing in the Atlantic, the sponsors of the 'Give Swordfish a Break' ________________________.

outboard motors frighten them

Asian Carp may actually leap into boats because _________________________.

Marine Mammal Protection

The ______________________ act of 1972 was enacted to protect dolphins from mortality due to fishing.

Atlantic Swordfish

In the film The Perfect Storm, the crew was fishing for _____________.

aquatic weeds

Grass Carp were introduced to the US to control ___________.

two

There are actually _____ species of Patagonian Toothfish.

gill arches

Jaws evolved from the _________.

long lines

Swordfish are harvested commercially using ____________

1990s

Large scale commercial fishing for Patagonian Toothfish began in the _______.

Mollusks and algae

In the 1970s Bighead and Silver Carp were introduced to the US to control _________________.

the US Senate

n 1997, the __________ decided to lift the ban on imports of Mexican tuna.

mackerel

Atlantic Swordfish feed chiefly on squid and _________ as adults.

sea birds

The fishing technique used to catch Patagonian Toothfish is said to have resulted in the deaths of numerous _______________

ICCAT

_________ is the group that manages Atlantic Swordfish.

Pacific

According to Swordfish USA about 2/3 of the swordfish consumed in the US comes from the __________ Ocean.

20

The US imports about _____ percent of all legally harvested Patagonian Toothfish.

tuna

In 1990, the US banned imports of ________ from Mexico because of dolphin mortality.

IATTC

Pacific Ocean tuna were considered "Dolphin Safe" after ___________ criteria were established.

long lines

The Patagonian Toothfish is harvested using _________.

22,000

There are possibly __________ species of bony fishes.

Paired fins

__________ were an adaptation that enabled the jaws to work efficiently.

placoderms

The ___________ were the first jawed vertebrates

Greenland

Icthyostega fossils are known from what is now ____________.

Australia

The now extinct gastric-brooding frog was known only from ____________.

mid 1980s

Chirping frogs were first seen in Hawaii in the _______________.

Amphiumas

________________ of the following is an example of a paedogenetic group of amphibian species.

frogs and toads

External fertilization is characteristic of the _______________________

forelimb bone pattern

The fossil amphibians and the lobe-finned fishes are linked by similarities in the _______________________

amplexus

Sexual coupling in species that have external fertilizatioin is called ______________.

Africa

The formation of a communal foam nest is seen in certain tree frogs in ______________.

external gills

The presence of ______________ is a juvenile characteristic retained by some paedogenetic species.

3

There were ____ recognizable evolutionary lines of fossil amphibians.

vertebrae

The fossil lineages of the amphibians are recognizable on the basis of the struction of the ____________.

anamiote

Both the frogs and the salamanders produce ____________ eggs.

Labyrinthine infolded tooth enamel

____________________________________ is a characteristic shared by the amphibians and certain lobe-finned fishes.

father's vocal sac

In Darwin's frog in Chile, the young frogs develop in _________________.

Ozone

________ has not been suggested as a cause of deformities in frogs.

0

There are __ federally listed species of amphibians in Florida.

Neoteny

__________ refers to the facultative or environmentally determined form of paedomorphosis.

100

The genus Eleutherodactylus a genus of chirping frogs has ______ species scattered over the West Indies.

Coelocanth

The ______________ is the sole surviving member of the lobe-finned fishes.

hallucinogen

In addition to being toxic bufotenine is also an ______________.

8

There are roughly ____ times as many frogs and toads as there are salamanders.

salamanders

Paedomorphosis is a characteristic of certain _____________.

Costa Rica

23. The Golden Toad which has recently decline precipitously is native to Costa Rica.

Sirens

_____________ are primitive salamanders that have external gills, and front legs but no hind legs.

sirens

When ____________ aestivate they produce a mucous cocoon like the African lungfish.

plethodontidae

Respiration occurs across a pharyngeal membrane in the _________________.

salamander courtship

The Hedonic glands play an active role in _________________________.

the Indian Ocean

A species of lobe finned fish still occurs in ________________

Spermatophores

_______________ are structures produced by male salamanders for reproductive purposes.

Parotoid

Toads secrete a poison from the ___________ glands on their heads.

Minnesota

Deformed frogs were first seen in ____________ in the 1990s.

Central and South America

The so-called poison arrow frogs are native to ________________.

primitive

External fertilization is seen in _________ salamanders.

internal fertilization

Caecilians are characterized by having _______________

Puerto Rico

Chirping frogs were introduced to Hawaii from ___________

Topic One

...

1.

The California Wildlife Protection Act (Proposition 117) banned hunting of Mountain Lions.

2.

False: Mountain Lions have never been know to kill humans.

3.

BTO researchers found that the Grey Heron had increased to higher numbers than ever reported throughout history.

4.

Agriculturalists in Britain blamed the declines in some species on predation by sparrow hawks.

5.

True: At the 2002 CITES meeting, the US agreed with the motion to allow a one time sale of ivory stockpiled in five African nations.

6.

A study of 24 species of breeding birds in Britain conducted by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) found that although many species were declining a few species were increasing.

7.

Zimbabwe is one of the African nations that argued for lifting the ban on ivory trade.

8.

India is the nation that joined Kenya and fought against permanently lifting the ban on ivory trade.

9.

Voters in Oregon banned the hunting of mountain lions with hounds.

10.

In one study of British farmland birds researchers found that about 20% of all European birds are now a conservation concern.

11.

Cougars have recently been found in South Dakota and Minnesota.

12.

Two species of kangaroo are only harvested on Flinders Island and Tasmania.

13.

In 1989, CITES banned international trade in ivory.

14.

the Predator Defense Institute attacked the Oregon state wildlife agency over its methods for studying mountain lion population size.

15.

Viva! Is the animal rights advocacy group that led the campaign to ban the sale of kangaroo meat in UK grocery stores.

16.

Although Japan supported the one time sale of ivory, the sale was opposed by China.

17.

Researches believe that the declines seen in British farmland birds are due to farming practices.

18.

According to Viva!, Bulgaria is the nation that imports the greatest amount of kangaroo meat.

19.

Japan was the non-African nation that wanted the ivory trade to be reinstated.

20.

Most of the kangaroo meat commercially harvested in Australia is exported to European countries.

21.

Five species of kangaroo are harvested commercially on the mainland of Australia.

Topic Two

...

1.

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on population size.

2.

Prairie dogs are especially vulnerable to Sylvatic Plague.

3.

The state of Louisiana constructed six plants to process nutria for human consumption.

4.

The population of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in Lubbock, Texas could be as high as 40,000.

5.

The main problem caused by Nutria in Louisiana is that they destroy wetland and farmland vegetation.

6.

When exposed to air, phostoxin reacts to form hydrogen phosphide.

7.

The range of Black-footed Ferret historically coincided more or less with the range of prairie dogs.

8.

Varmint hunters shoot prairie dogs chiefly for fun.

9.

False: The Black-tailed Prairie dog is protected by state law in several states.

10.

Nutria were introduced to the US from Argentina.

11.

The largest population of re-introduced black-footed ferrets (164 individuals) is in South Dakota.

12.

In August 2004, based on new information, the USFWS ruled that the Black-tailed Prairie Dog should not be listed.

13.

The Black-tailed Prairie Dog inhabits the short grass prairie zone of the Great Planes.

14.

A total of 0 nutria was processed in 1996-1997 for human consumption in Louisiana.

15.

When first considered for listing under the ESA, the Black-tailed Prairie dog was assigned a priority number of 8.

16.

Wide scale poisioning of prairie dogs was undertaken between 1920 and 1970 by the agency now known as USDA Wildlife Services.

17.

The individuals used in re-introductions of the black-footed ferret came from captive breeding.

18.

The cost of removing 300 prairie dogs from the Lubbock site was $17000.

19.

About 150 nutria were able to escape from "escape proof" cages in Louisiana in 1940 following a hurricane.

20.

In Louisiana, authorities recently hoped to persuade the public to eat nutria meat.

21.

The Utah Prairie Dog is listed as endangered.

22.

Since European contact, the Black-tailed Prairie dog has lost about 99% of its original 100 million acres of habitat.

23.

In 1981, a population of Black-footed Ferrets was found near Meeteese in Wyoming.

24.

Black-footed ferrets are vulnerable to canine distemper as well as sylvatic plague.

25.

The muskrat is a once commercially important native North American furbearer that weighs about 2 lbs.

26.

False: In 1999, the USFWS ruled that there was sufficient evidence to warrant an emergency listing for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.

27.

In 1999 petitioners listed three threats to the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.

28.

Recently trappers in Louisiana were earning about $<3 per nutria pelt.

29.

Petitioners originally sought an "emergency" candidate 2 categorization for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog in 1994.

30.

Nutria were originally introduced to establish a fur industry.

31.

Once thought to be extinct, a population of Black-footed Ferrets was found in South Dakota in 1964.

32.

Officials in Lubbock plan to use phostoxin to kill prairie dogs.

33.

Phostoxin reacts with H2O in the atmosphere to become activated.

34.

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on population size.

35.

By the late 1950s there roughly 20 million nutria in the US.

36.

According to Seton, at the start of the twentieth century there were 5 billion prairie dogs on the Great Plains.

Topic Three

...

1.

False: All ranchers in the US oppose wolf re-introductions.

2.

A hunter from Louisiana, who shot a radio-collared lynx in Colorado, was fined >$18000.

3.

Sea Horses are especially popular in markets in traditional medicine in China.

4.

When re-introduced wolves kill livestock where they are re-introduced, the livestock owner is paid fair market value for the loss.

5.

Re-introductions of Canada Lynx in Colorado all took place on National Forest land.

6.

Management of snow geese legally falls under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.

7.

Canada Lynx feed principally on Snowshoe Hares.

8.

Fishers (Martes pennati) have recently been re-introduced to the state of Tennessee.

9.

Sea horses commonly live over beds of sea grass.

10.

False: The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow spends the winter in Cuba.

11.

The Farm Bureau is the organization that has vehemently opposed Lynx re-introductions to Colorado.

12.

Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows typically nest in one meter tall saw grass.

13.

Fishers are members of the weasel family.

14.

Many sea horses are harvested by fishers from the Philippines.

15.

Sea Horses are actually bony fish.

16.

Moulton was able to buy some dried seahorses at a market in Tarpon Springs.

17.

The Dusky Seaside Sparrow that went extinct in Florida was a victim of Development.

18.

A favorite food of fishers in some areas is porcupine.

19.

A female snow goose can lose 40% of her body mass producing a single clutch.

20.

The fisher re-introductions were funded in part by Duracell.

21.

In a poll, 75% of Australians favored the killing of feral cats.

22.

Defenders of Wildlife is the non-governmental organization that pushed for and participated in the re-introduction of gray wolves to Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.

23.

When the USFWS increased the bag limit on snow geese, the HSUS sued them to stop the increase.

24.

Ducks Unlimited is the non-governmental organization that claims increased numbers of snow geese are destroying arctic vegetation.

25.

"Egging", means the removal of eggs from snow goose nests will likely be ineffective in managing snow geese because nests are far from any people.

26.

There are an estimated 12 million feral cats in Australia.

Topic Four

...

1.

One concern regarding the harvest in Big Cypress NP was the amount of air boat damage to the habitat of Snail Kites and Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows.

2.

Piping plovers in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge were mostly preyed on by Great Black-backed gulls.

3.

False: Piping Plovers are restricted to the east coast of the United States.

4.

True: Black Skimmers benefited from gull control at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

5.

A frog gig is basically a multi-pronged spear.

6.

According to the Miami Herald in 1996 people were killing $700 worth of frogs per night.

7.

As noted in lecture, there are 2 main foraging types (not species!) of gulls.

8.

Wisconsin deer may have been infected with CWD by eating Protein pellets.

9.

In 1996, public outcry led to a ban on the harvest of frogs in Big Cypress National Preserve.

10.

True: Before 1996, frog gigging for consumption by a person's family was legal in Big Cypress National Preserve.

11.

USFWS scientists wanted to kill certain gulls at the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts because the gulls were killing federally listed Piping Plovers.

12.

CWD is caused by Prions.

13.

In April 1996 a ranger in Big Cypress found that 67 boats of frog leg catches weighed 4500 lbs.

14.

The USFWS used DRC-1339 to kill gulls in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

15.

CWD was first seen in captive deer in Colorado.

16.

In Wisconsin, authorities plan to kill 25000 deer in a circle with a 10 mile radius around a spot where 18 deer tested positive for CWD.

17.

Common Terns is one of the species that benefited most from gull culling at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

18.

People in Kentucky developed Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease like symptoms after eating Squirrel brains.

19.

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is similar to Mad Cow Disease seen in England.

20.

The frog most sought after in Big Cypress National Preserve was the pig frog.

21.

CWD has been known to infect Elk as well as deer.

22.

The Laughing Gull is a common scavenging species of the Gulf Coast of Florida.

Topic Five

...

1.

White line disease is found in certain corals in Florida.

2.

CITES is an example of a wildlife classification scheme based on an international agreement.

3.

The structurally simplest animals we discussed are the sponges.

4.

Box Jellyfish are extremely dangerous species found in the region of tropical Australia.

5.

Cannonball jellyfish are a good species for commercial harvest because they have high reproductive rates.

6.

Bleaching of coral reefs can be caused by environmental stress.

7.

Cell wall of chitin is a cellular structure that is typical only of species in the kingdom Fungi.

8.

Sponges once were, but no longer are, commercially harvested out of Key West.

9.

Red tides are caused by a species from the kingdom protista.

10.

Species in the kingdom Monera are characterized by having prokaryotic cells.

11.

Red Tides toxins are produced by Dinoflagellates.

12.

Collar cells are cells that trap tiny food particles as water flows through the body wall of sponges.

13.

Coral reefs are formed by species in the phylum Cnidaria.

14.

Currently the market for US caught cannonball jellyfish exists especially in Korea.

15.

False: Plants are not listed by CITES.

16.

Intracellular digestion by amoebocytes is typical of sponges.

17.

Most of the species listed by CITES are categorized in Appendix II.

18.

Roughly 164 nations have signed the CITES agreement.

19.

There are basically 3 kinds of red tides.

20.

True: Red tides are not always characterized by a change in the water color.

21.

Cannonball jellyfish belong to the Phylum cnidaria.

22.

Which of the following is the correct sequence in going from smaller groups to larger? See below.

23.

Most non-phylogenetic wildlife classification schemes are based on distribution and abundance.

24.

Which of the following is the correct sequence in groing from larger groups to smaller? See below.

25.

Today sponges are commercially harvested in Florida only out of Tarpon Springs.

26.

When resources are low, some organisms that cause red tides revert to sexual reproduction.

27.

International trade in endangered species is monitored by CITES.

Life &gt; Domain &gt; Kingdom &gt; Phylum &gt; Class &gt; Order &gt; Family &gt; Genus &gt; Species

...

Topic Six

...

1.

According to MPM many wildlifers, if given a choice would study CMVs.

2.

Only species in the class insecta can be exempt of provisions in the Endangered Species Act.

3.

Scallops are members of the phylum Mollusca.

4.

False: The Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly once occurred statewide in Florida.

5.

Creating stepping-stone habitat is a technique used by Dr. Tom Emmel to aid the Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly.

6.

The blastula is a hollow ball of cells.

7.

The MFC left the recreational scallop season open for 2 months because of economic pressure.

8.

After the scallops declined, the state (through the MFC) banned commercial harvest of scallops statewide.

9.

Scallops began to disappear in the region of the Gulf of Mexico south of the Suwanee river.

10.

The FWC lists 8 species of invertebrates as being threatened, or endangered.

11.

Lobsters and shrimp are species in the phylum Anthropoda.

12.

Flatworms belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes.

13.

The solid ball of cells formed through cleavage is called a morula.

14.

A pseudocoelom is characteristic of the nematodes.

15.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly may avoid extinction in the wild because of a partnership between conservation scientists and a golfing association.

16.

Members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) have no secondary body cavity.

17.

Before 1997 the scallop season ran for 9 months in Florida.

18.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly survived because a few individuals were none of these (not protected by the NPS, naturally large, or had mated with an introduced species).

19.

In deuterostomes the anus froms from the blastopore.

20.

The blastopore becomes the mouth in the development of protostomes.

21.

Cnidaria is one of the three most represented phyla of invertebrates listed by FCREPA.

22.

The invertebrate phylum Porifera has no species listed by the FWC.

23.

The Zebra Mussel is an introduced species in North America that belongs to the phylum Mollusca.

24.

A true coelom is a secondary body cavity that is surrounded by mesoderm and mesoderm.

25.

By 1984 the Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly was reduced to a total of 70 individuals.

26.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly is found only in the Florida Keys.

27.

Moulton believes that few invertebrate species are federally listed in Florida because invertebrates have not been studied extensively.

28.

Embyonic genes switch on during the gastrula phase of development.

29.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly was nearly wiped out in 1992 because of Hurricane Andrew.

Topic Seven

...

1.

When the Welland canal was deepened lampreys invaded Lake Erie.

2.

Natives on the Yukon River harvest nemeryaq which are actually lampreys.

3.

The urochordata are chordates that are sessile as adults and/but have a free-swimming larva.

4.

False: All lampreys are parasitic.

5.

TFM is a chemical once used to control lampreys.

6.

The parasitic sea lamprey is characterized by having an oral disk.

7.

All chordates have dorsal hollow nerve cord.

8.

Metamorphosis refers to the developmental change from juvenile to adult.

9.

The phylum chordate is subdivided into 3 subphyla.

10.

Fish that live in marine environments and ascend creeks and streams to breed are called anadromous.

11.

False: The four chordate characteristics are all visible in the adults of all chordate species.

12.

Some species of eels are catadromous species.

13.

Hagfish use slime production as a defense mechanism.

14.

All chordates have pharyngeal gill slits.

15.

There are about 70 species of jawless vertebrates in the world today.

16.

False: Lampreys are chiefly catadromous.

17.

When lampreys reached the upper Great Lakes the Lake Trout fishery collapsed.

18.

Typically, invertebrates use their gills for feeding.

19.

Modern hagfishes are found only in marine environments.

20.

The currently accepted theory among biologists on the evolution of the vertebrates is based on Garstang's hyphothesis.

21.

TFM may be replaced in the future by Baylucide.

22.

The Ostracoderms may have used the bone in their skin for a mineral reservoir.

23.

The sea squirts belong to the subphylum urochordata.

24.

Sea urchins belong to the phylum Echinodermata.

25.

The Ostracoderms may have used their bony skin for protection.

26.

Amphioxus is a typical member of the subphylum cephalochordate.

27.

Hemichordata is the phylum of marine, acorn worms.

28.

In the vertebrates the gills are internal and connected to the digestive tube.

29.

Among the vertebrates a prominent notochord is found in adult members of the class Agnatha.

30.

Scientists once thought (incorrectly) that Amphioxus was a larval lamprey that underwent paedomorphosis.

31.

The ostracoderms were the first vertebrates.

Topic Eight

...

1.

The Patagonian Toothfish is managed by a group of 24 nations that make up the CCAMLR.

2.

In order for jaws to function properly an animal must be able to overcome roll, pitch, and yaw.

3.

According to Sea Web as many as 1.1 million pounds of marlin were discarded by the swordfish industry between 1995-1996.

4.

Sharks are now commonly harvested for their cartilage, which is said to function as a cancer preventative.

5.

To protect Lake Michigan from possible invasion by Asian carp, fishery managers put up an electrical barrier.

6.

False: The Patagonian Toothfish is officially listed as endangered.

7.

Any swordfish that are caught that are not large enough by established standards are thrown overboard.

8.

The US government recently closed more than 132,000 square miles of the Atlantic to commercial swordfishing because these areas are swordfish nursery areas.

9.

According to SUSA about 30 million pounds of Swordfish are consumed by the US public each year.

10.

The Placoderms are thought to have evolved from the Ostracoderms.

11.

The common carp is native to Eurasia.

12.

Swordfish USA (SUSA) claims there are roughly 17 million recreational fishers and 250 commercial swordfish boats in the North Atlantic.

13.

One problem with harvesting sharks commercially is that they are viviparous.

14.

The "Give Swordfish a Break" campaign was run by Sea Web and Natural Resources Defense Council.

15.

When the US government closed more than 132,000 square miles to commercial swordfishing in the Atlantic, the sponsors of the 'Give Swordfish a Break' formally ended the campaign.

16.

Asian Carp may actually leap into boats because outboard motors frighten them.

17.

The Marine Mammal Protection act of 1972 was enacted to protect dolphins from mortality due to fishing.

18.

In the film The Perfect Storm, the crew was fishing for Atlantic Swordfish.

19.

Grass Carp were introduced to the US to control aquatic weeds.

20.

There are actually two species of Patagonian Toothfish.

21.

Jaws evolved from the gill arches.

22.

Swordfish are harvested commercially using long lines.

23.

Large scale commercial fishing for Patagonian Toothfish began in the 1990s.

24.

In the 1970s Bighead and Silver Carp were introduced to the US to control Mollusks and algae.

25.

In 1997, the US Senate decided to lift the ban on imports of Mexican tuna.

26.

Atlantic Swordfish feed chiefly on squid and mackerel as adults.

27.

The fishing technique used to catch Patagonian Toothfish is said to have resulted in the deaths of numerous sea birds.

28.

ICCAT is the group that manages Atlantic Swordfish.

29.

According to Swordfish USA about 2/3 of the swordfish consumed in the US comes from the Pacific Ocean.

30.

The US imports about 20 percent of all legally harvested Patagonian Toothfish.

31.

In 1990, the US banned imports of tuna from Mexico because of dolphin mortality.

32.

Pacific Ocean tuna were considered "Dolphin Safe" after IATTC criteria were established.

33.

The Patagonian Toothfish is harvested using long lines.

34.

There are possibly 22,000 species of bony fishes.

35.

Paired fins were an adaptation that enabled the jaws to work efficiently.

36.

The placoderms were the first jawed vertebrates.

Topic Nine

...

1.

Icthyostega fossils are known from what is now Greenland.

2.

The now extinct gastric-brooding frog was known only from Australia.

3.

Chirping frogs were first seen in Hawaii in the mid 1980s.

4.

Amphiumas of the following is an example of a paedogenetic group of amphibian species.

5.

External fertilization is characteristic of the frogs and toads.

6.

The fossil amphibians and the lobe-finned fishes are linked by similarities in the forelimb bone pattern.

7.

Sexual coupling in species that have external fertilizatioin is called amplexus.

8.

The formation of a communal foam nest is seen in certain tree frogs in Africa.

9.

The presence of external gills is a juvenile characteristic retained by some paedogenetic species.

10.

There were 3 recognizable evolutionary lines of fossil amphibians.

11.

The fossil lineages of the amphibians are recognizable on the basis of the struction of the vertebrae.

12.

Both the frogs and the salamanders produce anamniote eggs.

13.

Labyrinthine infolded tooth enamel is a characteristic shared by the amphibians and certain lobe-finned fishes.

14.

In Darwin's frog in Chile, the young frogs develop in father's vocal sac.

15.

Ozone has not been suggested as a cause of deformities in frogs.

16.

There are 0 federally listed species of amphibians in Florida.

17.

Neoteny refers to the facultative or environmentally determined form of paedomorphosis.

18.

The genus Eleutherodactylus a genus of chirping frogs has 100 species scattered over the West Indies.

19.

The Coelocanth is the sole surviving member of the lobe-finned fishes.

20.

In addition to being toxic bufotenine is also an hallucinogen.

21.

There are roughly 8 times as many frogs and toads as there are salamanders.

22.

Paedomorphosis is a characteristic of certain salamanders.

23.

The Golden Toad which has recently decline precipitously is native to Costa Rica.

24.

Sirens are primitive salamanders that have external gills, and front legs but no hind legs.

25.

When sirens aestivate they produce a mucous cocoon like the African lungfish.

26.

Respiration occurs across a pharyngeal membrane in the plethodontidae.

27.

The Hedonic glands play an active role in salamander courtship.

28.

A species of lobe finned fish still occurs in the Indian Ocean.

29.

Spermatophores are structures produced by male salamanders for reproductive purposes.

30.

Toads secrete a poison from the Parotoid glands on their heads.

31.

Deformed frogs were first seen in Minnesota in the 1990s.

32.

The so-called poison arrow frogs are native to Central and South America.

33.

External fertilization is seen in primitive salamanders.

34.

Caecilians are characterized by having internal fertilization.

35.

Chirping frogs were introduced to Hawaii from Puerto Rico.

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Mountain Lions

The CWPA (Prop 117) banned hunting of what?

False

Mountain Lions have never been known to kill humans.

Grey Heron

BTO researchers found that the _________ had increased to higher numbers than ever reported throughout history.

Sparrow Hawks

Agriculturalists in Britain blamed the declines in some species on predation by ___________

True

At the 2002 CITES meeting, the US agreed with the motion to allow a one time sale of ivory stockpiled in 5 African nations.

breeding

A study of 24 species of __________ birds in Britain conducted by the BTO found that although many species were declining..

Zimbabwe

___________ is one of the African nations that argued for lifting the ban on ivory trade.

India

___________ is the nation that joined Kenya fought against permantly lifting the ban on ivory trade

hounds

Voters in Oregon banned the hunting of mountain lions with __________

20%

In a study, British farmland birds researchers found that about ______ of all european birds are now a conservation concern

Minnesota

Cougars have recently been found in SD and ___________

Two

_____ species of kangaroo are only harvested on Flinders Island and Tasmania

1989

In _______, CITES banned international trade in ivory

Oregon

The Predator Defense Institute attacked ________ state wildlife agency over its methods for studying mountain lion population size.

Viva!

________ is the animal rights advocacy group that led the campaign against the sale of kangaroo meat in UK grocery stores.

China

Although Japan supported the one time sale of ivory, the sale was opposed by _______

farming practices

Researchers believe that the declines seen in British farmland birds are due to ______________

Bulgaria

According to Viva!, _______ is the nation that imports the greatest amount of kangaroo meat.

Japan

__________ was the non-African nation that wanted the ivory trade to be reinstated.

European

Most of the kangaroo meat commercially harvested in Australia is exported to ____________ countries.

Five

________ species of kangaroo are harvested commercially on the mainland of Australia.

population size

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on _______________

Sylvatic Plague

Prarie dogs are especially vunerable to ______________

Six

The state of Louisiana constructed ______ plants to process nutria for human consumption.

40,000

The population of Black-tailed Prarie Dogs in Lubbock, Texas could be as high as _________

destroy wetland and farmland vegetation

The main problem caused by Nutria in Louisiana is that they ___________________________

hydrogen phosphide

When exposed to air, phostoxin reacts to form ___________________

prairie dogs

The range of Black-footed Ferret historically coincided more or less with the range of ____________

fun

Varmint hunters shoot praire dogs chiefly for _____

False

The black-tailed prairie dog is protected by state law in several states

Argentina

Nutria was introduced to the US from _____________

South Dakota

The largest population of re-introduced black-footed ferrets (164 individuals) is in ____________

not be listed

In August 2004, based on new information, the USFWS ruled that the Black-tailed Prairie Dog should ____________________

Black-tailed

The _____________ Prairie Dog inhabots the short grass prairie zone of the Great Planes

0

A total of ____ nutria was processed in 1996-1997 for human consumption

8

When first considered for listing under the ESA, the Black-tailed Prairie dog was assigned a priority number of ___

USDA Wildlife Services

Wide scale poisoning of prairie dogs was undertaken between 1920 and 1970 by the agency now known as _________________

captive breeding

The individuals used in re-introductions of the black-footed ferret came from _________________

$17,000

The cost of removing 300 prairie dogs from the Lubbock site was ______________

hurricane

About 150 nutria were able to escape from escape proof cages in LA in 1940 following a ____________

Utah

The _______ Prairie Dog is listed as endangered.

99%

Since European contact, the Black-tailed Prairie dog has lost about _____ of its original 100 million acres of habitat.

Wyoming

in 1981, a population of Black-footed ferrets was found near Meeteese in _______________

canine distemper

Black-footed ferrets are vulnerable to ________________ as well as sylvatic plague

muskrat

The ___________ is a once commercially important native North American furbearer that weighs about 2 lbs.

False

In 1999, the USFWS ruled that there was sufficient evidence to warrant an emergency listing for the Black-tailed Praire Dog

three

In 1999 petitoners listed ______ threats to the Black-tailed Prairie Dog

$&lt;3

Recently trappers in LA were earning ______ per nutria pelt.

candidate 2

Petitioners originally sought an "emergency" ___________ categorization for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog in 1994.

to establish a fur industry

Nutria were originally introduced ______________

South Dakota

Once thought to be extinct, a population of Black-footed ferrets was found in _______________ in 1964

phostoxin

Officials in Lubbock plan to use _____________ to kill prairie dogs

H20

Phostoxin reacts with ________ in the atmosphere to become activated.

population size

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on _______________________

20 million

By the late 1950s there roughly _________________ nutria in the US

5 billion

According to Seton, at the start of the 20th century there were _____________ prairie dogs on the Great Plains

False

All ranchers in the US oppose wolf re-introductions

&gt;18000

A hunter from Louisiana, who shot a radio-collared lynx in Colorado, was fined _________

China

Sea Horses are especially popular in markets in traditional medicine in ___________

fair market value for the loss

When re-introduced wolves kill livestock where they are re-introduced, the livestock owner is ________________

National Forest

Re-introductions of Canada Lynx in Colorado all took place on ______________

Migratory Bird Treaty

Management of snow geese legally falls under the ________________ of 1918

Snowshoe Hares

Canada Lynx feed principally on _______________

Tennessee

Fishers (Martes pennati) have recently been re-introduced to the state of __________________

beds of sea grass

Sea horses commonly live over _______________

False

The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow spends the winter in Cuba.

Farm Burea

The _____________ is the organization that has vehemently opposed Lynx re-introductions to Colorado.

one meter tall saw grass

Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows typically nest in ____________________

weasel

Fishers are members of the _______ family

the Philippines

Many sea horses are harvested by fishers from ____________________

bony fish

Sea Horses are actually _____________

Tarpon Springs

Moulton was able to buy some dried seahorses at a market in _________________

Development

The Dusky Seaside Sparrow that went extinct in Florida was a victim of _______________

porcupine

A favorite food of fishers in some areas is ___________

40%

A female snow goose can lose _____ of her body mass producing a single clutch.

Duracell

The fisher re-introductions were funded in part by ____________

75%

In a poll, ____ of Australians favored the killing of feral cats.

Defenders of Wildlife

_______________________ is the non-governmental organization that pushed for and participated in the re-introduction of gray wolves to Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.

HSUS

When the USFWS increased the bag limit on snow geese, the _____ sued them to stop the increase.

Ducks Unlimited

_______________ is the non-governmental organization that claims increased numbers of snow geese are destroying arctic vegetation.

nests are far from any people

"Egging", means the removal of eggs from snow goose nests will likely be ineffective in managing snow geese because _____________________

12 million

There are an estimated ___________________ feral cats in Australia.

Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows

One concern regarding the harvest in Big Cypres NP was the amount of airboat damage to the habitats of the Snail Kites and __________________

Great Black-backed

2. Piping plovers in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge were mostly preyed on by ___________ gulls.

False

Piping Plovers are restricted to the east coast of the United States.

True

Black Skimmers benefited from gull control at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

multi-pronged spear

A frog gig is basically a ________________

$700

According to the Miami Herald in 1996 people were killing _____ worth of frogs per night.

2

As noted in lecture, there are __ main foraging types (not species!) of gulls.

Protein pellets

Wisconsin deer may have been infected with CWD by eating ______________

frogs

In 1996, public outcry led to a ban on the harvest of _____ in Big Cypress National Preserve.

True

Before 1996, frog gigging for consumption by a person’s family was legal in Big Cypress National Preserve.

killing federally listed Piping Plovers

USFWS scientists wanted to kill certain gulls at the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts because the gulls were ___________________________

Prions

CWD is caused by _____________

4500

In April 1996 a ranger in Big Cypress found that 67 boats of frog leg catches weighed _____ lbs.

DRC-1339

The USFWS used ________ to kill gulls in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

Colorado

CWD was first seen in captive deer in ______________

25,000

In Wisconsin, authorities plan to kill _______ deer in a circle with a 10 mile radius around a spot where 18 deer tested positive for CWD.

Common Terns

_____________ is one of the species that benefited most from gull culling at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

Squirrel

18. People in Kentucky developed Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease like symptoms after eating _________ brains.

Mad Cow Disease

19. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is similar to ____________ seen in England.

pig

The frog most sought after in Big Cypress National Preserve was the ____ frog

Elk

CWD has been known to infect ____ as well as deer.

Laughing

The ________ Gull is a common scavenging species of the Gulf Coast of Florida.

corals

White line disease is found in certain _______ in Florida.

CITES

_________ is an example of a wildlife classification scheme based on an international agreement.

sponges

The structurally simplest animals we discussed are the _________

Box Jellyfish

____________ are extremely dangerous species found in the region of tropical Australia

have high reproductive rates

Cannonball jellyfish are a good species for commercial harvest because they ________________

enviornmental stress

Bleaching of coral reefs can be caused by ___________

Cell wall of chitin

__________________ is a cellular structure that is typical only of species in the kingdom Fungi.

Key West

Sponges once were, but no longer are, commercially harvested out of ______________

protista

Red tides are caused by a species from the kingdom ____________

Monera

Species in the kingdom ________ are characterized by having prokaryotic cells.

Dinoflagellates

Red Tides toxins are produced by _______________

Collar cells

______________ are cells that trap tiny food particles as water flows through the body wall of sponges.

Cnidaria

Coral reefs are formed by species in the phylum ___________

Korea

Currently the market for US caught cannonball jellyfish exists especially in _________

False

Plants are not listed by CITES.

sponges

Intracellular digestion by amoebocytes is typical of _____________

II

Most of the species listed by CITES are categorized in Appendix ___

164

Roughly _____ nations have signed the CITES agreement.

3

There are basically ___ kinds of red tides.

True

Red tides are not always characterized by a change in the water color.

Cnidaria

Cannonball jellyfish belong to the Phylum _________

Life&gt;Domain&gt;Kingdom&gt;Phylum&gt;Class&gt;Order&gt;Family&gt;Genus&gt;Species

What is the correct sequence of classification headings?

distribution and abundance

Most non-phylogenetic wildlife classification schemes are based on ______________

Tarpon Springs

Today sponges are commercially harvested in Florida only out of _______________

resources

When ___________ are low, some organisms that cause red tides revert to sexual reproduction.

CITES

International trade in endangered species is monitored by ___________

CMVs

According to MPM many wildlifers, if given a choice would study _______

insecta

Only species in the class ________ can be exempt of provisions in the Endangered Species Act.

Mollusca

Scallops are members of the phylum ___________

False

The Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly once occurred statewide in Florida.

Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly

Creating stepping-stone habitat is a technique used by Dr. Tom Emmel to aid the ______________________

hollow ball of cells

The blastula is a ____________

economic pressure

The MFC left the recreational scallop season open for 2 months because of ____________________

statewide

After the scallops declined, the state (through the MFC) banned commercial harvest of scallops ______________

south of the Suwanee river

Scallops began to disappear in the region of the Gulf of Mexico ______________

8

The FWC lists __ species of invertebrates as being threatened, or endangered.

Anthropoda

Lobsters and shrimp are species in the phylum ____________

Platyhelminthes

Flatworms belong to the phylum ______________

morula

The solid ball of cells formed through cleavage is called a _____________

nematodes

A pseudocoelom is characteristic of the ____________

golfing

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly may avoid extinction in the wild because of a partnership between conservation scientists and a _________ association.

no

Members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) have ___ secondary body cavity.

9

Before 1997 the scallop season ran for __ months in Florida.

none of these

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly survived because a few individuals were _______________

anus

In deuterostomes the ______ froms from the blastopore.

protostomes

The blastopore becomes the mouth in the development of __________________

Cnidaria

_________________ is one of the three most represented phyla of invertebrates listed by FCREPA.

Porifera

The invertebrate phylum ___________ has no species listed by the FWC.

Zebra Mussel

The ___________ is an introduced species in North America that belongs to the phylum Mollusca.

mesoderm and mesoderm

A true coelom is a secondary body cavity that is surrounded by ______________________

70

By 1984 the Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly was reduced to a total of ____ individuals.

The Florida Keys

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly is found only in _______________

have not been studied extensively

Moulton believes that few invertebrate species are federally listed in Florida because invertebrates ___________________

gastrula

Embyonic genes switch on during the __________ phase of development.

Hurricane Andrew

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly was nearly wiped out in 1992 because of ______________________

lampreys

When the Welland canal was deepened ___________ invaded Lake Erie

lampreys

Natives on the Yukon River harvest nemeryaq which are actually ____________

urochordata

The ____________ are chordates that are sessile as adults and/but have a free-swimming larva.

False

All lampreys are parasitic.

lampreys

TFM is a chemical once used to control _______________

an oral disk

The parasitic sea lamprey is characterized by having ____________________

dorsal hollow nerve cord

All chordates have _________________

Metamorphisis

_____________________ refers to the developmental change from juvenile to adult.

3

The phylum chordate is subdivided into __ subphyla.

anadromous

Fish that live in marine environments and ascend creeks and streams to breed are called ___________

False

The four chordate characteristics are all visible in the adults of all chordate species.

eels

Some species of _________ are catadromous species.

Hagfish

________________ use slime production as a defense mechanism.

pharyngeal gill slits

All chordates have _________________

70

There are about ____ species of jawless vertebrates in the world today.

False

Lampreys are chiefly catadromous.

Lake Trout

When lampreys reached the upper Great Lakes the _____________ fishery collapsed.

feeding

Typically, invertebrates use their gills for _________.

marine

Modern hagfishes are found only in ______________ environments.

Garstang’s

The currently accepted theory among biologists on the evolution of the vertebrates is based on ____________ hyphothesis.

Baylucide

TFM may be replaced in the future by _____________.

a mineral reservoir

The Ostracoderms may have used the bone in their skin for ________________

urochordata

The sea squirts belong to the subphylum __________________

Echinodermata

Sea urchins belong to the phylum _________________

protection

The Ostracoderms may have used their bony skin for ________________

cephalochordate

Amphioxus is a typical member of the subphylum _____________________

Hemichordata

__________________is the phylum of marine, acorn worms.

connected to the digestive tube

In the vertebrates the gills are internal and _____________________

Agnatha

Among the vertebrates a prominent notochord is found in adult members of the class ____________

lamprey

Scientists once thought (incorrectly) that Amphioxus was a larval __________ that underwent paedomorphosis.

ostracoderms

The _________ were the first vertebrates.

CCAMLR

The Patagonian Toothfish is managed by a group of 24 nations that make up the _______________.

roll

In order for jaws to function properly an animal must be able to overcome ______, pitch, and yaw.

marlin

According to Sea Web as many as 1.1 million pounds of ________ were discarded by the swordfish industry between 1995-1996.

cartilage

Sharks are now commonly harvested for their _________, which is said to function as a cancer preventative.

put up an electrical barrier

To protect Lake Michigan from possible invasion by Asian carp, fishery managers __________________

False

The Patagonian Toothfish is officially listed as endangered.

thrown overboard

Any swordfish that are caught that are not large enough by established standards are ____________________

swordfish nursery areas

The US government recently closed more than 132,000 square miles of the Atlantic to commercial swordfishing because these areas are __________________

30 million pounds

According to SUSA about _______________ of Swordfish are consumed by the US public each year

Ostracoderms

The Placoderms are thought to have evolved from the _____________.

Eurasia

The common carp is native to __________

250

Swordfish USA (SUSA) claims there are roughly 17 million recreational fishers and ________ commercial swordfish boats in the North Atlantic.

viviparous

One problem with harvesting sharks commercially is that they are ____________.

Natural Resources Defense Council

The "Give Swordfish a Break" campaign was run by Sea Web and _______________________

formally ended the campaign

When the US government closed more than 132,000 square miles to commercial swordfishing in the Atlantic, the sponsors of the ‘Give Swordfish a Break’ ________________________.

outboard motors frighten them

Asian Carp may actually leap into boats because _________________________.

Marine Mammal Protection

The ______________________ act of 1972 was enacted to protect dolphins from mortality due to fishing.

Atlantic Swordfish

In the film The Perfect Storm, the crew was fishing for _____________.

aquatic weeds

Grass Carp were introduced to the US to control ___________.

two

There are actually _____ species of Patagonian Toothfish.

gill arches

Jaws evolved from the _________.

long lines

Swordfish are harvested commercially using ____________

1990s

Large scale commercial fishing for Patagonian Toothfish began in the _______.

Mollusks and algae

In the 1970s Bighead and Silver Carp were introduced to the US to control _________________.

the US Senate

n 1997, the __________ decided to lift the ban on imports of Mexican tuna.

mackerel

Atlantic Swordfish feed chiefly on squid and _________ as adults.

sea birds

The fishing technique used to catch Patagonian Toothfish is said to have resulted in the deaths of numerous _______________

ICCAT

_________ is the group that manages Atlantic Swordfish.

Pacific

According to Swordfish USA about 2/3 of the swordfish consumed in the US comes from the __________ Ocean.

20

The US imports about _____ percent of all legally harvested Patagonian Toothfish.

tuna

In 1990, the US banned imports of ________ from Mexico because of dolphin mortality.

IATTC

Pacific Ocean tuna were considered "Dolphin Safe" after ___________ criteria were established.

long lines

The Patagonian Toothfish is harvested using _________.

22,000

There are possibly __________ species of bony fishes.

Paired fins

__________ were an adaptation that enabled the jaws to work efficiently.

placoderms

The ___________ were the first jawed vertebrates

Greenland

Icthyostega fossils are known from what is now ____________.

Australia

The now extinct gastric-brooding frog was known only from ____________.

mid 1980s

Chirping frogs were first seen in Hawaii in the _______________.

Amphiumas

________________ of the following is an example of a paedogenetic group of amphibian species.

frogs and toads

External fertilization is characteristic of the _______________________

forelimb bone pattern

The fossil amphibians and the lobe-finned fishes are linked by similarities in the _______________________

amplexus

Sexual coupling in species that have external fertilizatioin is called ______________.

Africa

The formation of a communal foam nest is seen in certain tree frogs in ______________.

external gills

The presence of ______________ is a juvenile characteristic retained by some paedogenetic species.

3

There were ____ recognizable evolutionary lines of fossil amphibians.

vertebrae

The fossil lineages of the amphibians are recognizable on the basis of the struction of the ____________.

anamiote

Both the frogs and the salamanders produce ____________ eggs.

Labyrinthine infolded tooth enamel

____________________________________ is a characteristic shared by the amphibians and certain lobe-finned fishes.

father’s vocal sac

In Darwin’s frog in Chile, the young frogs develop in _________________.

Ozone

________ has not been suggested as a cause of deformities in frogs.

0

There are __ federally listed species of amphibians in Florida.

Neoteny

__________ refers to the facultative or environmentally determined form of paedomorphosis.

100

The genus Eleutherodactylus a genus of chirping frogs has ______ species scattered over the West Indies.

Coelocanth

The ______________ is the sole surviving member of the lobe-finned fishes.

hallucinogen

In addition to being toxic bufotenine is also an ______________.

8

There are roughly ____ times as many frogs and toads as there are salamanders.

salamanders

Paedomorphosis is a characteristic of certain _____________.

Costa Rica

23. The Golden Toad which has recently decline precipitously is native to Costa Rica.

Sirens

_____________ are primitive salamanders that have external gills, and front legs but no hind legs.

sirens

When ____________ aestivate they produce a mucous cocoon like the African lungfish.

plethodontidae

Respiration occurs across a pharyngeal membrane in the _________________.

salamander courtship

The Hedonic glands play an active role in _________________________.

the Indian Ocean

A species of lobe finned fish still occurs in ________________

Spermatophores

_______________ are structures produced by male salamanders for reproductive purposes.

Parotoid

Toads secrete a poison from the ___________ glands on their heads.

Minnesota

Deformed frogs were first seen in ____________ in the 1990s.

Central and South America

The so-called poison arrow frogs are native to ________________.

primitive

External fertilization is seen in _________ salamanders.

internal fertilization

Caecilians are characterized by having _______________

Puerto Rico

Chirping frogs were introduced to Hawaii from ___________

Topic One

1.

The California Wildlife Protection Act (Proposition 117) banned hunting of Mountain Lions.

2.

False: Mountain Lions have never been know to kill humans.

3.

BTO researchers found that the Grey Heron had increased to higher numbers than ever reported throughout history.

4.

Agriculturalists in Britain blamed the declines in some species on predation by sparrow hawks.

5.

True: At the 2002 CITES meeting, the US agreed with the motion to allow a one time sale of ivory stockpiled in five African nations.

6.

A study of 24 species of breeding birds in Britain conducted by the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) found that although many species were declining a few species were increasing.

7.

Zimbabwe is one of the African nations that argued for lifting the ban on ivory trade.

8.

India is the nation that joined Kenya and fought against permanently lifting the ban on ivory trade.

9.

Voters in Oregon banned the hunting of mountain lions with hounds.

10.

In one study of British farmland birds researchers found that about 20% of all European birds are now a conservation concern.

11.

Cougars have recently been found in South Dakota and Minnesota.

12.

Two species of kangaroo are only harvested on Flinders Island and Tasmania.

13.

In 1989, CITES banned international trade in ivory.

14.

the Predator Defense Institute attacked the Oregon state wildlife agency over its methods for studying mountain lion population size.

15.

Viva! Is the animal rights advocacy group that led the campaign to ban the sale of kangaroo meat in UK grocery stores.

16.

Although Japan supported the one time sale of ivory, the sale was opposed by China.

17.

Researches believe that the declines seen in British farmland birds are due to farming practices.

18.

According to Viva!, Bulgaria is the nation that imports the greatest amount of kangaroo meat.

19.

Japan was the non-African nation that wanted the ivory trade to be reinstated.

20.

Most of the kangaroo meat commercially harvested in Australia is exported to European countries.

21.

Five species of kangaroo are harvested commercially on the mainland of Australia.

Topic Two

1.

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on population size.

2.

Prairie dogs are especially vulnerable to Sylvatic Plague.

3.

The state of Louisiana constructed six plants to process nutria for human consumption.

4.

The population of Black-tailed Prairie Dogs in Lubbock, Texas could be as high as 40,000.

5.

The main problem caused by Nutria in Louisiana is that they destroy wetland and farmland vegetation.

6.

When exposed to air, phostoxin reacts to form hydrogen phosphide.

7.

The range of Black-footed Ferret historically coincided more or less with the range of prairie dogs.

8.

Varmint hunters shoot prairie dogs chiefly for fun.

9.

False: The Black-tailed Prairie dog is protected by state law in several states.

10.

Nutria were introduced to the US from Argentina.

11.

The largest population of re-introduced black-footed ferrets (164 individuals) is in South Dakota.

12.

In August 2004, based on new information, the USFWS ruled that the Black-tailed Prairie Dog should not be listed.

13.

The Black-tailed Prairie Dog inhabits the short grass prairie zone of the Great Planes.

14.

A total of 0 nutria was processed in 1996-1997 for human consumption in Louisiana.

15.

When first considered for listing under the ESA, the Black-tailed Prairie dog was assigned a priority number of 8.

16.

Wide scale poisioning of prairie dogs was undertaken between 1920 and 1970 by the agency now known as USDA Wildlife Services.

17.

The individuals used in re-introductions of the black-footed ferret came from captive breeding.

18.

The cost of removing 300 prairie dogs from the Lubbock site was $17000.

19.

About 150 nutria were able to escape from "escape proof" cages in Louisiana in 1940 following a hurricane.

20.

In Louisiana, authorities recently hoped to persuade the public to eat nutria meat.

21.

The Utah Prairie Dog is listed as endangered.

22.

Since European contact, the Black-tailed Prairie dog has lost about 99% of its original 100 million acres of habitat.

23.

In 1981, a population of Black-footed Ferrets was found near Meeteese in Wyoming.

24.

Black-footed ferrets are vulnerable to canine distemper as well as sylvatic plague.

25.

The muskrat is a once commercially important native North American furbearer that weighs about 2 lbs.

26.

False: In 1999, the USFWS ruled that there was sufficient evidence to warrant an emergency listing for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.

27.

In 1999 petitioners listed three threats to the Black-tailed Prairie Dog.

28.

Recently trappers in Louisiana were earning about $<3 per nutria pelt.

29.

Petitioners originally sought an "emergency" candidate 2 categorization for the Black-tailed Prairie Dog in 1994.

30.

Nutria were originally introduced to establish a fur industry.

31.

Once thought to be extinct, a population of Black-footed Ferrets was found in South Dakota in 1964.

32.

Officials in Lubbock plan to use phostoxin to kill prairie dogs.

33.

Phostoxin reacts with H2O in the atmosphere to become activated.

34.

Priority numbers for listing species under the ESA are based on population size.

35.

By the late 1950s there roughly 20 million nutria in the US.

36.

According to Seton, at the start of the twentieth century there were 5 billion prairie dogs on the Great Plains.

Topic Three

1.

False: All ranchers in the US oppose wolf re-introductions.

2.

A hunter from Louisiana, who shot a radio-collared lynx in Colorado, was fined >$18000.

3.

Sea Horses are especially popular in markets in traditional medicine in China.

4.

When re-introduced wolves kill livestock where they are re-introduced, the livestock owner is paid fair market value for the loss.

5.

Re-introductions of Canada Lynx in Colorado all took place on National Forest land.

6.

Management of snow geese legally falls under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.

7.

Canada Lynx feed principally on Snowshoe Hares.

8.

Fishers (Martes pennati) have recently been re-introduced to the state of Tennessee.

9.

Sea horses commonly live over beds of sea grass.

10.

False: The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow spends the winter in Cuba.

11.

The Farm Bureau is the organization that has vehemently opposed Lynx re-introductions to Colorado.

12.

Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows typically nest in one meter tall saw grass.

13.

Fishers are members of the weasel family.

14.

Many sea horses are harvested by fishers from the Philippines.

15.

Sea Horses are actually bony fish.

16.

Moulton was able to buy some dried seahorses at a market in Tarpon Springs.

17.

The Dusky Seaside Sparrow that went extinct in Florida was a victim of Development.

18.

A favorite food of fishers in some areas is porcupine.

19.

A female snow goose can lose 40% of her body mass producing a single clutch.

20.

The fisher re-introductions were funded in part by Duracell.

21.

In a poll, 75% of Australians favored the killing of feral cats.

22.

Defenders of Wildlife is the non-governmental organization that pushed for and participated in the re-introduction of gray wolves to Idaho and Yellowstone National Park.

23.

When the USFWS increased the bag limit on snow geese, the HSUS sued them to stop the increase.

24.

Ducks Unlimited is the non-governmental organization that claims increased numbers of snow geese are destroying arctic vegetation.

25.

"Egging", means the removal of eggs from snow goose nests will likely be ineffective in managing snow geese because nests are far from any people.

26.

There are an estimated 12 million feral cats in Australia.

Topic Four

1.

One concern regarding the harvest in Big Cypress NP was the amount of air boat damage to the habitat of Snail Kites and Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows.

2.

Piping plovers in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge were mostly preyed on by Great Black-backed gulls.

3.

False: Piping Plovers are restricted to the east coast of the United States.

4.

True: Black Skimmers benefited from gull control at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

5.

A frog gig is basically a multi-pronged spear.

6.

According to the Miami Herald in 1996 people were killing $700 worth of frogs per night.

7.

As noted in lecture, there are 2 main foraging types (not species!) of gulls.

8.

Wisconsin deer may have been infected with CWD by eating Protein pellets.

9.

In 1996, public outcry led to a ban on the harvest of frogs in Big Cypress National Preserve.

10.

True: Before 1996, frog gigging for consumption by a person’s family was legal in Big Cypress National Preserve.

11.

USFWS scientists wanted to kill certain gulls at the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge in Massachusetts because the gulls were killing federally listed Piping Plovers.

12.

CWD is caused by Prions.

13.

In April 1996 a ranger in Big Cypress found that 67 boats of frog leg catches weighed 4500 lbs.

14.

The USFWS used DRC-1339 to kill gulls in Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

15.

CWD was first seen in captive deer in Colorado.

16.

In Wisconsin, authorities plan to kill 25000 deer in a circle with a 10 mile radius around a spot where 18 deer tested positive for CWD.

17.

Common Terns is one of the species that benefited most from gull culling at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

18.

People in Kentucky developed Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease like symptoms after eating Squirrel brains.

19.

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is similar to Mad Cow Disease seen in England.

20.

The frog most sought after in Big Cypress National Preserve was the pig frog.

21.

CWD has been known to infect Elk as well as deer.

22.

The Laughing Gull is a common scavenging species of the Gulf Coast of Florida.

Topic Five

1.

White line disease is found in certain corals in Florida.

2.

CITES is an example of a wildlife classification scheme based on an international agreement.

3.

The structurally simplest animals we discussed are the sponges.

4.

Box Jellyfish are extremely dangerous species found in the region of tropical Australia.

5.

Cannonball jellyfish are a good species for commercial harvest because they have high reproductive rates.

6.

Bleaching of coral reefs can be caused by environmental stress.

7.

Cell wall of chitin is a cellular structure that is typical only of species in the kingdom Fungi.

8.

Sponges once were, but no longer are, commercially harvested out of Key West.

9.

Red tides are caused by a species from the kingdom protista.

10.

Species in the kingdom Monera are characterized by having prokaryotic cells.

11.

Red Tides toxins are produced by Dinoflagellates.

12.

Collar cells are cells that trap tiny food particles as water flows through the body wall of sponges.

13.

Coral reefs are formed by species in the phylum Cnidaria.

14.

Currently the market for US caught cannonball jellyfish exists especially in Korea.

15.

False: Plants are not listed by CITES.

16.

Intracellular digestion by amoebocytes is typical of sponges.

17.

Most of the species listed by CITES are categorized in Appendix II.

18.

Roughly 164 nations have signed the CITES agreement.

19.

There are basically 3 kinds of red tides.

20.

True: Red tides are not always characterized by a change in the water color.

21.

Cannonball jellyfish belong to the Phylum cnidaria.

22.

Which of the following is the correct sequence in going from smaller groups to larger? See below.

23.

Most non-phylogenetic wildlife classification schemes are based on distribution and abundance.

24.

Which of the following is the correct sequence in groing from larger groups to smaller? See below.

25.

Today sponges are commercially harvested in Florida only out of Tarpon Springs.

26.

When resources are low, some organisms that cause red tides revert to sexual reproduction.

27.

International trade in endangered species is monitored by CITES.

Life &gt; Domain &gt; Kingdom &gt; Phylum &gt; Class &gt; Order &gt; Family &gt; Genus &gt; Species

Topic Six

1.

According to MPM many wildlifers, if given a choice would study CMVs.

2.

Only species in the class insecta can be exempt of provisions in the Endangered Species Act.

3.

Scallops are members of the phylum Mollusca.

4.

False: The Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly once occurred statewide in Florida.

5.

Creating stepping-stone habitat is a technique used by Dr. Tom Emmel to aid the Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly.

6.

The blastula is a hollow ball of cells.

7.

The MFC left the recreational scallop season open for 2 months because of economic pressure.

8.

After the scallops declined, the state (through the MFC) banned commercial harvest of scallops statewide.

9.

Scallops began to disappear in the region of the Gulf of Mexico south of the Suwanee river.

10.

The FWC lists 8 species of invertebrates as being threatened, or endangered.

11.

Lobsters and shrimp are species in the phylum Anthropoda.

12.

Flatworms belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes.

13.

The solid ball of cells formed through cleavage is called a morula.

14.

A pseudocoelom is characteristic of the nematodes.

15.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly may avoid extinction in the wild because of a partnership between conservation scientists and a golfing association.

16.

Members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) have no secondary body cavity.

17.

Before 1997 the scallop season ran for 9 months in Florida.

18.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly survived because a few individuals were none of these (not protected by the NPS, naturally large, or had mated with an introduced species).

19.

In deuterostomes the anus froms from the blastopore.

20.

The blastopore becomes the mouth in the development of protostomes.

21.

Cnidaria is one of the three most represented phyla of invertebrates listed by FCREPA.

22.

The invertebrate phylum Porifera has no species listed by the FWC.

23.

The Zebra Mussel is an introduced species in North America that belongs to the phylum Mollusca.

24.

A true coelom is a secondary body cavity that is surrounded by mesoderm and mesoderm.

25.

By 1984 the Schaus Swallowtail Butterfly was reduced to a total of 70 individuals.

26.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly is found only in the Florida Keys.

27.

Moulton believes that few invertebrate species are federally listed in Florida because invertebrates have not been studied extensively.

28.

Embyonic genes switch on during the gastrula phase of development.

29.

The Schaus Swallowtail butterfly was nearly wiped out in 1992 because of Hurricane Andrew.

Topic Seven

1.

When the Welland canal was deepened lampreys invaded Lake Erie.

2.

Natives on the Yukon River harvest nemeryaq which are actually lampreys.

3.

The urochordata are chordates that are sessile as adults and/but have a free-swimming larva.

4.

False: All lampreys are parasitic.

5.

TFM is a chemical once used to control lampreys.

6.

The parasitic sea lamprey is characterized by having an oral disk.

7.

All chordates have dorsal hollow nerve cord.

8.

Metamorphosis refers to the developmental change from juvenile to adult.

9.

The phylum chordate is subdivided into 3 subphyla.

10.

Fish that live in marine environments and ascend creeks and streams to breed are called anadromous.

11.

False: The four chordate characteristics are all visible in the adults of all chordate species.

12.

Some species of eels are catadromous species.

13.

Hagfish use slime production as a defense mechanism.

14.

All chordates have pharyngeal gill slits.

15.

There are about 70 species of jawless vertebrates in the world today.

16.

False: Lampreys are chiefly catadromous.

17.

When lampreys reached the upper Great Lakes the Lake Trout fishery collapsed.

18.

Typically, invertebrates use their gills for feeding.

19.

Modern hagfishes are found only in marine environments.

20.

The currently accepted theory among biologists on the evolution of the vertebrates is based on Garstang’s hyphothesis.

21.

TFM may be replaced in the future by Baylucide.

22.

The Ostracoderms may have used the bone in their skin for a mineral reservoir.

23.

The sea squirts belong to the subphylum urochordata.

24.

Sea urchins belong to the phylum Echinodermata.

25.

The Ostracoderms may have used their bony skin for protection.

26.

Amphioxus is a typical member of the subphylum cephalochordate.

27.

Hemichordata is the phylum of marine, acorn worms.

28.

In the vertebrates the gills are internal and connected to the digestive tube.

29.

Among the vertebrates a prominent notochord is found in adult members of the class Agnatha.

30.

Scientists once thought (incorrectly) that Amphioxus was a larval lamprey that underwent paedomorphosis.

31.

The ostracoderms were the first vertebrates.

Topic Eight

1.

The Patagonian Toothfish is managed by a group of 24 nations that make up the CCAMLR.

2.

In order for jaws to function properly an animal must be able to overcome roll, pitch, and yaw.

3.

According to Sea Web as many as 1.1 million pounds of marlin were discarded by the swordfish industry between 1995-1996.

4.

Sharks are now commonly harvested for their cartilage, which is said to function as a cancer preventative.

5.

To protect Lake Michigan from possible invasion by Asian carp, fishery managers put up an electrical barrier.

6.

False: The Patagonian Toothfish is officially listed as endangered.

7.

Any swordfish that are caught that are not large enough by established standards are thrown overboard.

8.

The US government recently closed more than 132,000 square miles of the Atlantic to commercial swordfishing because these areas are swordfish nursery areas.

9.

According to SUSA about 30 million pounds of Swordfish are consumed by the US public each year.

10.

The Placoderms are thought to have evolved from the Ostracoderms.

11.

The common carp is native to Eurasia.

12.

Swordfish USA (SUSA) claims there are roughly 17 million recreational fishers and 250 commercial swordfish boats in the North Atlantic.

13.

One problem with harvesting sharks commercially is that they are viviparous.

14.

The "Give Swordfish a Break" campaign was run by Sea Web and Natural Resources Defense Council.

15.

When the US government closed more than 132,000 square miles to commercial swordfishing in the Atlantic, the sponsors of the ‘Give Swordfish a Break’ formally ended the campaign.

16.

Asian Carp may actually leap into boats because outboard motors frighten them.

17.

The Marine Mammal Protection act of 1972 was enacted to protect dolphins from mortality due to fishing.

18.

In the film The Perfect Storm, the crew was fishing for Atlantic Swordfish.

19.

Grass Carp were introduced to the US to control aquatic weeds.

20.

There are actually two species of Patagonian Toothfish.

21.

Jaws evolved from the gill arches.

22.

Swordfish are harvested commercially using long lines.

23.

Large scale commercial fishing for Patagonian Toothfish began in the 1990s.

24.

In the 1970s Bighead and Silver Carp were introduced to the US to control Mollusks and algae.

25.

In 1997, the US Senate decided to lift the ban on imports of Mexican tuna.

26.

Atlantic Swordfish feed chiefly on squid and mackerel as adults.

27.

The fishing technique used to catch Patagonian Toothfish is said to have resulted in the deaths of numerous sea birds.

28.

ICCAT is the group that manages Atlantic Swordfish.

29.

According to Swordfish USA about 2/3 of the swordfish consumed in the US comes from the Pacific Ocean.

30.

The US imports about 20 percent of all legally harvested Patagonian Toothfish.

31.

In 1990, the US banned imports of tuna from Mexico because of dolphin mortality.

32.

Pacific Ocean tuna were considered "Dolphin Safe" after IATTC criteria were established.

33.

The Patagonian Toothfish is harvested using long lines.

34.

There are possibly 22,000 species of bony fishes.

35.

Paired fins were an adaptation that enabled the jaws to work efficiently.

36.

The placoderms were the first jawed vertebrates.

Topic Nine

1.

Icthyostega fossils are known from what is now Greenland.

2.

The now extinct gastric-brooding frog was known only from Australia.

3.

Chirping frogs were first seen in Hawaii in the mid 1980s.

4.

Amphiumas of the following is an example of a paedogenetic group of amphibian species.

5.

External fertilization is characteristic of the frogs and toads.

6.

The fossil amphibians and the lobe-finned fishes are linked by similarities in the forelimb bone pattern.

7.

Sexual coupling in species that have external fertilizatioin is called amplexus.

8.

The formation of a communal foam nest is seen in certain tree frogs in Africa.

9.

The presence of external gills is a juvenile characteristic retained by some paedogenetic species.

10.

There were 3 recognizable evolutionary lines of fossil amphibians.

11.

The fossil lineages of the amphibians are recognizable on the basis of the struction of the vertebrae.

12.

Both the frogs and the salamanders produce anamniote eggs.

13.

Labyrinthine infolded tooth enamel is a characteristic shared by the amphibians and certain lobe-finned fishes.

14.

In Darwin’s frog in Chile, the young frogs develop in father’s vocal sac.

15.

Ozone has not been suggested as a cause of deformities in frogs.

16.

There are 0 federally listed species of amphibians in Florida.

17.

Neoteny refers to the facultative or environmentally determined form of paedomorphosis.

18.

The genus Eleutherodactylus a genus of chirping frogs has 100 species scattered over the West Indies.

19.

The Coelocanth is the sole surviving member of the lobe-finned fishes.

20.

In addition to being toxic bufotenine is also an hallucinogen.

21.

There are roughly 8 times as many frogs and toads as there are salamanders.

22.

Paedomorphosis is a characteristic of certain salamanders.

23.

The Golden Toad which has recently decline precipitously is native to Costa Rica.

24.

Sirens are primitive salamanders that have external gills, and front legs but no hind legs.

25.

When sirens aestivate they produce a mucous cocoon like the African lungfish.

26.

Respiration occurs across a pharyngeal membrane in the plethodontidae.

27.

The Hedonic glands play an active role in salamander courtship.

28.

A species of lobe finned fish still occurs in the Indian Ocean.

29.

Spermatophores are structures produced by male salamanders for reproductive purposes.

30.

Toads secrete a poison from the Parotoid glands on their heads.

31.

Deformed frogs were first seen in Minnesota in the 1990s.

32.

The so-called poison arrow frogs are native to Central and South America.

33.

External fertilization is seen in primitive salamanders.

34.

Caecilians are characterized by having internal fertilization.

35.

Chirping frogs were introduced to Hawaii from Puerto Rico.

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