Ethics Chapter 13&14

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The U.S. Supreme Court concluded in the Bakke decision that consideration of race in school admissions was unconstitutional.

False

What was ruled in the case of Brown vs. Board of Education?

That "separate but equal" educational facilities were unconstitutional.

What was the significance of the Bakke decision and the University of Michigan cases?

They forbade the use of racial quotas in school admissions, but allowed some consideration of race in admissions decisions.

There are still wide disparities in employment statistics between whites and Blacks in the U.S.

True

All of the following are examples of types of affirmative action except:

Firing employees to reach racial balance.

When giving a consequentialist argument for affirmative action one need show only that these programs can have good consequences.

False

Biases may be unconscious.

True

Which of the following objections to affirmative action programs is raised by consequentialist critics?

They mainly benefit middle-class rather than lower-class African Americans.

Which point does Fullinwider intend to make with the "Land of Giants" thought experiment?

That well-intentioned people may perpetuate discrimination that is invisible to them.

Arguments for affirmative action based on reasons of compensatory justice must show that compensation to members of certain groups is justified.

True

According to the principle of equality, it is unjust to treat people differently in ways that deny them significant social benefits unless which of the following is demonstrated?

That they are relevantly different in ways that justify differential treatment.

The principle of equality is a nonconsequentialist moral principle.

True

Affirmative action programs presume that past discrimination and its resulting present disadvantage are relevant reasons for differential treatment.

True

According to the principle of equality, a society that preferred women for the respected and highly paid position of financial advisor would be justified in doing so if it could be proven that women by nature were more talented in such matters than men.

True

According to the principle of equality, in order to treat people differently in ways that deny them significant social benefits one need only show that there are real differences between them.

False

Which amendment to the US Constitution gave black women the right to vote?

19th

"It is unjust to treat people differently in ways that deny to some of them significant social benefits unless we can show that there is a difference between them that is relevant to the differential treatment." This quote supports the principle of

Equality

Slavery was prohibited by the Nineteenth Amendment of the U. S. Constitution.

False

The people affected by secondary racism or sexism are

Indirectly affected by differential policies that have an unintended discriminatory effect.

All of the following are reasons an economy fails to embrace meritocracy except

Scholarships tend to go the brightest people

Libertarians typically hold a process view of justice rather than an end state view.

True

To suggest that allowing people to earn as much money as they can because doing so gives people incentive to be maximally productive comes under which form of reasoning?

Utilitarianism

To suggest that Tom has a right to the money that is earned as a result of his innovative idea comes under which form of ethical reasoning?

Natural law

Rawls believes justice is to social institutions as

Truth is to scientific systems

An "end state" view of economic justice is one that is concerned about how things turn out in terms of distribution of wealth in a society.

True

The people in the original position in choosing behind a "veil of ignorance" do not know any biasing things about themselves but do know that they would want what any person would want.

True

Rawls’s second principle of justice requires that an inequality in goods in a society is just provided that the people have merited what they have.

False

Distributive justice has to do with

How goods are allocated among persons

According to a process view of economic justice, a social distribution of wealth is just if and only if the disparities in wealth are due to differences in merit, achievement, or contribution.

False

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