Ess 2 Final Review- Quizzes 5-8

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Republican leaders, such as Ron Paul, have called for tighter legal restrictions on marijuana possession


Studies of the effects of marijuana on automobile driving show

Significant impairments when inexperienced users are studied in a laboratory environment

The 1999 report from the Institute of Medicine said that marijuana cigarettes should be made available to any medical patient on the recommendation of a physician


The 1999 report from the Institute of Medicine suggested that marijuana cigarettes should

Be allowed for no more than six months for patients with intractable pain or vomiting

Studies show that marijuana increases which of the following?

Nonverbal social interactions

The Marijuana Tax Act, the first federal law regulating cannabis, was passed in 1937


The 70 chemicals that are known to be unique to the cannabis plant are called


The flowering tops (buds) of unpollinated female cannabis plants produce a high-grade marijuana known as


CB1 receptors are found mainly outside the brain in immune cells


Cannabis indica has more psychoactive potency, whereas Cannabis sativa is more associated with


In 1985, the FDA approved the sale of dronabinol (Marinol), which

Is a capsule containing THC

The abuse potential of THC

Is higher for smoked than for oral THC

The American public began to take interest in the new drug menace known as marijuana

After a New Orleans newspaper in 1926 associated its use with crime

The primary active ingredient in marijuana is

Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

Tolerance to the effects of smoked marijuana

Allows experienced marijuana users to obtain euphoric effects with minimal cognitive impairment

As part of the Omnibus Crime Control Act of 1990, anabolic steroids were

Listed as Schedule III controlled substances, with limited prescription refills

Women who use steroids to increase their strength might produce some irreversible effects, including

Increased facial hair growth

College athletes who want to avoid failing a drug test

Have to be very careful, because there are more than 3000 products containing banned substances

An American physician came back from the 1956 Olympic games after learning about the Soviets’ use of a steroid drug and helped to develop and test more selective ___ steroids


One of the early types of stimulant drug reported to be used by boxers and others was


The International Olympics Committee first established rules disqualifying competitors who failed or who refused to take drug tests in


Stimulants are sometimes used as performance enhancers in academic settings as well as athletic competitions


We have had scientific evidence of the effectiveness of amphetamines in enhancing athletic performance for about 50 years


Mariani’s Coca Wine, which was sold as "wine for athletes," was an early version of a cola drink containing large amounts of caffeine


One ingredient in dietary supplements was banned by the FDA in 2004 after a MLB pitcher died from heat stroke after using it. The ingredient was


The 2003 BALCO scandal involved a laboratory that was

Selling a previously undetectable steroid to baseball players

What of the following stimulant drugs have been used as performance enhancers in athletic competitions?

Strychnine, cocaine, caffeine

One concern about the use of high doses of steroids is increased aggressiveness, known as "roid rage"


In the 1800s, the French cycling team endorsed Mariani’s "wine for athletes" that contained


Extensive testing of the effects of amphetamines has concluded that they

Can improve performances by a few percentage points

According to recent data, marijuana is a clear cause of psychosis


Rimonabant is a CB1 receptor antagonist that was used as an anti-obesity agent. What was the drug removed from the global market in 2009?

Concern about dangerous psychological side effects

The 1944 LaGuardia report of the NY Academy of Medicine concluded that "those who have been smoking marijuana for a period of years…"

Showed no mental or physical deterioration

Although regular marijuana smokers often show a slowing of cognitive processing, evidence for negative acute cognitive effects is less dramatic than it is for infrequent users


The natural substance found in the body that has marijuana-like effects is called ayahuasca


Cannabis sativa is grown primarily for its psychoactive resins


Laboratory studies have not been able to document impaired driving performance after smoking marijuana


The primary active ingredient in marijuana is THC


It is a common misperception that marijuana smokers get "the munchies" and eat more, but laboratory studies have not supported this idea


Panic reactions can be a common reaction in inexperienced marijuana smokers


Which of the following did NOT occur in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s in the US?

Marijuana use among high school students reached an all-time low

As of mid-2014, at least ___ states and Washington, DC have passed ballot initiatives allowing the use of medical marijuana


A consistent cognitive effect of marijuana, seen both in frequent users and in less experienced users, is

Slowing of cognitive processing

Dronabinol, THC in a capsule, is legally available for prescription by physicians


In a study of heart rate changes following smoked marijuana with 4% THC or 20 mg oral THC

Peak effects were similar, but smoking produced a faster onset of effects

At the highest level of athletic competition (such as the mile run), amphetamines are probably not beneficial as performance enhancers because they only improve performance by 1%


Some bodybuilders are trying to appear not only big and strong, but also lean. This is sometimes referred to as looking

Cut, ripped, or shredded

Use of substances to enhance performance in athletic competition has been traced back to ancient Egyptians, early Greeks, and the Aztecs


In the NFL, use of both amphetamines and steroids by players was banned in 1971


An ideal body fat range for a healthy male is


Rather than testosterone, athletes prefer to use more selective androgenic steroids


Some beta-2 agonists sold for treating asthma have been used by athletes as "nonsteroidal anabolic agents"


The origin of the word "dope" is derived from the Dutch word used in South Africa to refer to

A cheap brandy used to impair the performance of racing horses

One widely-used legal dietary supplement that has been shown to increase strength is


It has been difficult to do double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on the effects of steroids because

They produce detectable psychological effects

Which of these was NOT one of the three reasons given for why we focus so much attention on drug use by athletes?

Athletes make so much money

Laboratory studies of endurance on stationary bicycles have found that caffeine

Can significantly improve work output at doses of 300-500 mg

Stimulant drugs like caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine are sometimes considered to increase energy output and are, therefore, called ___ drugs


So-called "pituitary giants" often die at an early age because their internal organs continue to grow due to excessive production of

Human growth hormone

During and after World War II, it was found that malnourished people could gain weight more rapidly if they were treated with


Which of these is NOT one of the Institute of Medicine’s classifications for prevention programs?

Affective prevention

One of SAMHSA’s model community prevention programs

Works for changes in alcohol policies and ordinances

Tertiary prevention programs are aimed at

People who have completed treatment for dependence and need relapse prevention or follow up

The DARE program stands for

Drug Abuse Resistance Education

The social influence model grew out of a 1976 paper describing a successful prevention approach aimed at

Cigarette smoking

Having students discuss their reactions to various moral and ethical dilemmas as a means to help them clarify their own values was one example of the general prevention approach known as

Affective education

According to the textbook, a 2005 law concerning methamphetamine further restricted

The sale of pseudoephedrine

Primary prevention programs are aimed at

Young people who have not tried drugs

The "Drug-Free Schools" approach has a big focus on drug laws and school policies, supporting the idea that illicit drug use is wrong and harmful


Which of these was NOT discussed as an effective family-based drug prevention approach?

Providing urine test kits to parents

CBT approaches to treatment

Have the clients to identify people, places, and behaviors associated with drug use

The substance that accounted for the most admissions in the Treatment Episode Data Set from 2011 was


Studies of court-ordered referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous versus other types of interventions have

Not found differences in effectiveness between AA and other approaches

The majority of drug treatment takes place in an outpatient setting


The most common form of medical treatment for opioid addiction is

Methadone maintenance

In discussing what we should be doing in drug prevention, the text says, "above all"

Avoid sensational scare stories and preachy approaches

Which of these is NOT one of the successful components included in the social influence model?

Discussing the penalties for getting caught with cigarettes

Teaching parenting skills and doing family interaction exercises are components of effective parent and family prevention programs


The Social Influence Model was first developed in a prison setting with former heroin users


Out-of-school peer programs include peer influence approaches, as well as

Peer participation programs

Although naltrexone has been used to treat alcohol use disorder, it

Is an opioid antagonist, and it is not clear how it works with alcohol users

Is treatment for drug addiction effective?

Statistically, treatment does reduce crime and increase employment

The "therapeutic workplace" is an example of what approach to drug treatment?

Contingency management

Because most heroin addicted people prescribed naltrexone stop taking it,

Researchers are testing a depot form that blocks heroin’s effects for up to six weeks

In motivational enhancement therapy, drinkers are given antabuse so that they will be afraid to drink alcohol


The opioid antagonist naltrexone can prevent heroin from having its normal effect if it is injected


Giving the user rewards for drug-free urine samples

Is a form of contingency management

Moderate doses of dronabinol can be used to reduce the symptoms associated with marijuana withdrawal


Although no medication has yet received FDA approval for treating cannabis use disorder, one has shown effectiveness in relieving cannabis withdrawal symptoms. That medication is

Oral THC

Varenicline, approved in 2006 for smoking cessation

Is a partial nicotinic-receptor antagonist

The Montana Meth Project, an ad campaign that exaggerates the effects of methamphetamine, has been shown to clearly reduce methamphetamine use


In the early 1970s, the Knowledge-Attitudes-Behavior model began to be questioned when it was learned that

Students with more knowledge about drugs had a more positive attitude toward drugs

The Institute of Medicine’s proposed prevention efforts are categorized primarily according to the age groups of the targeted populations


One study of the Life Skills Training program found significantly lower use of

Marijuana, alcohol, tobacco

According to the text, the ultimate goal of workplace drug prevention programs is to

Prevent drug use by making clear that it is not condoned

In the public health model, programs designed to reach people who have started using some substances and to prevent them from abusing these substances or moving to more dangerous substances, would be classified as

Secondary prevention

DARE is one of the most widespread drug prevention programs in schools. Research on DARE has shown that

It has not produced lasting reductions in drug or alcohol use

Studies of school-based prevention programs in the 1970s showed that students who knew more about drugs and their effects were least likely to use those drugs


A 1984 review of prevention studies concluded that values clarification approaches were clearly effective in actually preventing future drug use


The most consistent feature of workplace drug prevention programs has been

Random urine testing

Which of these is an agonist therapy?

Methadone for heroin addiction and nicotine gum for tobacco addiction

Because of the potential danger of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, these symptoms are often prevented or treated by administering


Which of these has NOT received FDA approval for use during the maintenance phase of alcohol treatment?

Bupropion (Zyban)

Both drug agonist (substitution) and antagonist treatments are included in the ___ phase of treatment


Motivational enhancement therapy has as its goal

Helping the user move to another "stage of change"

Teaching students relaxation or meditation techniques was seen as one possible way of providing

Alternatives to drug use

The ad campaign Above the Influence targets which age group?


Beginning in 1986, the federal government launched a massive campaign based on anti-drug policies, locker searches, etc, to promote

"Drug-Free" schools

One of the top programs on SAMHSA’s list of effective prevention programs is DARE


Drug use and abuse is a relatively recent development in our society


Rapid opioid detoxification is based on

Anesthetizing users and administering an antagonist, so that withdrawal occurs while they are asleep

CBT may be ineffective for long-term methamphetamine users because of the many cognitive deficits caused by the drug


Before we can evaluate the success of a drug treatment program, we have to understand the program’s


The most effective potential medical treatment for cocaine use disorder appears to be the antidepressant drug citalopram


The DSM-V provides diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and substance abuse


Prevention of withdrawal symptoms using medications would be considered part of the ___ process


The only kinds of medications approved for use in smoking cessation are various forms of nicotine replacement therapy, like nicotine patches and gum


Acamprosate, the most recent drug approved to treat alcohol use disorder, is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter GABA


There is no documented cocaine withdrawal syndrome


Although many medications have been tested for treating cocaine use disorder, most have shown little promise and none has yet been approved. The most promising results have been found with


Morphine and codeine are derived from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum


One thing that apparently contributed to the spread of opium smoking in China was

A 1644 edict from the emperor forbidding tobacco smoking

Heroin became the drug of choice for many opioid users

During the 1920s, because it was easier to smuggle the small amounts needed for an effective dose

The 16th century European physician Paracelsus, and later Dr. Thomas Sydenham promoted the use of


"Black tar" is

A name given heroin from Mexico that is brown or black in its pure form

Enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins are

Three classes of endogenous chemicals that have effects similar to morphine

Withdrawal from opioid drugs is often fatal


The most popular prescription opioids are hydrocodone and oxycodone


Naloxone and nalorphine are endogenous chemicals that have effects similar to morphine


Long-term use of opioid drugs has been clearly shown to damage both the liver and the brain


The textbook says that opioid withdrawal is similar to

A bad case of intestinal flu

Heroin first became popular among opioid abusers in the 1970s, due to returning Vietnam veterans


By the beginning of the 20th century, a greater percentage of Americans were addicted to opioids than at any time before or since. Opium smoking and medical use of injected pure morphine were important contributors to this, along with

Patent medicines containing opium extracts or morphine

Siegel and his colleagues have shown in animal studies that tolerance to opioids

Is partly due to conditioned responses

In 1898, Bayer laboratories marketed diacetylmorphine tablets under the brand name


The Native American Church includes aspects of Christianity and uses ___ as a scarament


LSD was synthesized from a;kaloids derived from

Ergot fungus

The PCP experience differs from LSD and mescaline experiences in that PCP users

Report more changes in body perception

Besides hallucinations, mescaline also produces

Pupil dilation and increased heart rate and blood pressure

Synthesia refers to the experiencing of hallucinogenic effects even months after taking the drug


Anticholinergic plants like datura have potent psychological effects but are not very dangerous physiologically


Which of the following hallucinogens has NOT received recent scientific interest as a psychotherapeutic agent?


Many terms have been used for hallucinogens. The term entheogen has been used for those drugs thought to create spiritual or religious experiences


The sensation of experiencing sounds as pictures, or of seeing movements produced by musical rhythms, is known as


Similar to psilocybin, salvinorin A produces mystical experiences with no adverse effects one month after administration in the laboratory


Deadly nightshade is the common name for bufotenin


Ayahuasca is a name for the cactus containing mescaline


Unlike other hallucinogens, Salvinorin A acts as a kappa opioid receptor agonist


DMT, a short-acting hallucinogen that is usually ineffective when taken orally, is found in

Cohoba snuff

Although PCP was tested on humans, it was eventually adopted primarily for use in animals as an anesthetic and also in so-called "tranquilizer" guns


Papaver somniferum is the scientific name for

The opium poppy

Which of these opioids is about 100x as potent as morphine?


The majority of US soldiers who used heroin in Vietnam did so through the intravenous route because the drug was relatively impure


At the current time, most of the heroin in the U.S. originates from poppy fields in

Colombia and Mexico

The two major active chemicals in opium are

Morphine and codeine

The earliest recorded use of opium as a medicine was probably by

Egyptians, around 1500 BC

The fact that animals with no history of opioid withdrawal will press a lever to self-administer low doses of intravenous morphine or heroin demonstrates the importance of ___ in developing opioid addiction

Positive reinforcement

Heroin was originally a brand name for diacetylmorphine, manufactured by Bayer laboratories


The vast majority of heroin-related deaths (about 70% or more) occur as a result of heroin alone


One of the major issues facing physicians today is that patients are not taking enough prescription opioids to manage their pain


Possession of opium, morphine, or heroin without a prescription was made a crime by

A 1915 Supreme Court decision

Heroin is more potent than morphine because

It more readily crosses the blood-brain barrier

Long-term exposure to opioid drugs

Has not been clearly shown to produce damage to any tissue or organ system

Although pain relief is now the major medical use for opioids, they have been used to save many lives (especially in underdeveloped countries) because of their ability to

Treat diarrhea

In a heroin user, negative reinforcement of drug-taking behavior can occur when

Withdrawal symptoms are alleviated by another injection

The psychological effect of LSD was first reported by

Albert Hofmann, the Swiss chemist who developed the drug

The indole originally found in toad skins, that turns out not to be a very potent hallucinogen, is


Psilocybe mexicana and Psilocybe cubensis are examples of

Hallucinogenic mushrooms

The red and white speckled mushroom that has been associated with an early Christian cult as well as with other religions all over the world is

Amanita muscaria

Peace pill and angel dust have been street names for


Although LSD has complex effects in the brain, the best evidence indicates that its hallucinogenic properties are due to stimulating

Serotonin-2A receptors

The major thrust of early research on LSD was for its

Supposed ability to access the subconscious mind

The US Army experimented with the use of LSD in the mid-20th century


The early history of coffee included a 1674 pamphlet from England titled

The Women’s Petition Against Coffee

In hunter-gatherer societies, the shaman or medicine man (or woman) was important not only for understanding what we now call medicine, but also because he or she was

A spiritual, or religious leader

When evaluating drug-related data from animal studies, which of these questions should be asked?

Was the dosing regimen used similar to that use by humans? Was the route of administration similar to that used by humans? Was the drug self-administered by the animal?

One major grouping of hallucinogens typically allows the user to remain in some touch with the real world and to remember much of what he or she experienced. This group of drugs was referred to as the


The 2006 revised PATRIOT Act required that products containing ___ be kept "behind the counter," and buyers must show identification and sign for their purchase


PCP was patented as Sernyl and first tested as

A dissociative anesthetic

There is a large body of evidence indicating that MDMA use results in a severely depressed mood that lasts several days


Aspirin should not be used with children who have a viral infection because of increased risk of

Reye’s syndrome

The early LSD researcher who was fired from his academic job, became a proponent of hallucinogenic drug use, and started a religion in which LSD was the sacrament is

Timothy Leary

The main proposed use for St. John’s wort has been for treating depression


LSD and psilocybin belong to the chemical grouping of


If a bottle of pills on a drug store shelf is being sold as a dietary supplement, the label will refer to "nutritional information" and "serving size"


Theobroma, the genus name for the cacao tree, is Latin for

Food of the gods

All of the xanthines have similar effects. But which one has the greatest overall effect?


A single species of tea bush is the basis for traditional green, black, and oolong tea


The xanthine found in tea that is prescribed for asthma is called robusta


Green, black, and oolong tea are all prepared from leaves of

Camellia sinensis

Caffeine has been shown to be an effective treatment for

Migraine headaches

Aeroshot a recent product marketed as "breathable food" delivers caffeine rapidly to the brain because the drug is meant to be inhaled


In 2009, American consumed more gallons of coffee than of soft drinks


The most consistent withdrawal symptom after chronic caffeine use is


The world’s greatest per-capita consumers of tea are found in


In 1970, Americans drank more coffee than any other nonalcoholic beverage product. By 2009,

Americans drank approximately twice as many gallons of soft drinks as compared to coffee

The maximum CNS effect of caffeine is reached about ___ after drinking coffee

2 hours

The largest exporters of coffee to the US are

Colombia, Brazil, and Vietnam

One important determinant of the behavioral effects of caffeine is

Whether the person is a regular user

Often people who drink too much alcohol attempt to "sober up" by drinking coffee. Several studies support the idea that caffeine

Is likely to lead to increased arousal, but the drinker is still impaired

Caffeine dependence is not in the DSM-V because the evidence indicates that there is no withdrawal syndrome


Caffeine is thought to relieve headaches because it is

A vasoconstrictor

What dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in Alzheimer’s disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research?

Ginkgo biloba

SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) is a dietary supplement that has some research support for its possible use in treating


There has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing ___, which they take in high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations


If you buy a bottle of St. John’s wort 300 mg tablets, each tablet will contain 300 mg

Total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients

The US market for over-the-counter drug products totals about

$18 billion

Suppose you have a cold and you choose to take Tylenol Cold to treat your symptoms (runny nose, congested nasal passages, and fever). Which of these ingredients in this OTC product is unnecessary?


Why would you want dextromethorphan in a cold remedy?

It acts as a cough suppressant

Cold viruses are usually transmitted

By being picked up on the hands and touching your eyes or nose

The generic ingredient is Advil is acetylsalicylic acid


The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act

Expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDA’s regulatory authority over them

The heartburn drug Prevacid was recently moved from prescription only to OTC


The FDA was given additional authority over dietary supplements in 2006 to set up

An "Adverse Events Reporting" process

Besides analgesia (pain relief), another important effect of aspirin is as a(n)

Antipyretic (reduces fever)

Suppose you had a fever, a headache, and a swollen knee. Which medication would be most appropriate to treat all three symptoms?


According to the 2012 Monitoring the Future survey, more 12th graders reported using OTC cough medicines containing dextromethorphan compared to cocaine or methamphetamine


The unique xanthine in chocolate is


A 12-oz Pepsi or Coke contains more caffeine than a Vivarin tablet


A typical cup of brewed tea contains just under half as much caffeine as a typical cup of brewed coffee


Most American coffee comes from China


The legend of the discovery of coffee relates to

Kaldi and his dancing goats

Large doses of caffeine have been shown to produce panic attacks in individuals with a history of panic disorder


Which of the following has the highest amount of caffeine per serving?

Pepsi MAX

Caffeine works in the brain by

Blocking adenosine receptors

In 1909, the FDA seized some Coca-Cola syrup and filed charges against the company partly because

The syrup contained caffeine

Drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day

Doubles the risk of a heart attack

Most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup?

40-60 mg (about half the amount in coffee)

There are no consistent documented withdrawal symptoms from caffeine


The FDA panels that review OTC drugs approve ingredients, not the actual products that often contain several ingredients


Starting in 2007, the only FDA-approved OTC weight-control ingredient is

Orlistat (alli)

The textbook suggests that consumers are best able to choose from among the wide variety of OTC products by

Knowing a fairly small number of ingredient names

Acetylsalicylic acid was developed in the Bayer laboratory in Germany in 1898 and sold under the brand name


Because of the way the FDA reviews and approves OTC drugs,

Various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients

OTC drugs approved as sleep aids, like Nytol and Sominex,

Contain an antihistamine such as diphenhydramine

Orlistat, found in the OTC weight control product alli, interferes with the absorption of fats from the intestine


The evidence indicates that many dietary supplements enhance male sexual performance


NSAID stands for

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Many of the capsules, pills, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA as

Food products

The acronym GRAS stands for

Generally recognized as safe

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