# Essentials of Statistics for Business and Economics- Chapter 2

Total word count: 1991
Pages: 7

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 A frequency distribution is a tabular summary of data showing the a. fraction of items in several classes b. percentage of items in several classes c. relative percentage of items in several classes d. number of items in several classes d. number of items in several classes A tabular summary of a set of data showing the fraction of the total number of items in several classes is a a. frequency distribution b. relative frequency distribution c. frequency d. cumulative frequency distribution b. relative frequency distribution The relative frequency of a class is computed by a. dividing the midpoint of the class by the sample size b. dividing the frequency of the class by the midpoint c. dividing the sample size by the frequency of the class d. dividing the frequency of the class by the sample size d. dividing the frequency of the class by the sample size The percent frequency of a class is computed by a. multiplying the relative frequency by 10 b. dividing the relative frequency by 100 c. multiplying the relative frequency by 100 d. adding 100 to the relative frequency c. multiplying the relative frequency by 100 The sum of frequencies for all classes will always equal a. 1 b. the number of elements in a data set c. the number of classes d. a value between 0 and 1 b. the number of elements in a data set Fifteen percent of the students in a school of Business Administration are majoring in Economics, 20% in Finance, 35% in Management, and 30% in Accounting. The graphical device(s) which can be used to present these data is (are) a. a line chart b. only a bar chart c. only a pie chart d. both a bar chart and a pie chart d. both a bar chart and a pie chart A researcher is gathering data from four geographical areas designated: South = 1; North = 2; East = 3; West = 4. The designated geographical regions represent a. categorical data b. quantitative data c. label data d. either quantitative or categorical data a. categorical data Categorical data can be graphically represented by using a(n) a. histogram b. frequency polygon c. ogive d. bar chart d. bar chart A cumulative relative frequency distribution shows a. the proportion of data items with values less than or equal to the upper limit of each class b. the proportion of data items with values less than or equal to the lower limit of each class c. the percentage of data items with values less than or equal to the upper limit of each class d. the percentage of data items with values less than or equal to the lower limit of each class a. the proportion of data items with values less than or equal to the upper limit of each class If several frequency distributions are constructed from the same data set, the distribution with the widest class width will have the a. fewest classes b. most classes c. same number of classes as the other distributions since all are constructed from the same data a. fewest classes The sum of the relative frequencies for all classes will always equal a. the sample size b. the number of classes c. one d. any value larger than one c. one The sum of the percent frequencies for all classes will always equal a. one b. the number of classes or equal to the lower limit of each class c. the number of items in the study d. 100 d. 100 The most common graphical presentation of quantitative data is a a. histogram b. bar chart c. relative frequency d. pie chart a. histogram The total number of data items with a value less than the upper limit for the class is given by the a. frequency distribution b. relative frequency distribution c. cumulative frequency distribution d. cumulative relative frequency distribution c. cumulative frequency distribution The relative frequency of a class is computed by a. dividing the cumulative frequency of the class by n b. dividing n by cumulative frequency of the class c. dividing the frequency of the class by n d. dividing the frequency of the class by the number of classes c. dividing the frequency of the class by n In constructing a frequency distribution, the approximate class width is computed as a. (largest data value – smallest data value)/number of classes b. (largest data value – smallest data value)/sample size c. (smallest data value – largest data value)/sample size d. largest data value/number of classes a. (largest data value – smallest data value)/number of classes In constructing a frequency distribution, as the number of classes are decreased, the class width a. decreases b. remains unchanged c. increases d. can increase or decrease depending on the data values c. increases The difference between the lower class limits of adjacent classes provides the a. number of classes b. class limits c. class midpoint *d. class width … In a cumulative frequency distribution, the last class will always have a cumulative frequency equal to a. one b. 100% c. the total number of elements in the data set d. None of these alternatives is correct. c. the total number of elements in the data set In a cumulative relative frequency distribution, the last class will have a cumulative relative frequency equal to a. one b. zero c. the total number of elements in the data set d. None of these alternatives is correct. a. one In a cumulative percent frequency distribution, the last class will have a cumulative percent frequency equal to a. one b. 100 c. the total number of elements in the data set d. None of these alternatives is correct. b. 100 Data that provide labels or names for categories of like items are known as a. categorical data b. quantitative data c. label data d. category data a. categorical data A tabular method that can be used to summarize the data on two variables simultaneously is called a. simultaneous equations b. crosstabulation c. a histogram d. an ogive b. crosstabulation A graphical presentation of the relationship between two variables is a. an ogive b. a histogram c. either an ogive or a histogram, depending on the type of data d. a scatter diagram d. a scatter diagram A histogram is said to be skewed to the left if it has a a. longer tail to the right b. shorter tail to the right c. shorter tail to the left d. longer tail to the left d. longer tail to the left When a histogram has a longer tail to the right, it is said to be a. symmetrical b. skewed to the left c. skewed to the right d. none of these alternatives is correct c. skewed to the right In a scatter diagram, a line that provides an approximation of the relationship between the variables is known as a. approximation line b. trend line c. line of zero intercept d. line of zero slope b. trend line A histogram is a. a graphical presentation of a frequency or relative frequency distribution b. a graphical method of presenting a cumulative frequency or a cumulative relative frequency distribution c. the history of data elements d. the same as a pie chart a. a graphical presentation of a frequency or relative frequency distribution A situation in which conclusions based upon aggregated crosstabulation are different from unaggregated crosstabulation is known as a. wrong crosstabulation b. Simpson’s rule c. Simpson’s paradox d. aggregated crosstabulation c. Simpson’s paradox The reversal of conclusions based on aggregate and unaggregated data is called a. Simpson’s paradox b. Trim’s paradox c. Poisson dilemma d. Simon’s paradox a. Simpson’s paradox Conclusions drawn from two or more separate crosstabulations that can be reversed when the data are aggregated into a single crosstabulation is known as a. incorrect crosstabulation b. error of crosstabulation c. simpson’s crosstabulation d. Simpson’s paradox d. Simpson’s paradox Which of the following graphical methods shows the relationship between two variables? a. pie chart b. Ogive c. crosstabulation d. dot plot c. crosstabulation The ____ can be used to show the rank order and shape of a data set simultaneously. a. Ogive b. pie chart c. stem-and-leaf display d. bar chart c. stem-and-leaf display Which of the following is a graphical summary of a set of data in which each data value is represented by a dot above the axis? a. histogram b. box plot c. dot plot d. crosstabulation c. dot plot A set of visual displays that organizes and presents information that is used to monitor the performance of a company or organization in a manner that is easy to read, understand, and interpret. a. data dashboard b. data computation c. hypothesis testing d. organization of the hypothesis a. data dashboard A line that provides an approximation of the relationship between two variables is known as the a. relationship line b. Trend line c. line of 2 variables d. approximation of two variables b. Trend line A frequency distribution is a tabular summary of data showing the a. fraction of items in several classes b. percentage of items in several classes c. relative percentage of items in several classes d. number of items in several classes d. number of items in several classes Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The class width for this distribution a. is 9 b. is 10 c. is 39, which is: the largest value minus the smallest value or 39 – 0 = 39 d. varies from class to class b. is 10 Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The number of students working 19 hours or less a. is 80 b. is 100 c. is 180 d. is 300 b. is 100 Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The relative frequency of students working 9 hours or less a. is 20 b. is 100 c. is 0.95 d. 0.05 d. 0.05 Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The percentage of students working 19 hours or less is a. 20% b. 25% c. 75% d. 80% b. 25% Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The cumulative relative frequency for the class of 20 – 29 a. is 300 b. is 0.25 c. is 0.75 d. is 0.5 c. is 0.75 Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The cumulative percent frequency for the class of 30 – 39 is a. 100% b. 75% c. 50% d. 25% a. 100% Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The cumulative frequency for the class of 20 – 29 a. is 200 b. is 300 c. is 0.75 d. is 0.5 b. is 300 Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. If a cumulative frequency distribution is developed for the above data, the last class will have a cumulative frequency of a. 100 b. 1 c. 30 – 39 d. 400 d. 400 Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The percentage of students who work at least 10 hours per week is a. 50% b. 5% c. 95% d. 100% c. 95% Exhibit 2-1 The number of hours worked (per week) by 400 statistics students are shown below. Number of Hours Frequency 0 – 9 20 10 – 19 80 20 – 29 200 30 – 39 100 Refer to Exhibit 2-1. The number of students who work 19 hours or less is a. 80 b. 100 c. 200 d. 400 b. 100

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