English 12 A

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Read the passage from Hamlet, Act I, Scene v.

Ghost: I could a tale unfold whose lightest word
Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood,
Make thy two eyes, like stars, start from their spheres,
Thy knotted and combined locks to part,
And each particular hair to stand an end …

Based on context, what is the meaning of harrow up?

c

Read the passage from Hamlet, Act I, Scene iii.

Laertes: Fear it, Ophelia, fear it, my dear sister;
And keep you in the rear of your affection,
Out of the shot and danger of desire.

The word shot, as used in the passage, makes Laertes’ argument more effective because it has a

a

Read the passage from Hamlet, Act I, Scene iii.

Laertes: Be wary then; best safety lies in fear:
Youth to itself rebels, though none else near.

Which word from the passage is most similar in meaning to wary?

b

Which meaning of habit does Shakespeare use in this passage?

b

Read the passage from Hamlet, Act I, Scene v.

Hamlet: Remember thee!
Ay, thou poor ghost, while memory holds a seat
In this distracted globe.

As it is used in the passage, globe can best be defined as a

a

Read the passage from Hamlet, Act I, Scene v.

Ophelia: And, with his other hand thus o’er his brow,
He falls to such perusal of my face
As he would draw it. Long stay’d he so;
At last, a little shaking of mine arm,
And thrice his head thus waving up and down,
He rais’d a sigh so piteous and profound
That it did seem to shatter all his bulk
And end his being.

Based on the context clues, which word from the passage means examination?

a

Read the passage from Hamlet, Act I, Scene v.

Hamlet: Why, right; you are i’ the right;

From the context, the reader can determine that the word i’ means

b

Read the passage from Hamlet, Act I, Scene iii.

Hamlet: My fate cries out,
And makes each petty artery in this body
As hardy as the Nemean lion’s nerve. [GHOST beckons.]
Still am I call’d. Unhand me, gentlemen, [Breaking from them.]
By heaven! I’ll make a ghost of him that lets me:
I say, away! Go on, I’ll follow thee. [Exeunt GHOST and HAMLET.]

Which phrase from the passage most helps create a tone of desperation?

c

Read the analysis of Hamlet, Act I, Scene v.

Shakespeare creates an anguished tone by repeating certain words in both Hamlet’s and the Ghost’s dialogue.

Which line provides the best evidence to support the analysis?

a

Read the passage from Hamlet, Act II, Scene i.

Polonius: How now, Ophelia! what’s the matter?
Ophelia: Alas! my lord, I have been so affrighted.
Polonius: With what, in the name of God?
Ophelia: My lord, as I was sewing in my closet,
Lord Hamlet, with his doublet all unbrac’d;
No hat upon his head; his stockings foul’d …

Which word in the passage is the key to understanding Ophelia’s tone?

b

Which statement best describes how the topic of death is treated differently in "An Irish Airman Foresees His Death" and "Do not go gentle into that good night"?

d

Read the excerpt from a poem a student wrote.

I saw a man who had a dog.
She wanted nothing that I had.
I saw a woman with a frog
She smiled but seemed a little sad.
I wonder if I’ll ever know,
I wonder if I’ll ever see,
Where man and woman had to go,
If man and woman would be _________.

Which word completes the rhyme scheme?

a

For what reasons do poets use parallelism? Check all that apply.

2,3,5

In a drama, how do audiences learn about a character? Check all that apply.

through the character’s own words
through what other characters say
through narration about the character
through the actions the character takes
through the way others behave toward the character

1,2,4&,5

What best describes characterization?

the way a character should be performed
how a main character meets his or her downfall
how a main character overcomes a tragedy
the way a character is presented and developed

d

Claudius: Take thy fair hour, Laertes; time be thine,
And thy best graces spend it at thy will.
But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son,—

Hamlet: [Aside.] A little more than kin, and less than kind.

The aside reveals to the audience Hamlet’s

respect for Laertes.
affection for Claudius.
jealousy of Laertes.
dislike of Claudius.

d

Horatio: My lord, I came to see your father’s funeral.

Hamlet: I pray thee, do not mock me, fellow-student;
I think it was to see my mother’s wedding.

Horatio: Indeed, my lord, it follow’d hard upon.

Hamlet: Thrift, thrift, Horatio! the funeral bak’d meats
Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables.

In the excerpt, Shakespeare characterizes Hamlet as

amused that he was able to attend his own mother’s wedding.
disgusted that Gertrude and Claudius married so quickly.
grateful that his mother did not have to remain a widow for long.
resentful that Gertrude and Claudius wasted so much food.

b

In Hamlet, Act I, Scene i, which character does Shakespeare use most to create suspense?

Bernardo
Francisco
Ghost
Horatio

C

[Hamlet:] Must I remember? why, she would hang on him,
As if increase of appetite had grown
By what it fed on; and yet, within a month,
Let me not think on ‘t: Frailty, thy name is woman!
A little month; or ere those shoes were old
With which she follow’d my poor father’s body,
Like Niobe, all tears; why she, even she,—
O God! a beast, that wants discourse of reason,
Would have mourn’d longer,—married with mine uncle,
My father’s brother, but no more like my father
Than I to Hercules . . .

In this excerpt, Hamlet characterizes his mother as

eager.
fickle.
loyal.
sickly.

B

Which are structural elements that are unique to dramas? Check all that apply.

acts
scenes
sentences
stage directions
rising actions

1,2&4

In Hamlet, Act I, Scene ii, which dramatic convention does Shakespeare employ most?

He inserts unexpected humor.
He introduces a major conflict.
He hints at a happy ending.
He resolves the earlier suspense.

B

Claudius: Take thy fair hour, Laertes; time be thine,
And thy best graces spend it at thy will.
But now, my cousin Hamlet, and my son,—

Hamlet: [Aside.] A little more than kin, and less than kind.

Claudius: How is it that the clouds still hang on you?

Hamlet: Not so, my lord; I am too much i’ the sun.

What is the most likely reason that Shakespeare chose this point in the play to give Hamlet his first aside?

Shakespeare is alerting the audience to the conflict between Claudius and Hamlet.
Shakespeare is making sure the audience knows early on that Hamlet is a tragic hero.
Shakespeare is contrasting Hamlet with Laertes to create suspense for the audience.
Shakespeare is hinting to the audience that Claudius will cause an unhappy ending for Hamlet.

A

Which excerpt from Hamlet, Act I, Scene i is a stage direction?

Enter to him BERNARDO.

What is the main purpose of Horatio’s speech?

To inform the audience of the events leading up to this point

In Hamlet, Act I, Scene i, which character does Shakespeare use most to create suspense?

Ghost

In a drama, how do audiences learn about a character? Check all that apply

a) Through the character’s own words b) Through what other characters say c) Through the actions the character takes d) Through the way others behave toward the character

What best describes characterization?

The way a character is presented and developed

In Hamlet, Act I, Scene ii, which dramatic convention does Shakespeare employ most?

He introduces a major conflict.

In this excerpt, Hamlet characterizes his mother as

Fickle

Which is the best description of how Gertrude is characterized in this passage?

Gertrude is critical of her son’s continued mourning and urges him to move on.

What do Marcellus’s and Horatio’s characterization of the ghost imply?

The something bad is going on

The aside reveals to the audience Hamlet’s

Dislike of Claudius

Shakespeare portrays Hamlet as a man who falls from a high status, which makes Hamlet an example of a(n) __________.

Tragic hero

Which are structural elements that are unique to dramas? Check all that apply.

1. Acts 2. Scenes 3. Stage directions

Hamlet, Act I, Scene i contains suspense because it

Has plot twists and unresolved questions.

Read the phrase.

meanwhile, with the golden and yellow

How should the writer revise the phrase to make it a clause?

by adding a subject and a verb

Read the sentence.

We journaled about our adventure.

This is an independent clause because it contains

a complete thought.

Read the passage.

Recently, in the waning dark hours just before dawn, the mother raccoon clambered up the side of the tree, where she proceeded to chew a hole in the trunk. The next evening, she moved into the tree with her two cubs.

Which section of the passage is a dependent clause?

where she proceeded to chew a hole in the trunk

Which is a compound sentence?

I painted my bedroom beige, but my sister painted her room blue.

Which is an example of a dependent clause?

as the storm approaches from the north

Read the sentence.

Then, like fluffy bits of cotton candy, the pink clouds floated away until they disappeared from view when they passed the horizon.

Which section of the sentence is an independent clause?

the pink clouds floated away

Which is a complex sentence?

They will not defeat their enemy until they come up with a better strategy.

A(n) __________ makes clauses dependent.

Subordinating conjunction

Which are independent clauses? Check all that apply.

1. They decided to take a long walk 2. We were able to arrive on schedule 3. He was unsure how to proceed

Which is a complex sentence?

They will not defeat their enemy until they come up with a better strategy.

Which revision uses a coordinating conjunction to combine the sentences?

The inventor initially struggled to solve the problem. She discovered an ingenious solution.

The inventor initially struggled to solve the problem, but she discovered an ingenious solution.

Which analysis of the passage is correct?

All the students signed a petition, but they still needed the faculty’s permission to start the club. The students came to the next faculty meeting, and they presented a solid argument. All of their hard work paid off because the students won their campaign.

It contains two compound sentences and one complex sentence.

Which is an example of a dependent clause?

As the storm approaches from the north

How can the passage best be described?

The rocket is fully fueled, and the liftoff is scheduled for next week. The journey to the space station should take five hours, but it could take longer. The mission control team is very experienced, so the launch should go smoothly.

It has all compound sentences.

Clause

A group of words that includes both a subject and a verb

Complex sentence

A sentence that includes an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses

Compound sentence

A sentence that includes two or more independent clauses

Conjunction

A word used to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences

Dependent clause

A clause that does not express a complete thought

Independent clause

A clause that expresses a complete thought

Clause examples:

a. My mother texted me b. Because the teacher arrived c. Susan waited patiently d. I swim e. Because she visited f. The lion roared g. If we made pancakes for breakfast

Not clause examples:

a. The science classroom at my school b. Seems friendly c. Those zebras d. Whispered to me

Independent clause examples:

a. Jessica joined the swim team b. Dogs make great pets c. My brother loves drawing d. Kate enjoys watching football e. Jeremiah studied for the quiz f. My grandmother made rice and beans g. We need to wash the windows tomorrow h. Spring cleaning can be fun

Dependent clause examples:

a. Because Cory forgot his book b. When I go to Ohio c. Although Kate enjoys watching football d. Because Jeremiah studied for the quiz

Which sentences correctly use conjunctions or conjunctive adverbs?

1. Although horseback riding is fun, it can be expensive. 2. Horseback riding is fun; however, it can be expensive. 3. Horseback riding is fun, but it can be expensive.

Which sentences correctly use conjunctive adverbs correctly?

1. I believe, therefore, that this is the best course of action. 2. Regular exercise makes you stronger; also, it helps you sleep. 3. You should not sing in the concert if you have a cold, however. 4. Meanwhile, Cassie collected shells on the beach.

Which sentence is a complex sentence?

Although I am tired, I will finish my homework.

Which revision correctly uses a conjunctive adverb to link the two ideas?

The night was cold and windy. We stayed outside to study the constellations.

Our breath frosted the night air; nevertheless, we lingered outside to study the constellations.

Which is a compound sentence?

I painted my bedroom beige, but my sister painted her room blue.

Which section of the passage is a dependent clause?

Recently, in the waning dark hours just before dawn, the mother raccoon clambered up the side of the tree, where she proceeded to chew a hole in the trunk. The next evening, she moved into the tree with her two cubs.

Where she proceeded to chew a hole in the trunk

Which revision changes the dependent clause into an independent clause?

After the conversation with her publisher, when she decided to write an autobiography.

After the conversation with her publisher, she decided to write an autobiography.

What must the writer add to the sentence above in order to create a compound sentence?

A hedge of rosemary and lavender surrounded the herb garden.

A coordinating conjunction and an independent clause

This is an independent clause because it contains a __________.

We journaled about our adventure.

Complete thought

At the time, women were required to be utterly subservient to men, given limited education and career choices, and subjected to stringent rules of etiquette and dress. Queen Elizabeth herself is quoted as saying: "Better beggar woman and single than Queen and married." Elizabeth remained single throughout her life because marrying would have meant giving up her autonomy as monarch. The fact that even the queen had to take such measures to protect her access to self-governance illustrates the harsh plight of upper-class women of the time.

According to the passage, of all the areas of an Elizabethan woman’s life, the one that was most responsible for the woman’s lack of independence was .

marriage

Sometimes guests brought their own knives and spoons, and sometimes they were furnished by the host. If not eating something soft or soupy that required a spoon, people ate with their fingers, using their knives only to take food from the main serving platter and to cut it when necessary. The knife was placed on the right side of the trencher, and the bread was on the left. Cups were not placed on the table. If a guest wanted a drink, he or she would ask a servant, who would bring them a cup that was kept on a side table or sometimes in a cool bath of water. When the guest finished drinking, they would return the cup to the servant, who would rinse it out, making it ready for the next guest.

Based on the explicit and implicit information from the passage, the reader can infer that

tableware was rarer in Elizabethan times than it is today.

Gold-paneled ballrooms with crystal chandeliers. Dashing knights and handsome lords bowing at the knees of elegant ladies. And the loveliest part of all? The ladies themselves, bedecked in ornate gowns, drinking from jeweled goblets before gracing the gentlemen with dances.

Now read the passage from a paper on time travel.

Any time traveler must consider visiting Elizabethan England. There are beautiful castles, gorgeous outfits to wear, and decadent food to eat. The wonders abound!

The most accurate comparison of the two texts is that both

persuade the reader of the delights of Elizabethan England.

It seems strange for your Serene Highness to write that you understand from your brother and your ambassadors that we have entirely determined not to marry an absent husband; and that we shall give you no certain reply until we shall have seen your person.

In the passage, Elizabeth appeals to the Prince of Sweden’s

credibility

Highborn Elizabethan women lived difficult, suffocating lives with many rules and few choices.

In the sentence, the writer describes

the central idea.

Queen Elizabeth thinks Erik of Sweden is needlessly vain.

Which sentence from Response to Erik of Sweden is the best textual evidence for Ethan to use to support his inference?

But that we are not to give you an answer until we have seen your person is so far from the thing itself that we never even considered such a thing.

Anita was instructed to summarize Elizabethan Women. In order to do so, she should make sure the language she uses in her summary is

objective.

The Elizabethan era, the years between 1558-1603 when Elizabeth I reigned as Queen of England, is known for its emphasis on courtly manners. The most esteemed book on the subject was Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier, also referred to as The Courtier. The Courtier was translated from its original Italian into English in 1561, and its rules were carefully followed by the highest-ranking courtiers of the day.

According to the passage, society first began to closely follow etiquette rules when

Elizabeth I started her reign as Queen of England.

Next, the salt cellar was placed on the table. The cellar, or container, for the salt was decorative, and the main adornment for most tables. It occupied a place of honor, and as such, the placement of the salt also determined where guests sat, with the host and his or her most honored guests on one side and guests of lesser importance on the other. Therefore, no one sat down until the salt cellar, also simply called "the salt," was placed.

All guests would be led into the dining hall, in order of their importance. The lord, or host, would sit at the head of the table, with the most honored guests on the right and the least honored on the left. Guests would always wash their hands prior to beginning the meal, and grace was said before the food was served.

when the attendees arrived when the grace was said when the salt cellar was placed when the guests washed their hands

If you happened to be a lord or lady in the court of Queen Elizabeth I, one way that you would occupy your time might be learning the plethora of etiquette rules so complex that one would have to memorize them as people today might memorize the lyrics to their favorite songs.

The main topic of the passage is

Elizabethan manners.

Although Queen Elizabeth is polite, she also seems a bit annoyed. For example, she says, "It seems strange for your Serene Highness to write that you understand from your brother and your ambassadors that we have entirely determined not to marry an absent husband; and that we shall give you no certain reply until we shall have seen your person."

By including the quote, Sophie is

using textual evidence to support her inference.

Which sentence from Response to Erik of Sweden best summarizes Queen Elizabeth’s purpose for writing the letter?

And that indeed does not happen because we doubt in any way of your love and honour, but, as often we have testified both in words and writing, that we have never yet conceived a feeling of that kind of affection towards anyone.

Which question should writers ask in order to consider their audience?

Who will read my writing?

For I assure you (what credit my assurance may have with you, I cannot tell, but what credit it shall deserve to have, the sequel shall declare) I will never in that matter conclude any thing that shall be prejudicial to the realm. For the weal, good and safety whereof, I will never shun to spend my life.

Which excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury shares the common purpose of persuading her audience that she is willing to do what is best for England?

I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die among you all.

Food is valuable in Elizabethan England, far more so than in the modern world. A flock of 180 sheep is worth more than the average detached house. The difficulties of transportation mean that the food supply depends heavily on what grows locally and how much surplus is available. It also depends on the season. Harvest is obviously a time of much grain and fruit.

Which ideas are implicitly stated in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

Not many Elizabethans ate exotic fruit. Food was more scarce during the winter months. More people had food during harvest season.

The purpose of adding relevant evidence to a paragraph is to

support a point.

The realm shall not remain destitute of any heir that may be a fit governour, and peradventure more beneficial to the realm, than such offspring as may come of me: For though I be never so careful of your well-doing, and mind ever so to be, yet may my issue grow out of kind, and become perhaps ungracious.

What is Queen Elizabeth’s purpose in this excerpt?

to persuade Parliament that the method of choosing successors to the throne based simply on birthright needs to be revised

In 1587 Thomas Kyd produces The Spanish Tragedy, and soon afterward Christopher Marlowe brings out the first part of Tamburlaine the Great. . . . They employ new verse forms, allowing different spoken rhythms, and compose bold speeches with greater resonance and meaning. The new conceptual framework of a revenge tragedy in particular allows them to portray powerful emotions voiced by strong characters. Suddenly it is possible to show so much more passion on the stage.

What was the most direct cause of the more passionate performances?

the new verse forms and conceptual framework

At the end of the day, the dusk was filled by the coyote’s haunting call.

Which revision puts the sentence in the active voice while maintaining the meaning?

At the end of the day, the coyote’s haunting call filled the dusk.

Which sentence is an example of an objective summary?

Modern medicine has changed dramatically since the 1500s.

In The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England, Mortimer helps readers relate to how deadly the plague was. He uses specific, clear examples to make his points, such as in the following example.

Which is the best evidence to add to the passage to support the writer’s point?

An estimated 250,000 peoe died during the epidemic.

Which excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury rely on a rhetorical appeal to ethos to persuade soldiers that she is a capable commander? Check all that apply.

I do not desire to live to distrust. I have the heart and stomach of a king. I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder. I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time.

Elizabethan people suffer from some afflictions that no longer exist in modern England. Plague is the obvious example but it is by no means the only one. Sweating sickness kills tens of thousands of people on its first appearance in 1485 and periodically thereafter. It is a terrifying disease because sufferers die within hours. It doesn’t return after a particularly bad outbreak in 1556 but people do not know whether it has gone for good; they still fear it, and it continues to be part of the medical landscape for many years.

How does the paragraph develop the central idea that Elizabethans suffered from diseases that are unfamiliar to modern readers?

It provides the example of sweating sickness.

The hotel lobby with fans hoping for an autograph as soon as word spreads that the movie star is staying in the penthouse.

will flood

If you are hungry, you might feel inclined to turn to poaching. But be careful: this is risky. Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence. Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law; even taking a single fish from a river can result in a fine of a shilling or more. It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit; but, even so, you will get a fine amounting to three times the value of the animal as well as three months in prison, and you will have to enter into a bond to guarantee your good behavior in the future; a second offense will be treated more harshly. If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault. You may find yourself on the gallows if you injure him.

Which detail from the text best supports the inference that farm animals were very valuable in Elizabethan England?

Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence.

Which correctly evaluates Shakespeare’s use of theme in the passage?

When Claudius uses flattery to convince Laertes to kill Hamlet, Shakespeare emphasizes the theme "Pride leads to downfall."

What is the meaning of the underlined phrase?

It’s twelve o’clock.

What is the most likely reason Shakespeare repeats "great" and "greatly"?

Shakespeare capitalizes on the multiple meanings of "great" to help emphasize Hamlet’s point.

By viewing this excerpt through a historical lens, the reader can conclude that Shakespeare uses the promise of violence to

keep his audience engaged.

The way Hamlet changes over the course of the play is called .

character development

Which conclusion about Claudius does the excerpt support?

He is not a popular king.

Which passage from Hamlet, Act II, Scene i is an example of setting?

A Room in POLONIUS’ House.

What is the most likely reason Shakespeare included this passage?

He introduces the conflict between Ophelia and Hamlet, thereby adding suspense and advancing the plot.

Based on the passage, which best describes how Laertes feels about his father’s death?

anxious to avenge his father’s death

To view the excerpt through a historical lens, which questions should the reader ask? Check all that apply.

How does the structure of the text help the audience to understand the situation with Fortinbras? What beliefs were common during this period that make the appearance of a ghost believable to the audience? What major political events occurred that the audience can compare to the politics in the scene?

Shakespeare makes allusions to the great rulers Alexander and Caesar to

emphasize that everyone eventually dies.

Which phrase from the excerpt best reflects Hamlet’s state of mind?

How weary, stale,

When a reader the choices in the various versions of Hamlet, he or she is assessing the quality of them.

evaluates

With its focus on the worldly theme of proper dating behavior, this excerpt provides an example of

Elizabethan drama.

Which accurately and objectively summarizes the theme that is developed by Hamlet’s thought process in this passage?

The truth will set you free.

When Hamlet refers to Ophelia as a nymph, this is an example of a(n) .

allusion

Based on the context of the excerpt, the best definition of larded is

"filled."

Shakespeare included this plot event to help show that Gertrude has changed from

happy to remorseful.

When viewed through a formalist lens, the point of Shakespeare’s structure is to

emphasize Hamlet’s indecision that recurs throughout the play.

To make the First Player a complex character, Shakespeare would need to make him

change over time.

Which phrase from the excerpt most adds a tone of self-loathing to the speech?

And enterprises of great pith and moment

What does this passage indicate about Gertrude?

Gertrude’s dialogue shows her sense of urgency and desperation, proving that she is truly worried about Hamlet.

When a reader studies the combined effect of similes, metaphors, and allusions in Hamlet, the reader is analyzing the choices.

language

Which analysis is most justified by the excerpt?

As the play draws to a close, Hamlet still has not conquered his fear of death.

The student identified a

theme.

How does the author effectively show the establishment of Elizabethan theaters?

Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan on a site nearby; and in 1596 Richard Burbage builds the Blackfriars Theatre, an indoor venue, although it does not open its doors until 1599. Most important of all, Shakespeare, Richard and Cuthbert Burbage, and their partners dismantle The Theatre and remove its beams to a new site at Southwark, where it is rebuilt in 1599 as the Globe. When Edward Alleyn builds the Fortune on the northern edge of the city in 1600, the array of Elizabethan theaters is complete.

By listing in chronological order when several important theaters were built.

Which sentence accurately describes the progression of events?

In 1574 the city authorities are given powers to restrict playhouses, forcing the actors to find new premises in the suburbs. This becomes a golden opportunity for John Brayne and his brother-in-law, James Burbage, who in 1576 build a new theater, simply called The Theatre, at Shoreditch, just half a mile north of Bishopsgate.

Because city authorities restricted playhouses, new theaters were built outside city limits and grew to be successful.

Which sentence most effectively helps readers envision a scene?

"If you are sitting in the gallery you will have a clear view of the stage as it projects out from the far side of the round enclosure."

Which event happened first?

The Elizabethan theater as we know it develops slowly. In 1562 the play Gorboduc, the first English play to include blank verse, is performed in front of the queen at the Inner Temple in London. This is written by two gentlemen, Thomas Sackville (the future earl of Dorset) and Thomas Norton, and leaves a lasting impression.

Gorboduc was performed in front of the queen.

Which excerpt from the text signals the sequence of events?

"At the start of the reign the majority of productions are miracle plays . . ."

Which event happened second?

These [the miracle plays] go out of favor when the privy council decrees that they are too close to Catholicism and should stop. Those at York cease in 1569. In Chester the citizens defy the privy council and continue performing their play about Noah’s Flood well into the 1570s.

The plays being performed in York ceased.

Which event most directly caused the council to order the closure of all theaters in London?

By the end of the reign he [Jonson] has married, had two children and lost one, tried to become an actor and failed, become a playwright, been arrested for a scurrilous play and released, killed another actor in a duel, been arrested again and put on trial for murder, and escaped hanging by pleading benefit of the clergy. The play for which he is arrested, The Isle of Dogs, coauthored with Thomas Nashe, is so slanderous and offensive that the privy council orders the closure not just of the play but of every theater in London.

Jonson and Nashe writing The Isle of Dogs

What does a chronological text structure use to signal the sequence of time?

Words or dates

The purpose of the second-person point of view in the excerpt is to

As you approach the theaters you will notice that they all seem to be round; in fact, they are polygonal—the Globe is twenty-sided, the Rose fourteen-sided. Whichever one you choose, you can expect to queue with two thousand other people to get in. You will see people standing in hats with pipes in hand, and women in their headdresses, all chatting, with an eye open for people they know. Entrance costs a penny: this allows you to stand in the yard in front of the stage, an uncovered area (hence the need for a hat).

Make the readers feel like part of the exciting theater experience.

What should a reader consider when tracing chronological text structure? Check all that apply.

1. The causal relationships between events 2. The responses and reactions to events 3. The factors that influence events

Which excerpt from the text signals the sequence of events?

"At the start of the reign the majority of productions are miracle plays . . ."

What does a chronological text structure use to signal the sequence of time?

words or dates

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

By the end of the reign he [Jonson] has married, had two children and lost one, tried to become an actor and failed, become a playwright, been arrested for a scurrilous play and released, killed another actor in a duel, been arrested again and put on trial for murder, and escaped hanging by pleading benefit of the clergy. The play for which he is arrested, The Isle of Dogs, coauthored with Thomas Nashe, is so slanderous and offensive that the privy council orders the closure not just of the play but of every theater in London.

Which event most directly caused the council to order the closure of all theaters in London?

Jonson and Nashe writing The Isle of Dogs

What should a reader consider when tracing chronological text structure? Check all that apply.

-the causal relationships between events -the responses and reactions to events -the factors that influence events

Descriptive details help the reader

envision a concept or scenario.

Which excerpt from the text signals the sequence of events?

"Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan . . ."

Organization, tone, and word choice should be considered when evaluating effective

text structure and style.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

More theaters open their doors to the public. The Rose is built by Philip Henslowe at Southwark, not far from the bear-baiting and bull-baiting arenas, in 1587. Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan on a site nearby; and in 1596 Richard Burbage builds the Blackfriars Theatre, an indoor venue, although it does not open its doors until 1599.

Which theater opened last?

Blackfriars

Which excerpt most effectively conveys a conversational and engaging tone?

"You will see people standing in hats with pipes in hand, and women in their headdresses, all chatting, with an eye open for people they know."

Queen Elizabeth most likely used different rhetorical appeals in her Address to the Troops at Tilbury and her Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry due to differences in

wealth and upbringing.
age and education.
audience and purpose.
location and gender.

c.

When analyzing the development of a text’s central ideas, readers should consider 6

how central ideas connect

Which factor directly influenced the names of the theater companies?

d

how does the paragraph develop the central idea that Elizabethan beliefs influenced their understanding of disease 8

c It details the belief that bodily humors affect health.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Elizabethan people suffer from some afflictions that no longer exist in modern England. Plague is the obvious example but it is by no means the only one. Sweating sickness kills tens of thousands of people on its first appearance in 1485 and periodically thereafter. It is a terrifying disease because sufferers die within hours. It doesn’t return after a particularly bad outbreak in 1556 but people do not know whether it has gone for good; they still fear it, and it continues to be part of the medical landscape for many years.

How does the paragraph develop the central idea that Elizabethans suffered from diseases that are unfamiliar to modern readers?

d

Readers must consider ________ to determine the central idea in an informational text.

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

But what if it comes to the worst? What if you have painful black buboes in your groin and armpits, and experience the rapid pulse, the headaches, the terrific thirst, and delirium that are the tokens of the plague? There is little you can do. Physicians will prescribe the traditional medicines of dragon water, mithridatium, and theriac if they hear you are suffering but you will suspect that these are cynical attempts to relieve a dying person of his money. The physicians themselves will not normally come near you. Simon Forman, who does attend plague sufferers, is a rare exception: this is because he has himself survived the disease and believes he cannot catch it again.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

a

Which sentence is an example of an objective summary?

b Malaria was common in marshy areas where mosquitoes bred.

Which sentence is an example of an objective summary?

d Modern medicine has changed dramatically since the 1500s.

When providing an objective summary of a text, writers should

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Perhaps the most difficult thing to come to terms with is the scale of death. Influenza, for example, is an affliction which you no doubt have come across. However, you have never encountered anything like Elizabethan flu. It arrives in December 1557 and lasts for eighteen months. In the ten-month period August 1558 to May 1559 the annual death rate almost trebles to 7.2 percent (normally it is 2.5 percent). More than 150,000 people die from it—5 percent of the population. This is proportionally much worse than the great influenza pandemic of 1918-19 (0.53 percent mortality). Another familiar disease is malaria, which Elizabethans refer to as ague or fever.

Which sentence best helps readers determine the central idea of the paragraph?

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Serious though influenza and malaria are, they are not the biggest killers of the age. That title belongs to the plague or "pestilence." No one knows precisely how many die over the course of the reign but the total is probably around 250,000. In 1565 the people of Bristol count up the plague victims for that year and arrive at the figure of 2,070, almost 20 percent of the population. Ten years later, after another deadly outbreak, they record a further 2,000 fatalities.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

There is no concept of "health and safety" in Elizabethan England, so you will inevitably feel vulnerable when you arrive. Nauseating smells and sights will assail your senses; contemporary standards of cleanliness will worry you. People die every day from unknown ailments, the young as often as the old. Infectious diseases periodically kill thousands within a few weeks. Even when plague is not in town, it lurks as an anxiety in the back of people’s minds and, when it does strike, their worry turns to terror. On top of the illnesses, the chances of being attacked and hurt are much higher than in the modern world, and workplace injuries are far more common.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

c

What should writers do when summarizing a text? Check all that apply.

3,4,5

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry.

The realm shall not remain destitute of any heir that may be a fit governour, and peradventure more beneficial to the realm, than such offspring as may come of me: For though I be never so careful of your well-doing, and mind ever so to be, yet may my issue grow out of kind, and become perhaps ungracious.

What is Queen Elizabeth’s purpose in this excerpt?

to persuade Parliament that the method of choosing successors to the throne based simply on birthright needs to be revised
to persuade Parliament that her child should not be considered a possible choice for successor to the English throne
to persuade Parliament that simply because she has a child does not guarantee that the child will be a competent ruler
to persuade Parliament how catastrophic it could be if they acted ungraciously toward her or her child

b.

In Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury, phrases such as "my faithful and loving people," "the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects," and "you have deserved rewards and crowns" are examples of a rhetorical appeal to

pathos because she is encouraging the troops by explaining exactly why she has faith in them.
pathos because she is encouraging the troops by attempting to elicit their feelings of loyalty.
logos because she is encouraging the troops by reminding them of rewards they will receive.
logos because she is encouraging the troops by listing the reasons England is relying on them.

b.

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry.

For I assure you (what credit my assurance may have with you, I cannot tell, but what credit it shall deserve to have, the sequel shall declare) I will never in that matter conclude any thing that shall be prejudicial to the realm. For the weal, good and safety whereof, I will never shun to spend my life; and whomsoever it shall be my chance to light upon, I trust he shall be such, as shall be as careful for the realm as you; I will not say as myself, because I cannot so certainly determine of any other, but by my desire he shall be such as shall be as careful for the preservation of the realm and you, as myself.

In this excerpt, Queen Elizabeth says "for the weal, good and safety whereof, I will never shun to spend my life" in order to

convince her audience that she is unbiased, intelligent, and rarely makes mistakes.
inform her audience that she will work hard to win back the broken trust of her followers.
persuade her audience that she will never make personal decisions that will harm England.
remind her audience that she is the ruler and in charge of enacting laws that protect England.

c.

The primary purpose of both Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury and Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry is to

entertain.
persuade.
inform.
criticize.

b.

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury.

Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself, that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects, and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die among you all, to lay down for my God, and for my kingdoms, and for my people, my honour, and my blood, even in the dust.

Which statement best describes Queen Elizabeth’s use of rhetorical appeals in this excerpt?

She relies on ethos by explaining that she has previous experience fighting in battles.
She relies on pathos by providing examples of other successes she has had as a ruler.
She relies on ethos by establishing that she is there for more than just recreation.
She relies on pathos by using emotionally charged words to motivate the troops.

d.

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry.

The realm shall not remain destitute of any heir that may be a fit governour, and peradventure more beneficial to the realm, than such offspring as may come of me: For though I be never so careful of your well-doing, and mind ever so to be, yet may my issue grow out of kind, and become perhaps ungracious.

Which statement best describes Queen Elizabeth’s use of rhetorical appeals in this excerpt?

She relies on logos by listing for Parliament some of her personal reasons for wanting to remain unmarried and childless.
She relies on pathos by attempting to make the members of Parliament feel sorry for her and the fact that she is unmarried and childless.
She relies on logos by providing reasons why Parliament should not worry about the fact that she is unmarried and childless.
She relies on pathos by making the members of Parliament feel foolish for worrying about the fact that she is unmarried and childless.

c.

Read the excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s speeches.

In excerpts from both Address to the Troops at Tilbury and Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry, Queen Elizabeth uses a rhetorical appeal to

pathos by encouraging her audience to feel emotions including pride.
logos by reminding her audience that they will be rewarded for their work.
pathos by making her audience feel ashamed for doubting her capabilities.
logos by providing her audience with a list of the reasons why she is grateful.

a.

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury.

I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which, rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field.

In this excerpt, Queen Elizabeth is attempting to persuade troops that she

dislikes most European countries.
has the qualities of a capable leader.
is physically able to fight as a soldier.
will make a fair and virtuous judge.

b.

Which excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury rely on a rhetorical appeal to ethos to persuade soldiers that she is a capable commander? Check all that apply.

I do not desire to live to distrust.
I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman.
I have the heart and stomach of a king.
I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder.
I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time.

3,4

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The purpose of fasting on Wednesdays is specifically to encourage the eating of fish, to support the fishing industry. People therefore respond differently. Some households uphold the old religious fasts during Advent and Lent, as if they are still observing the religious law; others ignore Advent but observe the Lenten fast. Still others ignore Wednesdays and just fast on Fridays and Saturdays.

Why does the author use third-person point of view in this excerpt?

The author wants to present factual information effectively.
The author wants to draw the reader deeper into the experience.
The author wants to directly address the audience.
The author wants to persuade the reader of his idea.

a.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

But be careful if you adopt a partial regime: heavy fines are levied for eating meat on nonmeat days. The standard fine is £3 or three months imprisonment, but in 1561 a London butcher slaughtering three oxen in Lent is fined £20. Fines can be levied on the head of a household for every single member who breaks the fast, so if you have lots of servants, make sure they all obey the law.

What is the effect of the second-person point of view in this excerpt?

It allows the reader to personally experience the effects of hunger during Elizabethan England.
It puts the reader in the place of the Elizabethan who has to pay fines for eating meat.
It explains to the reader which types of food were acceptable during Lent.
It describes the difficulties of being the head of an Elizabethan household.

b.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

If you are hungry, you might feel inclined to turn to poaching. But be careful: this is risky. Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence. Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law; even taking a single fish from a river can result in a fine of a shilling or more. It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit; but, even so, you will get a fine amounting to three times the value of the animal as well as three months in prison, and you will have to enter into a bond to guarantee your good behavior in the future; a second offense will be treated more harshly. If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault. You may find yourself on the gallows if you injure him.

What is the author’s purpose in this excerpt?

to explain why many Elizabethans tried poaching
to explain why poaching was dangerous
to explain why landowners punished poachers
to explain why poaching often was forgiven

b.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

For the vast majority of yeomen in the country, it is vitally important to store hard fruit through the whole year. To do this, select faultless apples and pears without a bruise or other mark, and leave a length of stalk on them. Place them carefully in your fruit house or "hoard house" on clean dry straw, make sure they are not touching each other, and turn them very carefully every month to avoid their collecting moisture. And, most important, keep the door to the fruit house shut, "lest children make havoc there."

Which detail from the text best supports the inference that one bad apple can spoil all the others?

. . . it is vitally important to store hard fruit through the whole year.
Place them carefully in your fruit house or "hoard house" on clean dry straw . . .
. . . make sure they are not touching each other . . .
. . . turn them very carefully every month to avoid their collecting moisture.

c.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Pig farmers keep their flitches of bacon back in storage until they can get a better price for them later in the winter. Such tactics are made even more profitable by the unhappy fact that harvests can fail, causing local—and sometimes national—food shortages. Large towns are less vulnerable, being part of an international market that sees preserved foods traded long-distance; but much of the countryside is dependent on fresh food. After a poor harvest, prices for all commodities—not just grain—rise dramatically and the poor are unable to make ends meet.

Which detail from the excerpt best supports the inference that food was more consistently available in larger towns?

Pig farmers keep their flitches of bacon back in storage until they can get a better price for them later in the winter.
Such tactics are made even more profitable by the unhappy fact that harvests can fail, causing local—and sometimes national—food shortages.
Large towns are less vulnerable, being part of an international market that sees preserved foods traded long-distance; but much of the countryside is dependent on fresh food.
After a poor harvest, prices for all commodities—not just grain—rise dramatically and the poor are unable to make ends meet.

c.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Food is valuable in Elizabethan England, far more so than in the modern world. A flock of 180 sheep is worth more than the average detached house. The difficulties of transportation mean that the food supply depends heavily on what grows locally and how much surplus is available. It also depends on the season. Harvest is obviously a time of much grain and fruit.

Which ideas are implicitly stated in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

Food was more valuable in Elizabethan times than it is today.
Detached houses are cheaper than large flocks of sheep.
Difficulty in food transportation limited food availability.
Not many Elizabethans ate exotic fruit.
Food was more scarce during the winter months.
More people had food during harvest season.

4,5,6

Which of these excerpts from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England is related from the second-person point of view?

Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing . . .
Those things that Elizabethans take for granted are precisely what you will find most striking . . .
Before this, they do not need such a word, for they do not see a "landscape" as such . . .
Shakespeare does not use the word "landscape" at all; he uses the word "country" . . .

b.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Food is valuable in Elizabethan England, far more so than in the modern world. A flock of 180 sheep is worth more than the average detached house. The difficulties of transportation mean that the food supply depends heavily on what grows locally and how much surplus is available. It also depends on the season.

Which statement is a logical inference based on details in the passage?

During the Elizabethan period, food was often scarce.
During the Elizabethan period, houses were very cheap.
During the Elizabethan period, sheep were in short supply.
During the Elizabethan period, food was mainly shipped in.

a.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

If you are hungry, you might feel inclined to turn to poaching. But be careful: this is risky. Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence. Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law; even taking a single fish from a river can result in a fine of a shilling or more. It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit; but, even so, you will get a fine amounting to three times the value of the animal as well as three months in prison, and you will have to enter into a bond to guarantee your good behavior in the future; a second offense will be treated more harshly. If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault. You may find yourself on the gallows if you injure him.

Which detail from the text best supports the inference that farm animals were very valuable in Elizabethan England?

Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence.
Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law . . .
It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit . . .
If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault.

a.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The underlying reasons for such differences are not hard to find. In a society in which people still starve to death, an orchard is not a beautiful thing in itself: its beauty lies in the fact that it produces apples and cider. A wide flat field is "finer" than rugged terrain for it can be tilled easily to produce wheat and so represents good white bread. A small thatched cottage, which a modern viewer might consider pretty, will be considered unattractive by an Elizabethan traveler, for cottagers are generally poor and able to offer little in the way of hospitality. Ranges of hills and mountains are obstacles to Elizabethan travelers and very far from picturesque features you go out of your way to see. Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing, but on the whole he will be more concerned with listing all the houses of the gentry, their seats and parks.

Which detail gives implicit information about the modern view of the Elizabethan landscape?

In a society in which people still starve to death, an orchard is not a beautiful thing in itself: its beauty lies in the fact that it produces apples and cider.
A wide flat field is "finer" than rugged terrain for it can be tilled easily to produce wheat and so represents good white bread.
Ranges of hills and mountains are obstacles to Elizabethan travelers and very far from picturesque features you go out of your way to see.
Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing, but on the whole he will be more concerned with listing all the houses of the gentry, their seats and parks.

c.

Which sentence is an example of an objective summary?

Elizabethans had some interesting ideas about disease.
Malaria was common in marshy areas where mosquitoes bred.
Studying humors seems like a ridiculous medical practice.
Obviously, English citizens should have left the swampy regions.

b.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Serious though influenza and malaria are, they are not the biggest killers of the age. That title belongs to the plague or "pestilence." No one knows precisely how many die over the course of the reign but the total is probably around 250,000. In 1565 the people of Bristol count up the plague victims for that year and arrive at the figure of 2,070, almost 20 percent of the population. Ten years later, after another deadly outbreak, they record a further 2,000 fatalities.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

Another name for the plague in the 1500s was "the pestilence."
In 1565 almost 20 percent of the population died of the plague.
The plague was the most deadly disease of the Elizabethan era.
Malaria and influenza killed almost as many people as the plague.

c.

Which line best helps develop the central idea that the plague was almost impossible for Elizabethans to survive?

"Although there are no fewer than twenty-three medical treatises . . . none of them will help you."
"But you have the advantage of knowing that a fleabite can convey the plague . . ."
"Also, plague is most frequently transferred between people in towns, and it dies down in winter . . ."
"Change your clothes and bedclothes regularly, and wash them thoroughly."

a.

A summary is a statement of a text’s central ideas in one’s .

" own words"

When providing an objective summary of a text, writers should

directly quote the text.
avoid central ideas.
include their opinions.
exclude personal opinions.

d.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

There is no concept of "health and safety" in Elizabethan England, so you will inevitably feel vulnerable when you arrive. Nauseating smells and sights will assail your senses; contemporary standards of cleanliness will worry you. People die every day from unknown ailments, the young as often as the old. Infectious diseases periodically kill thousands within a few weeks. Even when plague is not in town, it lurks as an anxiety in the back of people’s minds and, when it does strike, their worry turns to terror. On top of the illnesses, the chances of being attacked and hurt are much higher than in the modern world, and workplace injuries are far more common.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

Infectious diseases, like the plague, killed many people.
Infectious diseases were a great source of concern.
Elizabethans faced health challenges similar to ours today.
Elizabethans faced a variety of challenges in staying healthy.

d.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Perhaps the most difficult thing to come to terms with is the scale of death. Influenza, for example, is an affliction which you no doubt have come across. However, you have never encountered anything like Elizabethan flu. It arrives in December 1557 and lasts for eighteen months. In the ten-month period August 1558 to May 1559 the annual death rate almost trebles to 7.2 percent (normally it is 2.5 percent). More than 150,000 people die from it—5 percent of the population. This is proportionally much worse than the great influenza pandemic of 1918-19 (0.53 percent mortality). Another familiar disease is malaria, which Elizabethans refer to as ague or fever.

Which sentence best helps readers determine the central idea of the paragraph?

"Perhaps the most difficult thing to come to terms with is the scale of death."
"However, you have never encountered anything like Elizabethan flu."’
"Influenza, for example, is an affliction which you no doubt have come across."
"Another familiar disease is malaria, which Elizabethans refer to as ague or fever."

a.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Elizabethan people suffer from some afflictions that no longer exist in modern England. Plague is the obvious example but it is by no means the only one. Sweating sickness kills tens of thousands of people on its first appearance in 1485 and periodically thereafter. It is a terrifying disease because sufferers die within hours. It doesn’t return after a particularly bad outbreak in 1556 but people do not know whether it has gone for good; they still fear it, and it continues to be part of the medical landscape for many years.

How does the paragraph develop the central idea that Elizabethans suffered from diseases that are unfamiliar to modern readers?

It lists diseases found only in modern England.
It describes the plague in great detail.
It gives a description of the English landscape.
It provides the example of sweating sickness.

d.

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The grim reality is that plague in the capital is as common as the stench of the cesspits and almost as unavoidable. You cannot predict where it will strike: People living next door to infected houses are left unaffected. Some people are not touched even when others in their own house have it.

Which sentence best summarizes the excerpt?

The plague was unavoidable, and unpredictable in regards to whom it would affect.
The plague was associated with filthy cesspits. It was a dirty disease with a foul odor.
People in diseased homes should certainly have left immediately to avoid infection.
The capital was the center of all medical care, and Elizabethans came for treatment.

a.

What should writers do when summarizing a text? Check all that apply.

They should include minor details.
They should state their personal beliefs and opinions.
They should restate the text’s central ideas.
They should include important supporting details.
They should use objective language.

3,4,5

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry.

For I assure you (what credit my assurance may have with you, I cannot tell, but what credit it shall deserve to have, the sequel shall declare) I will never in that matter conclude any thing that shall be prejudicial to the realm. For the weal, good and safety whereof, I will never shun to spend my life.

Which excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury shares the common purpose of persuading her audience that she is willing to do what is best for England?

We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety to take heed how we commit our selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery.
I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die among you all.
I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too.

b

In the excerpts from Address to the Troops at Tilbury and Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry, which best describes the types of rhetorical appeals used by Queen Elizabeth to convince her audience that she was trustworthy?

She used an appeal to logos when addressing both the troops and members of Parliament.
She used an appeal to logos when addressing the troops and an appeal to pathos when addressing Parliament.
She used an appeal to pathos when addressing both the troops and members of Parliament.
She used an appeal to pathos when addressing the troops and an appeal to logos when addressing Parliament.

c

Which excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry rely on a rhetorical appeal to logos to persuade her audience that even if she produced an heir it would not guarantee England’s prosperity or safety? Check all that apply.

I give you all my hearty thanks for the good zeal and loving care you seem to have.
You may well assure yourselves, my meaning is not to determine any thing.
I always continued in this determination, although my youth and words may seem to some hardly to agree together, yet is it most true.
The realm shall not remain destitute of any heir that may be a fit governour, and peradventure more beneficial to the realm.
For though I be never so careful of your well-doing, and mind ever so to be, yet may my issue grow out of kind, and become perhaps ungracious.

4,5

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry.

The realm shall not remain destitute of any heir that may be a fit governour, and peradventure more beneficial to the realm, than such offspring as may come of me: For though I be never so careful of your well-doing, and mind ever so to be, yet may my issue grow out of kind, and become perhaps ungracious.

Which statement best describes Queen Elizabeth’s use of rhetorical appeals in this excerpt?

She relies on logos by listing for Parliament some of her personal reasons for wanting to remain unmarried and childless.
She relies on pathos by attempting to make the members of Parliament feel sorry for her and the fact that she is unmarried and childless.
She relies on logos by providing reasons why Parliament should not worry about the fact that she is unmarried and childless.
She relies on pathos by making the members of Parliament feel foolish for worrying about the fact that she is unmarried and childless.

c

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry.

For I assure you (what credit my assurance may have with you, I cannot tell, but what credit it shall deserve to have, the sequel shall declare) I will never in that matter conclude any thing that shall be prejudicial to the realm. For the weal, good and safety whereof, I will never shun to spend my life; and whomsoever it shall be my chance to light upon, I trust he shall be such, as shall be as careful for the realm as you; I will not say as myself, because I cannot so certainly determine of any other, but by my desire he shall be such as shall be as careful for the preservation of the realm and you, as myself.

In this excerpt, Queen Elizabeth says "for the weal, good and safety whereof, I will never shun to spend my life" in order to

convince her audience that she is unbiased, intelligent, and rarely makes mistakes.
inform her audience that she will work hard to win back the broken trust of her followers.
persuade her audience that she will never make personal decisions that will harm England.
remind her audience that she is the ruler and in charge of enacting laws that protect England.

c

Read the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry.

The realm shall not remain destitute of any heir that may be a fit governour, and peradventure more beneficial to the realm, than such offspring as may come of me: For though I be never so careful of your well-doing, and mind ever so to be, yet may my issue grow out of kind, and become perhaps ungracious.

What is Queen Elizabeth’s purpose in this excerpt?

to persuade Parliament that the method of choosing successors to the throne based simply on birthright needs to be revised
to persuade Parliament that her child should not be considered a possible choice for successor to the English throne
to persuade Parliament that simply because she has a child does not guarantee that the child will be a competent ruler
to persuade Parliament how catastrophic it could be if they acted ungraciously toward her or her child

c

Read the excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s speeches.

How does the rhetorical appeal used in these excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury and Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry compare?

Both use an appeal to logos by providing a reason to support her purpose.
Both use an appeal to ethos by providing a reason why she should be trusted.
Both use an appeal to logos by encouraging her audience to show strength.
Both use an appeal to ethos by listing credentials to support her credibility.

a

Read the excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s speeches.

In excerpts from both Address to the Troops at Tilbury and Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry, Queen Elizabeth uses a rhetorical appeal to

pathos by encouraging her audience to feel emotions including pride.
logos by reminding her audience that they will be rewarded for their work.
pathos by making her audience feel ashamed for doubting her capabilities.
logos by providing her audience with a list of the reasons why she is grateful.

a

In Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury, phrases such as "my faithful and loving people," "the loyal hearts and good will of my subjects," and "you have deserved rewards and crowns" are examples of a rhetorical appeal to

pathos because she is encouraging the troops by explaining exactly why she has faith in them.
pathos because she is encouraging the troops by attempting to elicit their feelings of loyalty.
logos because she is encouraging the troops by reminding them of rewards they will receive.
logos because she is encouraging the troops by listing the reasons England is relying on them.

b

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

So much grain is produced in 1592 that Francis Bacon proudly declares that England can now afford to feed other nations as well as her own people. It is an unfortunate remark, for it is very soon followed by a great dearth. The harvest of 1594 is poor, that of 1595 is worse, and the following year worse still: wheat hits 170 percent of its normal price, oats reach a level of 191 percent, and rye has to be imported from Denmark. Other bad years—when the price of grain is 20 percent or more above the rolling average—are 1573, 1586, and 1600. The year 1590 is almost as bad, made worse by the high cost of livestock. Prices for animal products hit new heights and never really diminish.

Which detail from the text best supports the inference that many Elizabethans could not afford to buy grain during some years?

. . . Francis Bacon proudly declares that England can now afford to feed other nations as well as her own people.
Other bad years—when the price of grain is 20 percent or more above the rolling average—are 1573, 1586, and 1600.
The year 1590 is almost as bad, made worse by the high cost of livestock.
Prices for animal products hit new heights and never really diminish.

b

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

For the vast majority of yeomen in the country, it is vitally important to store hard fruit through the whole year. To do this, select faultless apples and pears without a bruise or other mark, and leave a length of stalk on them. Place them carefully in your fruit house or "hoard house" on clean dry straw, make sure they are not touching each other, and turn them very carefully every month to avoid their collecting moisture. And, most important, keep the door to the fruit house shut, "lest children make havoc there."

Which detail from the text best supports the inference that one bad apple can spoil all the others?

. . . it is vitally important to store hard fruit through the whole year.
Place them carefully in your fruit house or "hoard house" on clean dry straw . . .
. . . make sure they are not touching each other . . .
. . . turn them very carefully every month to avoid their collecting moisture.

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The purpose of fasting on Wednesdays is specifically to encourage the eating of fish, to support the fishing industry. People therefore respond differently. Some households uphold the old religious fasts during Advent and Lent, as if they are still observing the religious law; others ignore Advent but observe the Lenten fast. Still others ignore Wednesdays and just fast on Fridays and Saturdays.

Why does the author use third-person point of view in this excerpt?

The author wants to present factual information effectively.
The author wants to draw the reader deeper into the experience.
The author wants to directly address the audience.
The author wants to persuade the reader of his idea.

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Food is valuable in Elizabethan England, far more so than in the modern world. A flock of 180 sheep is worth more than the average detached house. The difficulties of transportation mean that the food supply depends heavily on what grows locally and how much surplus is available. It also depends on the season. Harvest is obviously a time of much grain and fruit.

Which ideas are implicitly stated in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

Food was more valuable in Elizabethan times than it is today.
Detached houses are cheaper than large flocks of sheep.
Difficulty in food transportation limited food availability.
Not many Elizabethans ate exotic fruit.
Food was more scarce during the winter months.
More people had food during harvest season.

4,5,6

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Describing a landscape is thus a matter of perspective: your priorities affect what you see. Asked to describe their county, most Devonians will mention the great city of Exeter, the ports of Dartmouth, Plymouth, and Barnstaple, and the dozens of market towns. They will generally neglect to mention that the region is dominated by a great moor, Dartmoor, two thousand feet high in places and over two hundred square miles in expanse. There are no roads across this wasteland, only track ways. Elizabethans see it as good for nothing but pasture, tin mining, and the steady water supply it provides by way of the rivers that rise there.

Which detail gives explicit information about Elizabethans’ perception of the moor?

Describing a landscape is thus a matter of perspective: your priorities affect what you see.
Asked to describe their county, most Devonians will mention the great city of Exeter . . .
There are no roads across this wasteland, only track ways.
Elizabethans see it as good for nothing but pasture, tin mining, and the steady water supply it provides . . .

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Elizabethan people also consider their health when choosing what to eat. "I eat rye bread not for niggardliness but for a point of physic," declares William Horman. This is unsurprising: we do much the same in the modern world. But our ideas about healthy food are very different from Elizabethan ones. For example, while we make use of sage in our cooking on account of its taste, Elizabethans use it because it is thought to sharpen the brain.

What is the effect of the first-person point of view in this excerpt?

Readers get direct advice about which foods to incorporate in their own diets.
Readers are personally drawn into the culture of Elizabethan England.
Readers receive a good representation of what was considered healthy food in Elizabethan England.
Readers see the differences between themselves and people of another time period.

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

But be careful if you adopt a partial regime: heavy fines are levied for eating meat on nonmeat days. The standard fine is £3 or three months imprisonment, but in 1561 a London butcher slaughtering three oxen in Lent is fined £20. Fines can be levied on the head of a household for every single member who breaks the fast, so if you have lots of servants, make sure they all obey the law.

What is the effect of the second-person point of view in this excerpt?

It allows the reader to personally experience the effects of hunger during Elizabethan England.
It puts the reader in the place of the Elizabethan who has to pay fines for eating meat.
It explains to the reader which types of food were acceptable during Lent.
It describes the difficulties of being the head of an Elizabethan household.

b

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The underlying reasons for such differences are not hard to find. In a society in which people still starve to death, an orchard is not a beautiful thing in itself: its beauty lies in the fact that it produces apples and cider. A wide flat field is "finer" than rugged terrain for it can be tilled easily to produce wheat and so represents good white bread. A small thatched cottage, which a modern viewer might consider pretty, will be considered unattractive by an Elizabethan traveler, for cottagers are generally poor and able to offer little in the way of hospitality. Ranges of hills and mountains are obstacles to Elizabethan travelers and very far from picturesque features you go out of your way to see. Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing, but on the whole he will be more concerned with listing all the houses of the gentry, their seats and parks.

Which detail gives implicit information about the modern view of the Elizabethan landscape?

In a society in which people still starve to death, an orchard is not a beautiful thing in itself: its beauty lies in the fact that it produces apples and cider.
A wide flat field is "finer" than rugged terrain for it can be tilled easily to produce wheat and so represents good white bread.
Ranges of hills and mountains are obstacles to Elizabethan travelers and very far from picturesque features you go out of your way to see.
Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing, but on the whole he will be more concerned with listing all the houses of the gentry, their seats and parks.

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

In such circumstances, storage of food is most important. The principal rule is to have separate places for different types of commodity: dry things can be kept in a pantry with bread and dry linen; wet things are normally stored in the buttery. Wine and meat must be kept apart, and cellars should be avoided on account of their dampness. Meat should be seethed in summer to keep it fresh, then kept in a cool cellar, soaked in vinegar with juniper seeds and salt. Most yeomen will have vats and presses for making cheeses—a valuable source of protein in the long winter season. Similarly, most livestock owners have troughs for salting meat or allowing it to steep in brine.

What is the author’s purpose in this excerpt?

to explain how easy it was to store food properly during Elizabethan times
to explain how the proper way to store food was taught to Elizabethan cooks
to explain the complexities of proper food storage during Elizabethan times
to explain the errors people made trying to store food properly during Elizabethan times

c

Which of these excerpts from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England is related from the second-person point of view?

Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing . . .
Those things that Elizabethans take for granted are precisely what you will find most striking . . .
Before this, they do not need such a word, for they do not see a "landscape" as such . . .
Shakespeare does not use the word "landscape" at all; he uses the word "country" . . .

b

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

But what if it comes to the worst? What if you have painful black buboes in your groin and armpits, and experience the rapid pulse, the headaches, the terrific thirst, and delirium that are the tokens of the plague? There is little you can do. Physicians will prescribe the traditional medicines of dragon water, mithridatium, and theriac if they hear you are suffering but you will suspect that these are cynical attempts to relieve a dying person of his money. The physicians themselves will not normally come near you. Simon Forman, who does attend plague sufferers, is a rare exception: this is because he has himself survived the disease and believes he cannot catch it again.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

Physicians could not do much for victims of the plague.
Physicians were afraid to come near patients with symptoms.
Symptoms of the plague included headaches and delirium.
Symptoms were treated with dragon water or theriac

a

When providing an objective summary of a text, writers should

directly quote the text.
avoid central ideas.
include their opinions.
exclude personal opinions.

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The grim reality is that plague in the capital is as common as the stench of the cesspits and almost as unavoidable. You cannot predict where it will strike: People living next door to infected houses are left unaffected. Some people are not touched even when others in their own house have it.

Which sentence best summarizes the excerpt?

The plague was unavoidable, and unpredictable in regards to whom it would affect.
The plague was associated with filthy cesspits. It was a dirty disease with a foul odor.
People in diseased homes should certainly have left immediately to avoid infection.
The capital was the center of all medical care, and Elizabethans came for treatment.

a

A summary is a statement of a text’s central ideas in one’s .

" own words"

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Perhaps the most difficult thing to come to terms with is the scale of death. Influenza, for example, is an affliction which you no doubt have come across. However, you have never encountered anything like Elizabethan flu. It arrives in December 1557 and lasts for eighteen months. In the ten-month period August 1558 to May 1559 the annual death rate almost trebles to 7.2 percent (normally it is 2.5 percent). More than 150,000 people die from it—5 percent of the population. This is proportionally much worse than the great influenza pandemic of 1918-19 (0.53 percent mortality). Another familiar disease is malaria, which Elizabethans refer to as ague or fever.

Which sentence best helps readers determine the central idea of the paragraph?

"Perhaps the most difficult thing to come to terms with is the scale of death."
"However, you have never encountered anything like Elizabethan flu."’
"Influenza, for example, is an affliction which you no doubt have come across."
"Another familiar disease is malaria, which Elizabethans refer to as ague or fever."

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

There is no concept of "health and safety" in Elizabethan England, so you will inevitably feel vulnerable when you arrive. Nauseating smells and sights will assail your senses; contemporary standards of cleanliness will worry you. People die every day from unknown ailments, the young as often as the old. Infectious diseases periodically kill thousands within a few weeks. Even when plague is not in town, it lurks as an anxiety in the back of people’s minds and, when it does strike, their worry turns to terror. On top of the illnesses, the chances of being attacked and hurt are much higher than in the modern world, and workplace injuries are far more common.

What is the central idea of this paragraph?

Infectious diseases, like the plague, killed many people.
Infectious diseases were a great source of concern.
Elizabethans faced health challenges similar to ours today.
Elizabethans faced a variety of challenges in staying healthy.

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Elizabethan people suffer from some afflictions that no longer exist in modern England. Plague is the obvious example but it is by no means the only one. Sweating sickness kills tens of thousands of people on its first appearance in 1485 and periodically thereafter. It is a terrifying disease because sufferers die within hours. It doesn’t return after a particularly bad outbreak in 1556 but people do not know whether it has gone for good; they still fear it, and it continues to be part of the medical landscape for many years.

How does the paragraph develop the central idea that Elizabethans suffered from diseases that are unfamiliar to modern readers?

It lists diseases found only in modern England.
It describes the plague in great detail.
It gives a description of the English landscape.
It provides the example of sweating sickness.

d

What should writers do when summarizing a text? Check all that apply.

They should include minor details.
They should state their personal beliefs and opinions.
They should restate the text’s central ideas.
They should include important supporting details.
They should use objective language.

3,4,5

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The theory of the humors is just the basic framework into which physicians fit a number of other ideas. Galen teaches that every living thing is composed of the four elements: fire, earth, air, and water. Each of these corresponds with one of the four humors. Fire, which is said to be hot and dry, corresponds with choler; water (cold and wet) with phlegm; earth (dry and cold) with black bile; and air (hot and wet) with blood. These properties are all associated with parts of the body, so the brain is cold and moist, the kidneys hot and moist, and so on. If an imbalance in the humors clashes with the properties of an organ, the patient will be ill.

Which sentence best summarizes the excerpt?

Water was thought to be cold and wet, so it was associated with phlegm.
Elizabethans believed that the balance of the four humors would keep them healthy.
Galen taught Elizabethan doctors about fire, water, earth, and air.
Air was the most important humor because it corresponded with blood.

b

Which line best helps develop the central idea that the plague was a very deadly disease?

"Elizabethans do not understand infection and contagion as we do."
"In 1565 the people of Bristol count up the plague victims for that year and arrive at the figure of 2,070 . . ."
"This last epidemic originates in Portugal and is brought to Devon by mariners."
"It is ironic that the great naval ships that deliver the English from the Spanish threat bring another danger . . ."

b

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

As you approach the theaters you will notice that they all seem to be round; in fact, they are polygonal—the Globe is twenty-sided, the Rose fourteen-sided. Whichever one you choose, you can expect to queue with two thousand other people to get in. You will see people standing in hats with pipes in hand, and women in their headdresses, all chatting, with an eye open for people they know. Entrance costs a penny: this allows you to stand in the yard in front of the stage, an uncovered area (hence the need for a hat).

The purpose of the second-person point of view in the excerpt is to

emphasize how out of place the readers would feel in the past.
make the readers feel like part of the exciting theater experience.
distance the readers from the historical events described.
make the readers understand how boring a play could be.

b

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan on a site nearby; and in 1596 Richard Burbage builds the Blackfriars Theatre, an indoor venue, although it does not open its doors until 1599. Most important of all, Shakespeare, Richard and Cuthbert Burbage, and their partners dismantle The Theatre and remove its beams to a new site at Southwark, where it is rebuilt in 1599 as the Globe. When Edward Alleyn builds the Fortune on the northern edge of the city in 1600, the array of Elizabethan theaters is complete.

How does the author effectively show the establishment of Elizabethan theaters?

by using a humorous and lighthearted tone.
by randomly listing when certain theaters were built in the past.
by using a grave and critical tone.
by listing in chronological order when several important theaters were built.

d

Which excerpt from the text signals the sequence of events?

"Unfortunately this is located too far from the city . . ."
"The queen continues to encourage dramatic art . . ."
"Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan . . ."
"Thomas Nashe brings forth his masterpiece . . ."

c

Organization, tone, and word choice should be considered when evaluating effective

definitions and key terms.
grammar and punctuation.
transitions and introductions.
text structure and style.

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

By the end of the reign he [Jonson] has married, had two children and lost one, tried to become an actor and failed, become a playwright, been arrested for a scurrilous play and released, killed another actor in a duel, been arrested again and put on trial for murder, and escaped hanging by pleading benefit of the clergy. The play for which he is arrested, The Isle of Dogs, coauthored with Thomas Nashe, is so slanderous and offensive that the privy council orders the closure not just of the play but of every theater in London.

Which event most directly caused the council to order the closure of all theaters in London?

Jonson becoming a playwright
Jonson and Nashe writing The Isle of Dogs
the clergy pardoning Jonson
the actor being killed in a duel

b

What does a chronological text structure use to signal the sequence of time?

causes and effects
reactions to events
words or dates
responses to events

c

What should a reader consider when tracing chronological text structure? Check all that apply.

the meaning behind the events
the causal relationships between events
the responses and reactions to events
the factors that influence events
the author’s purpose in describing the events

2,3,4

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

In their stead, people increasingly choose to see secular plays on historical and moral themes. These are performed up and down the country by theater companies called after lords, for example "Lord Sussex’s Men," "Lord Strange’s Men," "the Lord Admiral’s Men," and "Lord Leicester’s Men." The reason for these names is that, while unattached actors are liable to be arrested for vagrancy, the Act of 1572 specifically excludes players properly authorized by lords from being considered vagabonds.

Which factor directly influenced the names of the theater companies?

the Act of 1572
the play Lord Sussex’s Men
the historical and moral themes
the leading actors

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

More theaters open their doors to the public. The Rose is built by Philip Henslowe at Southwark, not far from the bear-baiting and bull-baiting arenas, in 1587. Eight years later Francis Langley erects the Swan on a site nearby; and in 1596 Richard Burbage builds the Blackfriars Theatre, an indoor venue, although it does not open its doors until 1599.

Which theater opened last?

Southwark
the Swan
the Rose
Blackfriars

d

Descriptive details help the reader

eliminate unnecessary information.
present information in a logical way.
organize details in order of importance.
envision a concept or scenario.

d

Lukas follows these steps when reading a text.

Identify the author’s purpose.
Analyze elements of the author’s style.
Determine how the style supports the purpose.
Lukas is the author’s style.

evaluating

Read the passage from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

If you want to know which years are a good time to visit and which years to avoid, the following is a guide to the extremes. The years of greatest plenty—i.e., those in which the price of grain is 20 percent or more below the average—are 1564, 1566, 1569-71, 1583-84, 1587-88, 1592-93, and 1602, the very best being 1592 and 1593, when grain prices are just 56 percent and 65 percent of the average.

The author’s objective tone is effective because it helps readers to

analyze the information logically.
enjoy the humor in the information.
feel excited about the information.
engage with the information emotionally.

a

The purpose of adding relevant evidence to a paragraph is to

add a point.
support a point.
introduce a topic.
conclude a topic.

b

Read the literary analysis paragraph.

In Parasite, author Mira Grant’s writing style helps readers examine the dangers of medical technology. Grant uses precise wording to help readers grasp advanced medical concepts. Her clear style allows readers to explore a world that might otherwise be beyond them.

What is the best thing for the writer to add to the paragraph to make it more effective?

a concluding statement
a specific point
supporting evidence
a topic sentence

c

At what point should a writer introduce evidence in a paragraph?

in the topic sentence
before making a point
after making a point
in the concluding statement

c

Read the passage from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

1.) It is easy to write the line "people starve to death"; it is much harder to deal with the harsh reality. 2.) But you need to understand this point, if only to see how little choice you might have in what you eat. 3.) The itinerant poor might literally die in the street.

In what way is the second sentence effective?

It highlights the number of impoverished people in Elizabethan England.
It explains how the reader can avoid dealing with the hungry poor.
It illustrates how the diet of Elizabethan England can benefit the reader.
It emphasizes why this passage is important to the reader personally.

d

Read the sentence.

The playwright created a tragedy with nice characterizations.

Which underlined word would be the best to replace in order to create more precise wording?

playwright
tragedy
nice
characterizations

c

To analyze an author’s style, which elements should the reader identify? Check all that apply.

audience
plot
point of view
tone
word choice

3,4,5

Read the literary analysis paragraph.

Shakespeare’s writing style reveals information about attitudes toward the landscape. His precise word choice provides detailed descriptions of the outdoors. In Titus Andronicus, he uses words like "ruthless," "vast," and "gloomy" to describe forests. Although he is known as the "playwright’s playwright," Shakespeare could have been a travel guide.

Which sentence from the paragraph contains the best use of domain-specific vocabulary?

Shakespeare’s writing style reveals information about attitudes toward the landscape.
His precise word choice provides detailed descriptions of the outdoors.
In Titus Andronicus, he uses words like "ruthless," "vast," and "gloomy" to describe forests.
Although he is known as the "playwright’s playwright," Shakespeare could have been a travel guide.

b

Read the passage from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

There are no roads across this wasteland, only track ways. Elizabethans see it as good for nothing but pasture, tin mining, and the steady water supply it provides by way of the rivers that rise there. Many people are afraid of such moors and forests. They are "the ruthless, vast and gloomy woods . . . by nature made for murders and for rapes," as Shakespeare writes in Titus Andronicus. Certainly no one will think of Dartmoor as beautiful. Sixteenth-century artists paint wealthy people, prosperous cities, and food, not landscapes.

What is the effect of the author’s word choice in the passage?

It creates a condescending tone that conveys the author’s dislike of the countryside.
It supports the author’s purpose of challenging the image of the romantic countryside.
It emphasizes the author’s position that travelers should go visit the countryside.
It uses second-person point of view to compare the author’s and reader’s views of the countryside.

b

Read the passage.

If you’re looking for a place to visit, I recommend Yosemite National Park. Visiting Yosemite has been a high point of my life. Can you imagine waking up, inhaling the pine-scented air, and watching the pink-tinted mountains reflect the sunrise? Later, as you hike, you’ll encounter meadows strewn with rainbows of wildflowers and lakes in astonishing shades of blue.

The tone of the passage is effective because it

defines Yosemite for the reader.
helps the author entertain the reader.
instructs the reader on how to enjoy Yosemite.
supports the author’s attempt to persuade.

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The following examples show how famine hits the Cumberland parish of Greystoke. Here "a poor fellow destitute of succor" is found in the highway and is carried to the constable’s house, where he dies. A miller’s daughter dies in her bed, weakened from lack of food. A beggar boy from the Scottish Borders is found writhing in agony in the road and dies soon afterward "in great misery." Another "poor, hunger-starved beggar boy" is found in the street and carried into a house, where he dies. A widow is discovered dead in a barn. A four-year-old local boy dies "for want of food and means," as does his mother. A total of sixty-two people die in Greystoke in just one year—during which time the parish sees no marriages and only three children conceived. You hear the story of a man leaving his home and walking hundreds of miles in search of work or food and returning after a couple of months with sufficient money only to find that his wife and children have all since died.

The details from this excerpt best support the inference that

death from starvation was common in Elizabethan England.
very few people died of starvation in Elizabethan England.
communities were shocked by the deaths from starvation.
communities tried to prevent the deaths from starvation.

a

Which statements describe the central ideas of a text? Check all that apply.

They explain helpful details.
They are the most important ideas in a text.
They give examples of key ideas.
They are supported by details.
They can be explicitly stated or implied.

2.4.5

Read the sentence.

We laughed when we read the writing from that TV show.

The best reason to replace writing with clever comedic script is

to clarify the point of view.
to create precise wording.
to improve the tone.
to change the style.

b

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Sir Thomas Elyot is worth listening to on this subject. Although he is a layman and not a physician, his book, The Castel of Health, proves hugely influential—it goes into its sixteenth edition in 1595. He declares that mutton is the most wholesome meat you can eat and that fish is not so good because it thins the blood. He also thinks that spices and vegetables are bad for you.

Why does the author use the second-person point of view in this excerpt?

The author wants to describe the time period accurately.
The author wants to create a convincing argument.
The author wants to present factual information effectively.
The author wants to help the reader relate to the subject thoughtfully.

d

Read the literary analysis paragraph.

Shakespeare’s writing style reveals information about attitudes toward the landscape. His precise word choice provides detailed descriptions of the outdoors. In Titus Andronicus, he uses words like "ruthless," "vast," and "gloomy" to describe forests. Although he is known as the "playwright’s playwright," Shakespeare could have been a travel guide.

In which sentence does the author provide relevant evidence?

Shakespeare’s writing style reveals information about attitudes toward the landscape.
His precise word choice provides detailed descriptions of the outdoors.
In Titus Andronicus, he uses words like "ruthless," "vast," and "gloomy" to describe forests.
Although he is known as the "playwright’s playwright," Shakespeare could have been a travel guide.

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

People believe that the balance of the humors is also upset by eating too much or too little of something. As noted in the previous chapter, Thomas Elyot believes that fish and fresh fruit are bad for you, and that white bread is more nutritious than bread with the bran. William Horman maintains that drinking cold liquids after prolonged activity is very dangerous for the health. Richard Carew states that the "eating of fish, especially newly taken and of the livers, gives rise to leprosy." Although you will know that brown bread is more nutritious than white, and that fish does not cause leprosy, you will probably agree with the general idea—that what you ingest affects your health.

How does the paragraph develop the central idea that Elizabethans believed that the body’s humors affected health?

It details how diet could disrupt the balance of humors.
It explains that fresh fish may cause liver disease.
It discourages the use of cold liquids after activity.
It recommends eliminating fresh fruit from a healthy diet.

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Simon Forman, who does attend plague sufferers, is a rare exception: this is because he has himself survived the disease and believes he cannot catch it again. However, his remedy amounts to little more than avoiding eating onions and keeping warm. He has a recipe for getting rid of the plague sores that will afflict you afterward if you survive the disease; but that is a very big "if." It seems the best advice is provided by Nicholas Bownd in his book Medicines for the Plague: "In these dangerous times God must be our only defense."

Which lines best summarize the excerpt?

Keeping warm and eating onions was the only way to avoid the plague. This treatment was recommended by Nicholas Bownd.
Some Elizabethans believed that diet caused the plague. Nicholas Bownd suggested praying to God as the only cure.
Writer Simon Forman believed that God was the only answer to the plague. He survived the disease and ate warm onions to treat his sores.
While doctors like Simon Forman tried to help, others such as Nicholas Bownd relied on their faith in God.

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Another familiar disease is malaria, which Elizabethans refer to as ague or fever. You might associate this with more tropical countries of the modern world but in marshy areas in sixteenth-century England, such as the Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire Fens, the Norfolk Broads, and Romney Marsh in Kent, it kills thousands. No one suspects that it has anything to do with mosquitoes; rather people believe it is the corrupted air arising from the low-lying dank marsh (hence the term mal-aria). As a result, you will have no chance of getting proper treatment for the disease.

How does the paragraph expand on the central idea that malaria was a deadly disease in Elizabethan England?

It proves that malaria is spread by mosquitoes in swampy areas.
It gives a detailed description of the area known as Romney Marsh.
It explains Elizabethan misconceptions about the spread of malaria.
It compares common malaria symptoms to influenza symptoms.

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

A miller’s daughter dies in her bed, weakened from lack of food. A beggar boy from the Scottish Borders is found writhing in agony in the road and dies soon afterward "in great misery." Another "poor, hunger-starved beggar boy" is found in the street and carried into a house, where he dies. A widow is discovered dead in a barn. A four-year-old local boy dies "for want of food and means," as does his mother. A total of sixty-two people die in Greystoke in just one year—during which time the parish sees no marriages and only three children conceived. You hear the story of a man leaving his home and walking hundreds of miles in search of work or food and returning after a couple of months with sufficient money only to find that his wife and children have all since died. Now you can see why so many people living in Kent in the 1590s walked there, as we have seen in Chapter Two.

Which details give explicit examples of starvation during Elizabethan times? Check all that apply.

A miller’s daughter dies in her bed, weakened from lack of food.
A beggar boy from the Scottish Borders is found writhing in agony in the road and dies soon afterward "in great misery."
Another "poor, hunger-starved beggar boy" is found in the street and carried into a house, where he dies.
A four-year-old local boy dies "for want of food and means," as does his mother.
You hear the story of a man leaving his home and walking hundreds of miles in search of work or food and returning after a couple of months with sufficient money only to find that his wife and children have all since died.
Now you can see why so many people living in Kent in the 1590s walked there, as we have seen in Chapter Two.

1,2,3,4,5

A chronological text structure presents events

from least important to most important.
in a random, unorganized way.
in the order in which they occur.
from most important to least important.

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

When the trumpets sound, most people quieten down, waiting for the play to begin. If you are sitting in the gallery you will have a clear view of the stage as it projects out from the far side of the round enclosure. Leading actors will come right out along this platform and deliver their soliloquies directly to the crowd. So too will a clown like Will Kempe, when he wishes to extemporize and make "a scurvy face." There are two large columns, both elaborately painted, which support the roof that covers the back of the stage.

How does the author effectively describe the experience of watching an Elizabethan play?

The author uses a serious tone and a third-person point of view to effectively describe the experience.
The author uses descriptive details and a first-person point of view to effectively describe the experience.
The author uses a critical tone and a third-person point of view to effectively describe the experience.
The author uses descriptive details and a second-person point of view to effectively describe the experience.

d

Implicit information requires the reader to combine details from the text with background knowledge to make a(n) .

inference

An author’s is the particular way in which the author writes.

style

Read the excerpts from Queen Elizabeth’s speeches.

How does the purpose of the excerpt from Queen Elizabeth’s Address to the Troops at Tilbury compare to the excerpt from Response to Parliament’s Request That She Marry?

Both excerpts inform Queen Elizabeth’s audience of her strategic plans for engaging and defeating the invading army.
Both excerpts attempt to persuade Queen Elizabeth’s audience that she is willing to sacrifice her life for England’s well-being.
Both excerpts inform Queen Elizabeth’s audience of the reasons she has come to passionately love and defend England.
Both excerpts attempt to persuade Queen Elizabeth’s audience that she is the most capable ruler the country has known.

b

Craving a more cosmopolitan lifestyle, the rural students were excited (to travel) to the city.

The circled phrase is a(n)

Infinitive

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The underlying reasons for such differences are not hard to find. In a society in which people still starve to death, an orchard is not a beautiful thing in itself: its beauty lies in the fact that it produces apples and cider. A wide flat field is "finer" than rugged terrain for it can be tilled easily to produce wheat and so represents good white bread. A small thatched cottage, which a modern viewer might consider pretty, will be considered unattractive by an Elizabethan traveler, for cottagers are generally poor and able to offer little in the way of hospitality. Ranges of hills and mountains are obstacles to Elizabethan travelers and very far from picturesque features you go out of your way to see. Hills might feature in an Elizabethan writer’s description of a county because of their potential for sheep grazing, but on the whole he will be more concerned with listing all the houses of the gentry, their seats and parks.

Which detail gives implicit information about the modern view of the Elizabethan landscape?

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

In such circumstances, storage of food is most important. The principal rule is to have separate places for different types of commodity: dry things can be kept in a pantry with bread and dry linen; wet things are normally stored in the buttery. Wine and meat must be kept apart, and cellars should be avoided on account of their dampness. Meat should be seethed in summer to keep it fresh, then kept in a cool cellar, soaked in vinegar with juniper seeds and salt. Most yeomen will have vats and presses for making cheeses—a valuable source of protein in the long winter season. Similarly, most livestock owners have troughs for salting meat or allowing it to steep in brine.

What is the author’s purpose in this excerpt?

c

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Food is valuable in Elizabethan England, far more so than in the modern world. A flock of 180 sheep is worth more than the average detached house. The difficulties of transportation mean that the food supply depends heavily on what grows locally and how much surplus is available. It also depends on the season.

Which statement is a logical inference based on details in the passage?

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

If you are hungry, you might feel inclined to turn to poaching. But be careful: this is risky. Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence. Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law; even taking a single fish from a river can result in a fine of a shilling or more. It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit; but, even so, you will get a fine amounting to three times the value of the animal as well as three months in prison, and you will have to enter into a bond to guarantee your good behavior in the future; a second offense will be treated more harshly. If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault. You may find yourself on the gallows if you injure him.

Which detail from the text best supports the inference that farm animals were very valuable in Elizabethan England?

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

A wide flat field is "finer" than rugged terrain for it can be tilled easily to produce wheat and so represents good white bread. A small thatched cottage, which a modern viewer might consider pretty, will be considered unattractive by an Elizabethan traveler, for cottagers are generally poor and able to offer little in the way of hospitality. Ranges of hills and mountains are obstacles to Elizabethan travelers and very far from picturesque features you go out of your way to see.

Which ideas are stated explicitly in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

1, 5

Which sentence has a gerund functioning as the object of a preposition?

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

If you are hungry, you might feel inclined to turn to poaching. But be careful: this is risky. Taking livestock is theft, and theft is a felony which carries the death sentence. Killing wild animals that live on another man’s land is also against the law; even taking a single fish from a river can result in a fine of a shilling or more. It is unlikely that you will be hanged for taking a wild animal such as a rabbit; but, even so, you will get a fine amounting to three times the value of the animal as well as three months in prison, and you will have to enter into a bond to guarantee your good behavior in the future; a second offense will be treated more harshly. If a gamekeeper attacks you and you defend yourself, you can be charged with assault. You may find yourself on the gallows if you injure him.

What is the author’s purpose in this excerpt?

b

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

The purpose of fasting on Wednesdays is specifically to encourage the eating of fish, to support the fishing industry. People therefore respond differently. Some households uphold the old religious fasts during Advent and Lent, as if they are still observing the religious law; others ignore Advent but observe the Lenten fast. Still others ignore Wednesdays and just fast on Fridays and Saturdays.

Why does the author use third-person point of view in this excerpt?

a

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

Describing a landscape is thus a matter of perspective: your priorities affect what you see. Asked to describe their county, most Devonians will mention the great city of Exeter, the ports of Dartmouth, Plymouth, and Barnstaple, and the dozens of market towns. They will generally neglect to mention that the region is dominated by a great moor, Dartmoor, two thousand feet high in places and over two hundred square miles in expanse. There are no roads across this wasteland, only track ways. Elizabethans see it as good for nothing but pasture, tin mining, and the steady water supply it provides by way of the rivers that rise there.

Which detail gives explicit information about Elizabethans’ perception of the moor?

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

There is some respite at the end of the reign: the law against eating meat on Wednesdays is repealed in 1585. At the same time, there is a general slackening of fish-eating and an increase in the consumption of meat. By the 1590s most wealthy households have dropped the strict Lenten fast and replaced it with a reduced-meat diet. In 1593 the government bows to the inevitable and reduces the punitive £3 fine to £1. Now many households begin to eat meat in Lent and on Fridays and Saturdays, if the head of the household wishes to do so, even though it is still technically against the law.

The details from this excerpt support the inference that

d

Read the excerpt from The Time Traveler’s Guide to Elizabethan England.

But you still have producers holding back corn supplies, even though hoarding is forbidden by law. In Stratford in 1597 seventy-five townsmen are found guilty of hoarding corn, including William Shakespeare, who is hanging on to ten quarters of malt. Worse than this, "engrossers" buy up all the local supply of an important commodity, such as eggs or butter, in order to drive up the price. In the 1590s certain unscrupulous businessmen buy up to twenty thousand pounds of butter—and this is disastrous because it is an important part of people’s diet. Combined with hoarding, this has dramatic consequences for the poor. In some places the famine of 1594-97 proves as deadly as the plague of 1563.

The details from this excerpt support the inference that

c

Read the sentence.

Scheduled too hectically, the misbegotten tour zigzagging from state to state left the reporter weary from the road.

Which part of the sentence is a participial phrase?

a

Which sentence uses a participial phrase correctly?

d

Read the sentence.

To host a party of this magnitude requires to clean and to organize the house before you get to the part where you can add decorations to the rooms.

How should the sentence be revised to replace the infinitives with gerunds? Check all that apply.

1,2,3

Read the sentence.

Craving a more cosmopolitan lifestyle, the rural students were excited to travel to the city.

The underlined phrase is a(n)

c

Read the sentence.

To shine on the stage, a performer must create a dynamic connection with the audience.

How does the infinitive in the sentence function?

a

A verb form that functions as a noun is called a(n)

gerund

Read the sentence.

The teenagers went to town to muse over whether going to college or to university was the better choice.

Which part of the sentence is an infinitive?

b

Read the sentence.

Hiking along merrily, we maintained a sedate pace because we liked to heartily enjoy the stream bubbling its way beside us.

Which part of the sentence functions as an adjective?

b

Read the sentence.

To the best of our knowledge, he decided that his major would be acting.

Which does the sentence contain?

b

Read the sentence.

Once the scientist completed to assemble the components, she tested her new device to see if it performed as expected.

What is the best word to replace the infinitive in the sentence?

a

A verb form that functions as a noun is called a(n) _____

Gerund

Parts of Speech

* Nouns: People, places, or things * Pronouns: Stand in for nouns * Verbs: Express actions * Adjectives: Describe nouns and pronouns * Adverbs: Describe verbs, adjectives, and adverbs * Prepositions: Connect words * Articles: Set up nouns and noun phrases * Conjunctions: Join ideas together

Ravi quickly (reads) mystery novels.

The verb expresses an action

(Ravi) quickly reads mystery novels.

This noun is a person, place or thing

Ravi (quickly) reads mystery novels.

This adverb describes how an action was completed

Ravi quickly reads (mystery) novels.

This adjective describes a person, place or thing

Verbal

A verb form that can function as a noun, adverb, or adjective

Participle

One type of verbal – Function as adjectives because they modify nouns and pronouns – Can be words or phrases – Exist in past or present tense

Present participles

Formed by adding "-ing" to the end of a verb stem – "A rushing river" – "The twinkling stars" – "The blushing bride" – "A wilting rose"

Past participles

Formed by adding "-ed", "-d", "-en", "-n", "-t" or "-ne" to the end of a verb – "My buried treasure" – "Our shared history" – "A fallen tree" – "His shaven face" – "The broken glass" – "The sifted flour"

Participle phrase

A group of words that work together and are headed by a participle, functioning as an adjective To avoid confusion, the participial phrase must be placed close to the noun it modifies – "Tyrell tossed the ball toward the children gathered around the oak tree." – "Grabbing the ball excitedly, the smallest child ran toward the playground."

Which phrases from the passage are participial phrases? Check all that apply.

"Dented from too many tumbles off the nightstand" "Stretching her arms above her head"

Gerund

A verb form that functions as a noun, formed by adding -ing to a verb stem – Can go anywhere in a sentence that a noun can go – Can be the subject of a sentence – Can be a direct object – Can be the object of a preposition – "Surfing is popular in Hawaii" – "Cecelia loves stamp collecting" – "Yawning can be contagious" – "Watching television is my favorite way to relax" – "With all the walking, you must be tired"

(Climbing) a rope is not as difficult as you might think.

Gerund

I plan (to compete) in a chess tournament this weekend.

Infinitive

Kali loves the smell of (roasting) garlic.

Participle

Which statements about the gerund in the sentence below are true? Check all that apply.

Javier likes to draw, but Kira prefers painting.

* The gerund is "painting." * The gerund is acting as a noun. * The gerund could be replaced with an infinitive.

Replace the infinitive in the sentence with the gerund form of the same verb.

"The laughing boy in the boat likes to sail"

Sailing

Revise this sentence by changing all of the infinitives to gerunds.

"To run competitively means to learn everything about yourself while having the time of your life."

Running competitively means learning everything about yourself while having the time of your life. – Change "to run" to "running." – Change "to learn" to "learning."

What is the function of the phrase "hoping for a few scraps of food, (the tiny puppy scooted)" in the first sentence?

It is a participial phrase that modifies "puppy."

Which participle or participial phrase modifies the wrong noun?

"Pushing his plate away from the edge of the table, (the puppy walked away)…"

Which sentence contains a participial phrase that is placed correctly?

Peeling off her winter jacket, Sierra settled into the cozy armchair.

Imagine that you are helping a peer revise an essay that includes this sentence: "The cowboy jumped from the horse laughing in the face of danger."

Which statements accurately explain why this sentence needs to be revised? Check all that apply.

* The sentence makes it seem like the horse is laughing in the face of danger. * The participial phrase "laughing in the face of danger" is modifying the wrong noun. * The participial phrase "laughing in the face of danger" should be closer to "cowboy."

Select the best revision of this sentence.

"The cowboy jumped from the horse laughing in the face of danger."

Laughing in the face of danger, the cowboy jumped from the horse.

What is the best word to replace the infinitive in the sentence?

"Once the scientist completed to assemble the components, she tested her new device to see if it performed as expected."

Assembling

Craving a more cosmopolitan lifestyle, the rural students were excited (to travel) to the city.

The circled phrase is an

Infinitive

How does the infinitive in the sentence function?

To shine on the stage, a performer must create a dynamic connection with the audience.

NOT As a verb

Which sentence uses a participial phrase correctly?

He laboriously studied the birds migrating to the local sanctuary.

Which part of the sentence is a participial phrase?

Scheduled too hectically, the misbegotten tour zigzagging from state to state left the reporter weary from the road.

Scheduled too hectically

What is the best way to revise the sentence?

Abashed by the harsh criticism, the mortifying writer decided to rewrite the beginning of the book.

Change "mortifying" to "mortified"

When a sentence includes a participial phrase, the phrase functions as a(n)

Adjective

Why can the infinitive phrase be classified as a noun?

According to the latest reports sent to us, orangutans prefer to remain safely in their original habitats.

NOT It functions as the object of the preposition

They find pearls on their coasts, and diamonds and carbuncles on their rocks; they do not look after them, but, if they find them by chance, they polish them, and with them they adorn their children, who are delighted with them . . .

This excerpt is most likely More’s reaction to his society’s

NOT Exploration

Central idea: Utopians strive to make gold and silver less valuable.

Which statement provides a critique of the central idea?

It is a waste to use gold for everyday purposes, because it is hard to find.

In their great council at Amaurot, to which there are three sent from every town once a year, they examine what towns abound in provisions and what are under any scarcity, that so the one may be furnished from the other; and this is done freely, without any sort of exchange; for, according to their plenty or scarcity, they supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.

The central idea of this excerpt is that Utopians make a regular effort to care for those in need.

Which detail best supports this central idea?

Towns with an abundance provide for those with less.

When writing a critique, a reader first finds the central idea and supporting details, then

NOT Gives evidence to support a position.

The Utopians wonder how any man should be so much taken with the glaring doubtful lustre of a jewel or a stone, that can look up to a star or to the sun himself; or how any should value himself because his cloth is made of a finer thread; for, how fine soever that thread may be, it was once no better than the fleece of a sheep, and that sheep, was a sheep still, for all its wearing it. They wonder much to hear that gold, which in itself is so useless a thing, should be everywhere so much esteemed that even man, for whom it was made, and by whom it has its value, should yet be thought of less value than this metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Utopians are surprised by the great value placed on jewels, cloth, and gold.

I never saw a clearer instance of the opposite impressions that different customs make on people than I observed in the ambassadors of the Anemolians, who came to Amaurot when I was there. As they came to treat of affairs of great consequence, the deputies from several towns met together to wait for their coming. The ambassadors of the nations that lie near Utopia, knowing their customs, and that fine clothes are in no esteem among them, that silk is despised, and gold is a badge of infamy, used to come very modestly clothed; but the Anemolians, lying more remote, and having had little commerce with them, understanding that they were coarsely clothed, and all in the same manner, took it for granted that they had none of those fine things among them of which they made no use; and they, being a vainglorious rather than a wise people, resolved to set themselves out with so much pomp that they should look like gods, and strike the eyes of the poor Utopians with their splendor.

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

The Utopians are not concerned about dressing fashionably.

The folly of men has enhanced the value of gold and silver because of their scarcity; whereas, on the contrary, it is their opinion that Nature, as an indulgent parent, has freely given us all the best things in great abundance, such as water and earth, but has laid up and hid from us the things that are vain and useless.

Which historical fact will best help readers understand this excerpt?

Explorers during this period went to the New World in search of scarce resources.

A text’s central ideas are always

Supported by key details

Central idea: Utopians distribute wealth to care for all people.

Which statement provides a critique of the central idea?

Taking from the wealthy to feed the poor discourages hard work.

Which should be included in a critique? Check all that apply.

1. The central idea 2. Supporting details 3. The reader’s position 4. Supporting evidence

Utopia

A term used to describe an ideal, imaginary society where conditions are perfect, created by Sir Thomas More

The Utopian characteristic of "Government based on logic and reason" is in response to

Conflicts between Kings and the Church

The Utopian characteristic of "Society that does not value gold and symbols of wealth" is in response to

Greed, self-interest, and the unequal distribution of wealth

The Utopian characteristic of "Imaginary land in a far off place" is in response to

The exploration of the New World

. . . Since they have no use for money among themselves, but keep it as a provision against events which seldom happen, and between which there are generally long intervening intervals, they value it no farther than it deserves—that is, in proportion to its use. So that it is plain they must prefer iron either to gold or silver, for men can no more live without iron than without fire or water; but Nature has marked out no use for the other metals so essential as not easily to be dispensed with.

What is the central idea of this passage?

The Utopians value money less than other, more useful things.

Which detail best provides an example to illustrate the central idea that follows?

The Utopians value money less than other, more useful things.

"They must prefer iron either to gold or silver, for men can no more live without iron than without fire or water"

They find pearls on their coasts, and diamonds and carbuncles on their rocks; they do not look after them, but, if they find them by chance, they polish them, and with them they adorn their children, who are delighted with them, and glory in them during their childhood; but when they grow to years, and see that none but children use such baubles, they of their own accord, without being bid by their parents, lay them aside, and would be as much ashamed to use them afterwards as children among us, when they come to years, are of their puppets and other toys.

What is the central idea of this passage? The Utopians give valuables to children, who treat them as toys. How do the details about how the Utopians treat valuables develop the central idea? They make an analogy between children outgrowing playing with valuables and children outgrowing playing with toys.

They eat and drink out of vessels of earth or glass, which make an agreeable appearance, though formed of brittle materials; while they make their chamber-pots and close-stools of gold and silver, and that not only in their public halls but in their private houses. Of the same metals they likewise make chains and fetters for their slaves, to some of which, as a badge of infamy, they hang an earring of gold, and make others wear a chain or a coronet of the same metal; and thus they take care by all possible means to render gold and silver of no esteem . . .

What is the central idea of this passage? The Utopians work hard to make gold and silver seem less valuable Which details develop the central idea by giving examples of ways the Utopians make gold and silver less valuable? Check all that apply. 1. The Utopians make chamber-pots out of gold. 2. The Utopians use gold to chain enslaved people. What feature of English society is More most likely critiquing? Greed and self-interest

Which line from Utopia is an example of an anecdote?

"I never saw a clearer instance of the opposite impressions that different customs make on people than I observed in the ambassadors of the Anemolians, who came to Amaurot when I was there."

In the Middle Ages, Christians were expected to visit a priest yearly to offer

confessions

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

I never saw a clearer instance of the opposite impressions that different customs make on people than I observed in the ambassadors of the Anemolians, who came to Amaurot when I was there. As they came to treat of affairs of great consequence, the deputies from several towns met together to wait for their coming. The ambassadors of the nations that lie near Utopia, knowing their customs, and that fine clothes are in no esteem among them, that silk is despised, and gold is a badge of infamy, used to come very modestly clothed; but the Anemolians, lying more remote, and having had little commerce with them, understanding that they were coarsely clothed, and all in the same manner, took it for granted that they had none of those fine things among them of which they made no use; and they, being a vainglorious rather than a wise people, resolved to set themselves out with so much pomp that they should look like gods, and strike the eyes of the poor Utopians with their splendour.

Which is the central idea of this excerpt?

c

Thomas More’s fictional text about a society governed by reason and order is most likely a response to the conflict between

the king and church leaders

To critique a text, readers

examine and explain their position on a central idea

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"God’s arms!" exclaimed one of these debauchees,
"Is the fellow then so dangerous to meet?
In highways and in byways, street by street,
I’ll seek him out, I vow it on God’s bones.
Now listen, fellows: let us three be one,
Each of us hold his hand up to the other,
And each of us become the other’s brother,
And we will kill this black betrayer, Death,
And kill the killer, by God’s holy breath,
And that before the sun goes down on us!"

Which statement best describes how the speaker in the excerpt is characterized?

He is impassioned and persuasive.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

In Flanders there was once a company
Of youngsters wedded to such sin and folly
As gaming, dicing, brothels, and taverns,
Where, night and day, with harps, lutes, and citherns,
They spend their time in dicing and in dancing,
Eating and drinking more than they can carry;
And with these abominable excesses
They offer up the vilest sacrifices . . .

Which word best characterizes the young people in this passage?

immoral

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

Thus I know how to preach against the vice
Which masters me—and that is avarice.
Though I myself am guilty of the sin,
I know how to make other people turn
From avarice, and bitterly repent.

Which word best characterizes the Pardoner in this passage?

hypocritical

Which statements are examples of characterization? Check all that apply.

"I don’t think your joke is funny," she huffed, glowering at her friend. The tardy bell rang, but he sauntered to class unconcerned. She waited patiently as she carefully adjusted the telescope.

Read the excerpt from The Pardoner’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales.

And it fell to the youngest of them all,
And he set off at once towards the town.
And thereupon, so soon as he was gone,
One of the two who stayed said to the other:
"You know, of course, that you are my sworn brother.
I’ll tell you something that you won’t lose by.
As you can see, our friend has gone away,
And here is gold, and that in greatest plenty,
All waiting to be split between us three.
How would it be, if I can work it so
That it is only shared between us two,
Wouldn’t I be doing you a friendly turn?"

How does Chaucer characterize the young man speaking in this passage?

as deceitful

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

I only preach of avarice and the like,
And in this way induce them to be free
In giving cash—especially to me.
Because my only interest is in gain;
I’ve none whatever in rebuking sin.

How does the excerpt satirize the Church?

by exaggerating the greedy nature of the clergy

Which descriptions portray a chivalric hero? Check all that apply.

one who risks his life to protect his lord one who fulfills a promise to the queen one who upholds strict moral values

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

They went on staring at the knight for some time,

Everyone wondering what it might mean

For a man and a horse to acquire such a color,

As green as the grass grows, and greener still, it seemed,

The green enamel glowing brighter on the gold.

All of them standing there stared and crept closer to him

With all the wonder in the world, to see what he would do.

For they had seen many marvels but never any like this,

So they all thought it might be a phantom or trick of magic,

So that many of the noble knights were afraid to answer,

And all were struck by his voice and stayed stone still,

And there was a silence like death through the great hall.

Not a sound rose out of them, as though they had

all fallen asleep.

Which textual evidence best supports the conclusion that the knights are intimidated by the visitor?

So that many of the noble knights were afraid to answer, And all were struck by his voice and stayed stone still

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"By God," the Green Knight said, "I am glad

That I shall have from your hand what I asked for here,

And that you have repeated fully, in your own words,

The whole of the covenant I asked of the King:

Only now you must swear to me, upon your word,

That you will expect, for yourself, wherever you manage

To find me on earth, to be repaid in kind

For what you accord me today before this high company."

Which statement best describes th

The Green Knight insists on Gawain’s moral obligation in their agreement.

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

When they had washed well, they went to sit at the table,

The most famous knights nearest the top, as was proper,

And Guenever, in high spirits, was seated in the middle of them,

In the arrangement of the famous table, with them arrayed around her,

Fine silk, furthermore, in a canopy over her,

Of Toulouse red, and many Tharsian tapestries

Embroidered and set with the finest of jewels

That would have cost a great deal if someone had tried

to buy them.

The most beautiful there was the Queen,

Flashing her gray eye.

No one had ever seen

Anyone lovelier in his day.

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about Guenever?

She is held in high esteem.

Read the passage.

Though the community center buzzed with excitement, Jose moved his queen forward on the chess board with a steady hand. He eyed the row of his opponent’s captured pieces, and recognized his advantage. He said, "Check."

Across the table, his opponent wiped his brow, his eyes darting around the board. When he spotted an escape route, he exhaled in relief as he moved his king. Seconds ticked by as Jose assessed the board. His eyebrows raised almost imperceptibly, and a sly smile tugged at the corners of his mouth. Then Jose selected his move.

What conclusion can readers draw about Jose?

He expects to win his chess match.

Which of the following is the best definition of chivalry?

the behavior and conduct expected of medieval knights

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"No, I tell you in good faith, it is not a fight I have come for.

These are nothing but beardless boys around this bench.

If I were buckled in armor on a big horse,

There is no man here strong enough to be worth riding against.

And so in this court I call for a Christmas game . . ."

What chivalric value does the Green Knight display in the excerpt?

the morality of fair play

Which characteristics were part of the medieval code of chivalry? Check all that apply.

loyalty morality faithfulness

Which statement best describes knights in the Middle Ages?

Knights were professional warriors who helped nobles protect their land.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

In their great council at Amaurot, to which there are three sent from every town once a year, they examine what towns abound in provisions and what are under any scarcity, that so the one may be furnished from the other; and this is done freely, without any sort of exchange; for, according to their plenty or scarcity, they supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.

The central idea of this excerpt is that Utopians make a regular effort to care for those in need.

Which detail best supports this central idea?

Towns with an abundance provide for those with less.

A text’s central ideas are always

supported by key details.

When writing a critique, a reader first finds the central idea and supporting details, then

states a position on the central idea.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

But after the ambassadors had stayed a day among them, and saw so vast a quantity of gold in their houses (which was as much despised by them as it was esteemed in other nations), and beheld more gold and silver in the chains and fetters of one slave than all their ornaments amounted to, their plumes fell, and they were ashamed of all that glory for which they had formed valued themselves, and accordingly laid it aside . . .

This detail supports the central idea that riches are not important to Utopians. It is best described as a(n)

anecdote.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

The Utopians wonder how any man should be so much taken with the glaring doubtful lustre of a jewel or a stone, that can look up to a star or to the sun himself; or how any should value himself because his cloth is made of a finer thread; for, how fine soever that thread may be, it was once no better than the fleece of a sheep, and that sheep, was a sheep still, for all its wearing it. They wonder much to hear that gold, which in itself is so useless a thing, should be everywhere so much esteemed that even man, for whom it was made, and by whom it has its value, should yet be thought of less value than this metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Utopians are surprised by the great value placed on jewels, cloth, and gold.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

They find pearls on their coasts, and diamonds and carbuncles on their rocks; they do not look after them, but, if they find them by chance, they polish them, and with them they adorn their children, who are delighted with them . . .

This excerpt is most likely More’s reaction to his society’s

greed.

Which line from Utopia is an example of an analogy?

They supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

The folly of men has enhanced the value of gold and silver because of their scarcity; whereas, on the contrary, it is their opinion that Nature, as an indulgent parent, has freely given us all the best things in great abundance, such as water and earth, but has laid up and hid from us the things that are vain and useless.

Which historical fact will best help readers understand this excerpt?

Explorers during this period went to the New World in search of scarce resources.

Which topics would be helpful to consider when generating ideas for an essay on sixteenth-century journeys to the New World? Check all that apply.

shipbuilding early discoveries famous explorers

Caring for the environment will be one of the most important features of my perfect society. Citizens will be encouraged to reduce waste in many ways. ________, restaurants will offer cloth napkins and reusable utensils instead of paper and plastic.

Which transition creates the most cohesion between the sentences?

For example

A student is using this table to generate ideas for an essay on a perfect world.

Which pair of words are most likely to be included in the values column?

Generosity, Fairness

When this diagram is used to plan an essay, the blue box represents the

introduction.

In a perfect society, educators would be highly valued.

Which detail best supports this idea?

Teachers would be admired and well paid.

A thesis statement states the topic of discussion and is found in an essay’s

opening paragraph.

Which list shows the correct way to structure a body paragraph in an essay?

topic sentence, supporting details, concluding statement

Wouldn’t it be nice to live in a place with no crime, no pollution, and no health problems?

This sentence

hooks readers in the introduction paragraph of an essay.

Historical context helps readers understand a text by providing

background information.

To generate an idea means

to produce an idea

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"But as you are my uncle whom I live to praise

And your blood is the sole virtue in my body,

And since this affair is so foolish, it does not befit you.

I have asked this of you first, and beg you to grant it,

And if my request is improper, I ask this great court

not to blame me."

All the court began whispering

And all thought the same:

Relieve the crowned King

And let Gawain have the game.

Which chivalric values does Gawain display in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

loyalty to his king bravery despite danger moral integrity

Which statements describe the Middle Ages? Check all that apply.

The Christian Church was a powerful institution. A feudal system of government ruled the land. Men of nobility, such as dukes and barons, controlled areas of land. Knights helped nobles protect their land and their subjects.

Central idea: People in Utopia care about the common good.

Which statement provides a critique of the central idea?

Slavery shows that not everyone in Utopia is treated equally.

Characterization is the way an author

develops personalities through thoughts, words, and actions.

The purpose of an essay’s introduction is to

hook readers and state thesis

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

When the King and his knights came into the hall,

The chanting in the chapel had come to an end

And a loud cry went up from the clerics and the others

Proclaiming Noel once more, calling out the word again,

And then the nobles ran and got the gifts ready . . .

What element of medieval court culture is evident in the excerpt?

the importance of Christian practices

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

The men charged in tournaments again and again,

Noble knights jousting in high spirits;

Then they rode to the court and danced to carols,

And the feast went on like that a full fifteen days,

With all the food and entertainment anyone could imagine.

The laughter and merrymaking were a glory to hear . . .

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about the knights?

They celebrate festively.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"But, sirs, it is not courteous of you
To speak so roughly to an old man, who
Has not offended you by word or deed.
It’s there in Holy Writ for you to read:
"Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head
Of an old man"—and therefore do no harm,
I warn you, to an old man while you’re young,
Any more than you’d like to have it done
To you in old age, should you live so long.
Now God be with you! I go where I must go."

How is the old man is characterized in this excerpt?

as a sage counselor reproving the youth

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

Dear brethren, God forgive you your trespass,
And keep you from the sin of avarice;
My holy pardon here can save you all,
And will, so long as you make offerings
Of gold and silver coin, spoons, brooches, rings—
Bow down your heads before this holy bull!
Come, ladies, make an offering of your wool!
I’ll put your name down on my prayer-roll,
And you shall enter to the bliss of heaven

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

Chaucer criticizes the notion that divine forgiveness depends on giving money.

Which terms are transition words that are used to introduce an example?

specifically, such as

Topic sentence: In my personal utopia, society would place great importance on nutrition and healthy habits.

Which details would help develop the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

Fresh fruits and vegetables would be sold at affordable prices. Time would be set aside each morning for an hour of exercise. I have found that getting plenty of sleep helps me in my schoolwork.

Which statements describe the Middle Ages? Check all that apply.

It was a period of time between 500 and 1500 CE. The Pope was the leader of the church. The majority of people participated in church activities. A rising middle class was challenging class distinctions.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

If these metals were laid up in any tower in the kingdom it would raise a jealousy of the Prince and Senate, and give birth to that foolish mistrust into which the people are apt to fall—a jealousy of their intending to sacrifice the interest of the public to their own private advantage. If they should work it into vessels, or any sort of plate, they fear that the people might grow too fond of it, and so be unwilling to let the plate be run down, if a war made it necessary, to employ it in paying their soldiers. To prevent all these inconveniences they have fallen upon an expedient which, as it agrees with their other policy, so is it very different from ours, and will scarce gain belief among us who value gold so much, and lay it up so carefully. They eat and drink out of vessels of earth or glass, which make an agreeable appearance, though formed of brittle materials; while they make their chamber-pots and close-stools of gold and silver, and that not only in their public halls but in their private houses. Of the same metals they likewise make chains and fetters for their slaves, to some of which, as a badge of infamy, they hang an earring of gold, and make others wear a chain or a coronet of the same metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Gold and silver are not valued in Utopia.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"To start with, I declare where I’ve come from,
And then produce my certificates, one by one;
My licence with the seal of our lord bishop
Which I show first—that’s to protect myself
So that nobody, whether priest or cleric,
Dares interdict me from Christ’s holy work."

What feature of medieval life is reflected in the excerpt?

the acceptance of the church’s authority

What is a relic?

a holy object associated with a saint

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

For I’ll have money, wool, and cheese, and wheat,
Though given by the poorest serving-lad,
Or by the poorest widow in the place,
Were all her children dying of famine,
No, no! I’ll drink the ichor of the vine,
And have a pretty girl in every town.
But hear me out now, gentlemen . . .

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

NOT The Pardoner’s excessive drinking underscores the need for moderation. NOT The Pardoner’s poverty suggests that the Church is too stingy.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"God’s arms!" exclaimed one of these debauchees,
"Is the fellow then so dangerous to meet?
In highways and in byways, street by street,
I’ll seek him out, I vow it on God’s bones.
Now listen, fellows: let us three be one,
Each of us hold his hand up to the other,
And each of us become the other’s brother,
And we will kill this black betrayer, Death,
And kill the killer, by God’s holy breath,
And that before the sun goes down on us!"

Which statement best describes how the speaker in the excerpt is characterized?

He is impassioned and persuasive.

Satire is an author’s use of

humor to criticize human folly.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"Think what a safeguard it must be for you
That I, who can absolve both high and low
When soul from body is about to go,
Should chance to fall in with your company!
Let me suggest that our host here begin,
Since he’s the one who’s most wrapped up in sin.
Step forward, Mister Host—your offering first,
And you can kiss the relics, every one!
All for a penny! Out now with your purse!"

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

NOT Chaucer highlights the need for confession before death. NOT Chaucer highlights the sinful indulgences of the church leaders.

Read the excerpt from The Pardoner’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales.

And it fell to the youngest of them all,
And he set off at once towards the town.
And thereupon, so soon as he was gone,
One of the two who stayed said to the other:
"You know, of course, that you are my sworn brother.
I’ll tell you something that you won’t lose by.
As you can see, our friend has gone away,
And here is gold, and that in greatest plenty,
All waiting to be split between us three.
How would it be, if I can work it so
That it is only shared between us two,
Wouldn’t I be doing you a friendly turn?"

How does Chauc

as deceitful

Which descriptions portray a chivalric hero? Check all that apply.

1. One who risks his life to protect his lord 2. One who fulfills a promise to the queen 3. One who upholds strict moral values

What conclusion can readers draw about Jose?

"Seconds ticked by as Jose assessed the board. His eyebrows raised almost imperceptibly, and a sly smile tugged at the corners of his mouth. Then Jose selected his move."

He expects to win his chess match.

Which textual evidence best supports the conclusion that Arthur respects tradition?

"And there was a custom, besides, that he meant to keep, That he had assumed in his noble way"

What chivalric value does Gawain display in the excerpt?

"Gawain, sitting next to the Queen,
Bowed to the King then:
"I will keep my words plain.
I ask for this battle to be mine."
"If you please, glorious lord," Gawain said to the King,
"I will turn from this table and stand by you there,
If I may do that without discourtesy,
And without displeasing my liege lady,
I would come to your counsel before your great court…""

Loyalty to the King

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about Guenever?

"When they had washed well, they went to sit at the table,
The most famous knights nearest the top, as was proper,
And Guenever, in high spirits, was seated in the middle of them,
In the arrangement of the famous table, with them arrayed around her,
Fine silk, furthermore, in a canopy over her,
Of Toulouse red, and many Tharsian tapestries
Embroidered and set with the finest of jewels
That would have cost a great deal if someone had tried
to buy them.
The most beautiful there was the Queen,
Flashing her gray eye.
No one had ever seen
Anyone lovelier in his day."

She is held in high esteem

Warfare

The violent result of nobles trying to gain land

Feudalism

A type of government in which nobles controlled land

Christian Church

A powerful institution that influenced people’s lives

Romance

A long work of fiction that often features elements of fantasy

Medieval romances:

1. Describe the adventure of a hero 2. Idealize knighthood and courtly behavior 3. Include fantastical elements such as magic or monsters 4. Can be written in verse (poetry) or prose 5. Often tell the tales of King Arthur and his Knights 6. Focus on chivalry

Chivalry

The values and code of conduct that knights were expected to follow and live by

A chivalrous Knight should:

* Be a faithful Christian * Be loyal to friends and hosts * Be brave and strong * Always protect those in need * Have high moral standards

A chivalrous Knight should not:

* Be lazy or arrogant * Betray his country * Be cowardly or haughty * Be untruthful or immoral * Abandon anyone who needs his help

Camelot

King Arthur’s castle, where he lived

Sir Gawain

One of Arthur’s Knights who accepts the challenge on his behalf

The Green Knight

A warrior who challenges King Arthur’s court of Knights

King Arthur

A legendary British King who is the focus of many medieval romances, his adventures have been retold many times

"Yet Arthur would not eat until they were all served.
He seemed full of the joy of youth, almost a boy.
He was happy with his life; he cared little
For lying in bed or sitting still for a long time,
His young blood so stirred him and his wild brain."

What conclusion can be drawn about King Arthur? He is a polite and cheerful host How does King Arthur show chivalric values in this passage? He is respectful of his guests

". . . at the hall door comes a frightening figure,
He must have been taller than anyone in the world:
From the neck to the waist so huge and thick,
And his loins and limbs so long and massive,
That I would say he was half a giant on earth."

What conclusion can be drawn about the Green Knight? He is intimidating Which evidence from the text best supports this conclusion? "A frightening figure"

Which is a value that is part of the code of chivalry?

Morality

"Remember, Gawain, to get ready for what you agreed to,
And search carefully, knight, until you find me
As you have sworn to do in this hall where these knights heard you.
I charge you to make your way to the Green Chapel
To receive a stroke like the one you have given—you have earned it—
To be repaid promptly on New Year’s morning.
Many men know me as the Knight of the Green Chapel,
So if you ask, you cannot fail to find me.
Come then, or you will rightly be called a coward."

What can be concluded about the Green Knight? He expects Gawain to keep his word What chivalric value does the Green Knight expect Gawain to show? Bravery What text evidence best supports your conclusions? "Come then, or you will rightly be called a coward"

Which elements of chivalry does Sir Gawain exhibit in the passage? Check all that apply.

"There are no better warriors, I believe, under heaven,
No better bodies on earth, when the battle begins.
I am the weakest, I know, and the least wise,
And cling least to my life, if anyone wants the truth,
But as you are my uncle whom I live to praise
And your blood is the sole virtue in my body,
And since this affair is so foolish, it does not befit you.
I have asked this of you first, and beg you to grant it"

Loyalty and bravery

Which evidence shows that the Green Knight thinks honesty is important? Check all that apply.

"Only now you must swear to me, upon your word" "And that you have repeated fully, in your own words, / The whole of the covenant I asked of the King" "I am glad / That I shall have from your hand what I asked for here"

Archetype

An element of a story — such as type of character, symbol, or setting — with a defining set of qualities

A chivalric hero:

* Is tested in combat * Fights to uphold chivalric values * Is a member of court societies * Faces a challenge that tests his spirituality or values

In the Middle Ages, Christians were expected to visit a priest yearly to offer

confessions

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"God’s arms!" exclaimed one of these debauchees,
"Is the fellow then so dangerous to meet?
In highways and in byways, street by street,
I’ll seek him out, I vow it on God’s bones.
Now listen, fellows: let us three be one,
Each of us hold his hand up to the other,
And each of us become the other’s brother,
And we will kill this black betrayer, Death,
And kill the killer, by God’s holy breath,
And that before the sun goes down on us!"

Which statement best describes how the speaker in the excerpt is characterized?

He is impassioned and persuasive.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

In Flanders there was once a company
Of youngsters wedded to such sin and folly
As gaming, dicing, brothels, and taverns,
Where, night and day, with harps, lutes, and citherns,
They spend their time in dicing and in dancing,
Eating and drinking more than they can carry;
And with these abominable excesses
They offer up the vilest sacrifices . . .

Which word best characterizes the young people in this passage?

immoral

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

Thus I know how to preach against the vice
Which masters me—and that is avarice.
Though I myself am guilty of the sin,
I know how to make other people turn
From avarice, and bitterly repent.

Which word best characterizes the Pardoner in this passage?

hypocritical

Which statements are examples of characterization? Check all that apply.

"I don’t think your joke is funny," she huffed, glowering at her friend. The tardy bell rang, but he sauntered to class unconcerned. She waited patiently as she carefully adjusted the telescope.

Read the excerpt from The Pardoner’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales.

And it fell to the youngest of them all,
And he set off at once towards the town.
And thereupon, so soon as he was gone,
One of the two who stayed said to the other:
"You know, of course, that you are my sworn brother.
I’ll tell you something that you won’t lose by.
As you can see, our friend has gone away,
And here is gold, and that in greatest plenty,
All waiting to be split between us three.
How would it be, if I can work it so
That it is only shared between us two,
Wouldn’t I be doing you a friendly turn?"

How does Chaucer characterize the young man speaking in this passage?

as deceitful

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

I only preach of avarice and the like,
And in this way induce them to be free
In giving cash—especially to me.
Because my only interest is in gain;
I’ve none whatever in rebuking sin.

How does the excerpt satirize the Church?

by exaggerating the greedy nature of the clergy

Which descriptions portray a chivalric hero? Check all that apply.

one who risks his life to protect his lord one who fulfills a promise to the queen one who upholds strict moral values

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

They went on staring at the knight for some time,

Everyone wondering what it might mean

For a man and a horse to acquire such a color,

As green as the grass grows, and greener still, it seemed,

The green enamel glowing brighter on the gold.

All of them standing there stared and crept closer to him

With all the wonder in the world, to see what he would do.

For they had seen many marvels but never any like this,

So they all thought it might be a phantom or trick of magic,

So that many of the noble knights were afraid to answer,

And all were struck by his voice and stayed stone still,

And there was a silence like death through the great hall.

Not a sound rose out of them, as though they had

all fallen asleep.

Which textual evidence best supports the conclusion that the knights are intimidated by the visitor?

So that many of the noble knights were afraid to answer, And all were struck by his voice and stayed stone still

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"By God," the Green Knight said, "I am glad

That I shall have from your hand what I asked for here,

And that you have repeated fully, in your own words,

The whole of the covenant I asked of the King:

Only now you must swear to me, upon your word,

That you will expect, for yourself, wherever you manage

To find me on earth, to be repaid in kind

For what you accord me today before this high company."

Which statement best describes th

The Green Knight insists on Gawain’s moral obligation in their agreement.

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

When they had washed well, they went to sit at the table,

The most famous knights nearest the top, as was proper,

And Guenever, in high spirits, was seated in the middle of them,

In the arrangement of the famous table, with them arrayed around her,

Fine silk, furthermore, in a canopy over her,

Of Toulouse red, and many Tharsian tapestries

Embroidered and set with the finest of jewels

That would have cost a great deal if someone had tried

to buy them.

The most beautiful there was the Queen,

Flashing her gray eye.

No one had ever seen

Anyone lovelier in his day.

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about Guenever?

She is held in high esteem.

Read the passage.

Though the community center buzzed with excitement, Jose moved his queen forward on the chess board with a steady hand. He eyed the row of his opponent’s captured pieces, and recognized his advantage. He said, "Check."

Across the table, his opponent wiped his brow, his eyes darting around the board. When he spotted an escape route, he exhaled in relief as he moved his king. Seconds ticked by as Jose assessed the board. His eyebrows raised almost imperceptibly, and a sly smile tugged at the corners of his mouth. Then Jose selected his move.

What conclusion can readers draw about Jose?

He expects to win his chess match.

Which of the following is the best definition of chivalry?

the behavior and conduct expected of medieval knights

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"No, I tell you in good faith, it is not a fight I have come for.

These are nothing but beardless boys around this bench.

If I were buckled in armor on a big horse,

There is no man here strong enough to be worth riding against.

And so in this court I call for a Christmas game . . ."

What chivalric value does the Green Knight display in the excerpt?

the morality of fair play

Which characteristics were part of the medieval code of chivalry? Check all that apply.

loyalty morality faithfulness

Which statement best describes knights in the Middle Ages?

Knights were professional warriors who helped nobles protect their land.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

In their great council at Amaurot, to which there are three sent from every town once a year, they examine what towns abound in provisions and what are under any scarcity, that so the one may be furnished from the other; and this is done freely, without any sort of exchange; for, according to their plenty or scarcity, they supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.

The central idea of this excerpt is that Utopians make a regular effort to care for those in need.

Which detail best supports this central idea?

Towns with an abundance provide for those with less.

A text’s central ideas are always

supported by key details.

When writing a critique, a reader first finds the central idea and supporting details, then

states a position on the central idea.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

But after the ambassadors had stayed a day among them, and saw so vast a quantity of gold in their houses (which was as much despised by them as it was esteemed in other nations), and beheld more gold and silver in the chains and fetters of one slave than all their ornaments amounted to, their plumes fell, and they were ashamed of all that glory for which they had formed valued themselves, and accordingly laid it aside . . .

This detail supports the central idea that riches are not important to Utopians. It is best described as a(n)

anecdote.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

The Utopians wonder how any man should be so much taken with the glaring doubtful lustre of a jewel or a stone, that can look up to a star or to the sun himself; or how any should value himself because his cloth is made of a finer thread; for, how fine soever that thread may be, it was once no better than the fleece of a sheep, and that sheep, was a sheep still, for all its wearing it. They wonder much to hear that gold, which in itself is so useless a thing, should be everywhere so much esteemed that even man, for whom it was made, and by whom it has its value, should yet be thought of less value than this metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Utopians are surprised by the great value placed on jewels, cloth, and gold.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

They find pearls on their coasts, and diamonds and carbuncles on their rocks; they do not look after them, but, if they find them by chance, they polish them, and with them they adorn their children, who are delighted with them . . .

This excerpt is most likely More’s reaction to his society’s

greed.

Which line from Utopia is an example of an analogy?

They supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

The folly of men has enhanced the value of gold and silver because of their scarcity; whereas, on the contrary, it is their opinion that Nature, as an indulgent parent, has freely given us all the best things in great abundance, such as water and earth, but has laid up and hid from us the things that are vain and useless.

Which historical fact will best help readers understand this excerpt?

Explorers during this period went to the New World in search of scarce resources.

Which topics would be helpful to consider when generating ideas for an essay on sixteenth-century journeys to the New World? Check all that apply.

shipbuilding early discoveries famous explorers

Caring for the environment will be one of the most important features of my perfect society. Citizens will be encouraged to reduce waste in many ways. ________, restaurants will offer cloth napkins and reusable utensils instead of paper and plastic.

Which transition creates the most cohesion between the sentences?

For example

A student is using this table to generate ideas for an essay on a perfect world.

Which pair of words are most likely to be included in the values column?

Generosity, Fairness

When this diagram is used to plan an essay, the blue box represents the

introduction.

In a perfect society, educators would be highly valued.

Which detail best supports this idea?

Teachers would be admired and well paid.

A thesis statement states the topic of discussion and is found in an essay’s

opening paragraph.

Which list shows the correct way to structure a body paragraph in an essay?

topic sentence, supporting details, concluding statement

Wouldn’t it be nice to live in a place with no crime, no pollution, and no health problems?

This sentence

hooks readers in the introduction paragraph of an essay.

Historical context helps readers understand a text by providing

background information.

To generate an idea means

to produce an idea

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"But as you are my uncle whom I live to praise

And your blood is the sole virtue in my body,

And since this affair is so foolish, it does not befit you.

I have asked this of you first, and beg you to grant it,

And if my request is improper, I ask this great court

not to blame me."

All the court began whispering

And all thought the same:

Relieve the crowned King

And let Gawain have the game.

Which chivalric values does Gawain display in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

loyalty to his king bravery despite danger moral integrity

Which statements describe the Middle Ages? Check all that apply.

The Christian Church was a powerful institution. A feudal system of government ruled the land. Men of nobility, such as dukes and barons, controlled areas of land. Knights helped nobles protect their land and their subjects.

Central idea: People in Utopia care about the common good.

Which statement provides a critique of the central idea?

Slavery shows that not everyone in Utopia is treated equally.

Characterization is the way an author

develops personalities through thoughts, words, and actions.

The purpose of an essay’s introduction is to

hook readers and state thesis

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

When the King and his knights came into the hall,

The chanting in the chapel had come to an end

And a loud cry went up from the clerics and the others

Proclaiming Noel once more, calling out the word again,

And then the nobles ran and got the gifts ready . . .

What element of medieval court culture is evident in the excerpt?

the importance of Christian practices

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

The men charged in tournaments again and again,

Noble knights jousting in high spirits;

Then they rode to the court and danced to carols,

And the feast went on like that a full fifteen days,

With all the food and entertainment anyone could imagine.

The laughter and merrymaking were a glory to hear . . .

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about the knights?

They celebrate festively.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"But, sirs, it is not courteous of you
To speak so roughly to an old man, who
Has not offended you by word or deed.
It’s there in Holy Writ for you to read:
"Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head
Of an old man"—and therefore do no harm,
I warn you, to an old man while you’re young,
Any more than you’d like to have it done
To you in old age, should you live so long.
Now God be with you! I go where I must go."

How is the old man is characterized in this excerpt?

as a sage counselor reproving the youth

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

Dear brethren, God forgive you your trespass,
And keep you from the sin of avarice;
My holy pardon here can save you all,
And will, so long as you make offerings
Of gold and silver coin, spoons, brooches, rings—
Bow down your heads before this holy bull!
Come, ladies, make an offering of your wool!
I’ll put your name down on my prayer-roll,
And you shall enter to the bliss of heaven

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

Chaucer criticizes the notion that divine forgiveness depends on giving money.

Which terms are transition words that are used to introduce an example?

specifically, such as

Topic sentence: In my personal utopia, society would place great importance on nutrition and healthy habits.

Which details would help develop the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

Fresh fruits and vegetables would be sold at affordable prices. Time would be set aside each morning for an hour of exercise. I have found that getting plenty of sleep helps me in my schoolwork.

Which statements describe the Middle Ages? Check all that apply.

It was a period of time between 500 and 1500 CE. The Pope was the leader of the church. The majority of people participated in church activities. A rising middle class was challenging class distinctions.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

If these metals were laid up in any tower in the kingdom it would raise a jealousy of the Prince and Senate, and give birth to that foolish mistrust into which the people are apt to fall—a jealousy of their intending to sacrifice the interest of the public to their own private advantage. If they should work it into vessels, or any sort of plate, they fear that the people might grow too fond of it, and so be unwilling to let the plate be run down, if a war made it necessary, to employ it in paying their soldiers. To prevent all these inconveniences they have fallen upon an expedient which, as it agrees with their other policy, so is it very different from ours, and will scarce gain belief among us who value gold so much, and lay it up so carefully. They eat and drink out of vessels of earth or glass, which make an agreeable appearance, though formed of brittle materials; while they make their chamber-pots and close-stools of gold and silver, and that not only in their public halls but in their private houses. Of the same metals they likewise make chains and fetters for their slaves, to some of which, as a badge of infamy, they hang an earring of gold, and make others wear a chain or a coronet of the same metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Gold and silver are not valued in Utopia.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"To start with, I declare where I’ve come from,
And then produce my certificates, one by one;
My licence with the seal of our lord bishop
Which I show first—that’s to protect myself
So that nobody, whether priest or cleric,
Dares interdict me from Christ’s holy work."

What feature of medieval life is reflected in the excerpt?

the acceptance of the church’s authority

What is a relic?

a holy object associated with a saint

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

For I’ll have money, wool, and cheese, and wheat,
Though given by the poorest serving-lad,
Or by the poorest widow in the place,
Were all her children dying of famine,
No, no! I’ll drink the ichor of the vine,
And have a pretty girl in every town.
But hear me out now, gentlemen . . .

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

NOT The Pardoner’s excessive drinking underscores the need for moderation. NOT The Pardoner’s poverty suggests that the Church is too stingy.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"God’s arms!" exclaimed one of these debauchees,
"Is the fellow then so dangerous to meet?
In highways and in byways, street by street,
I’ll seek him out, I vow it on God’s bones.
Now listen, fellows: let us three be one,
Each of us hold his hand up to the other,
And each of us become the other’s brother,
And we will kill this black betrayer, Death,
And kill the killer, by God’s holy breath,
And that before the sun goes down on us!"

Which statement best describes how the speaker in the excerpt is characterized?

He is impassioned and persuasive.

Satire is an author’s use of

humor to criticize human folly.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"Think what a safeguard it must be for you
That I, who can absolve both high and low
When soul from body is about to go,
Should chance to fall in with your company!
Let me suggest that our host here begin,
Since he’s the one who’s most wrapped up in sin.
Step forward, Mister Host—your offering first,
And you can kiss the relics, every one!
All for a penny! Out now with your purse!"

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

NOT Chaucer highlights the need for confession before death. NOT Chaucer highlights the sinful indulgences of the church leaders.

Read the excerpt from The Pardoner’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales.

And it fell to the youngest of them all,
And he set off at once towards the town.
And thereupon, so soon as he was gone,
One of the two who stayed said to the other:
"You know, of course, that you are my sworn brother.
I’ll tell you something that you won’t lose by.
As you can see, our friend has gone away,
And here is gold, and that in greatest plenty,
All waiting to be split between us three.
How would it be, if I can work it so
That it is only shared between us two,
Wouldn’t I be doing you a friendly turn?"

How does Chauc

as deceitful

christian church

a powerful institution that influenced people’s lives

feudalism

a type of government in which nobles controlled land

warfare

the violent result of nobles trying to gain land

What are the features of a medieval romance? Check all that apply.

-a hero’s adventure -poetry or prose -fantastical elements -a focus on chivalry

code of chivalry

-morality -faithfulness -loyalty

not the code of chivalry

-cowardice -arrogance -studiousness

Sir Gawain

one of king arthur’s knights

Camelot

King Arthur’s castle

the Green Knight

a warrior who makes a challenge to the court

What conclusion can be drawn about King Arthur?

he is a polite and cheerful host

How does King Arthur show chivalric values in this passage?

he is respectful of his guests

What conclusion can be drawn about the Green Knight?

he is intimidating

Which evidence from the text best supports this conclusion?

"a frightening figure"

which is a value that is part of a code of chivalry

morality

What can be concluded about the Green Knight?

he expects gawain to keep his word

What chivalric value does the Green Knight expect Gawain to show?

bravery

What text evidence best supports your conclusions?

"Come then, or you will rightfully be called a coward"

Which elements of chivalry does Sir Gawain exhibit in the passage? Check all that apply.

-bravery -loyalty

Which evidence shows that the Green Knight thinks honesty is important? Check all that apply.

-"I am glad / That I shall have from your hand what I asked for here" -"And that you have repeated fully, in your own words, / The whole of the covenant I asked of the King" -"Only now you must swear to me, upon your word"

How do the values of chivalry affect the characters in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Sample response: The knights at Camelot exhibit behaviors that reflect chivalry. When the Green Knight arrives, he challenges the knights’ honor. Sir Gawain asks King Arthur to let him accept the challenge. He wants to show his loyalty to the king, which is a value of chivalry. Then, the Green Knight makes him promise to keep his word, which is another value of chivalry. If Sir Gawain does not keep his promise, the Green Knight says, he will be a coward.

What makes Gawain a chivalric hero in this passage? Check all that apply.

-he is a member of court society -he acts out of loyalty

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"When they had washed well, they went to sit at the table,
The most famous knights nearest the top, as was proper,
And Guenever, in high spirits, was seated in the middle of them,
In the arrangement of the famous table, with them arrayed around her,
Fine silk, furthermore, in a canopy over her,
Of Toulouse red, and many Tharsian tapestries
Embroidered and set with the finest of jewels
That would have cost a great deal if someone had tried
to buy them.
The most beautiful there was the Queen,
Flashing her gray eye.
No one had ever seen
Anyone lovelier in his day."

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about Guenever?

she is held in high esteem

Which characteristics were part of the medieval code of chivalry? Check all that apply.

-loyalty -morality -faithfulness

Which descriptions portray a chivalric hero? Check all that apply.

-one who risks his life to protect his lord -one who fulfills a promise to the queen -one who upholds strict moral values

Which statement best describes knights in the Middle Ages?

Knights were professional warriors who helped nobles protect their land.

Which of the following is the best definition of chivalry?

the behavior and conduct expected of medieval knights

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"No, I tell you in good faith, it is not a fight I have come for.
These are nothing but beardless boys around this bench.
If I were buckled in armor on a big horse,
There is no man here strong enough to be worth riding against.
And so in this court I call for a Christmas game . . ."

What chivalric value does the Green Knight display in the excerpt?

the morality of fair play

Which of the following is the best definition of feudalism?

a government in which nobles have judicial, political, and military control over an area

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"This King was staying at Camelot at Christmastime
With many fair lords and the most beautiful ladies
And the whole high brotherhood of the Round Table
In happy festivity and the high revels of the season."

What element of medieval court culture is evident in the excerpt?

the camaraderie of nobles and knights

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"By God," the Green Knight said, "I am glad
That I shall have from your hand what I asked for here,
And that you have repeated fully, in your own words,
The whole of the covenant I asked of the King:
Only now you must swear to me, upon your word,
That you will expect, for yourself, wherever you manage
To find me on earth, to be repaid in kind
For what you accord me today before this high company."

Which statement best describes the chivalric value addressed in the excerpt?

The Green Knight insists on Gawain’s moral obligation in their agreement.

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"Yet Arthur would not eat until they were all served.
He seemed full of the joy of youth, almost a boy.
He was happy with his life; he cared little
For lying in bed or sitting still for a long time,
His young blood so stirred him and his wild brain.
And there was a custom, besides, that he meant to keep,
That he had assumed in his noble way: he would not eat
On such a holiday until he had been told
A tale all new of some wonderful event . . ."

Which textual evidence best supports the conclusion that Arthur respects tradition?

And there was a custom, besides, that he meant to keep, that he had assumed in his noble way

In the Middle Ages, Christians were expected to visit a priest yearly to offer

confessions

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"God’s arms!" exclaimed one of these debauchees,
"Is the fellow then so dangerous to meet?
In highways and in byways, street by street,
I’ll seek him out, I vow it on God’s bones.
Now listen, fellows: let us three be one,
Each of us hold his hand up to the other,
And each of us become the other’s brother,
And we will kill this black betrayer, Death,
And kill the killer, by God’s holy breath,
And that before the sun goes down on us!"

Which statement best describes how the speaker in the excerpt is characterized?

He is impassioned and persuasive.

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

The King, bold by nature,

Went up to that huge man

And said, "Knight, by heaven, your request is senseless.

What you ask is such madness you deserve to have it granted.

No knight I know is afraid of your great words.

Give me your ax now, in the name of God,

And I shall grant the boon that you have requested."

He strides toward him and grasps him by the hand.

Which statement best describes the King’s actions?

c

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

Pick up your grim tool now

And let us see how you handle it."

"Gladly, sir, I promise you,"

Gawain said, stroking it.

The Green Knight takes his stand without lingering

And bends his head a little to show the skin.

He laid his long graceful locks across his crown,

Leaving the naked neck bare and ready.

Which statement best describes the Green Knight’s chivalric values?

a

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

The knight on his horse turned in his saddle,

And wildly he flashed his red eyes around,

Arched his bristling bright-green eyebrows,

And waved his beard, waiting to see who would stand up.

When no one would answer him, he gave a loud cough

And stretched as a lord might, and made ready to speak.

What statement best describes the knight’s actions?

b

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

In Flanders there was once a company
Of youngsters wedded to such sin and folly
As gaming, dicing, brothels, and taverns,
Where, night and day, with harps, lutes, and citherns,
They spend their time in dicing and in dancing,
Eating and drinking more than they can carry;
And with these abominable excesses
They offer up the vilest sacrifices . . .

Which word best characterizes the young people in this passage?

immoral

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

Thus I know how to preach against the vice
Which masters me—and that is avarice.
Though I myself am guilty of the sin,
I know how to make other people turn
From avarice, and bitterly repent.

Which word best characterizes the Pardoner in this passage?

hypocritical

Which statements are examples of characterization? Check all that apply.

"I don’t think your joke is funny," she huffed, glowering at her friend. The tardy bell rang, but he sauntered to class unconcerned. She waited patiently as she carefully adjusted the telescope.

Read the excerpt from The Pardoner’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales.

And it fell to the youngest of them all,
And he set off at once towards the town.
And thereupon, so soon as he was gone,
One of the two who stayed said to the other:
"You know, of course, that you are my sworn brother.
I’ll tell you something that you won’t lose by.
As you can see, our friend has gone away,
And here is gold, and that in greatest plenty,
All waiting to be split between us three.
How would it be, if I can work it so
That it is only shared between us two,
Wouldn’t I be doing you a friendly turn?"

How does Chaucer characterize the young man speaking in this passage?

as deceitful

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

I only preach of avarice and the like,
And in this way induce them to be free
In giving cash—especially to me.
Because my only interest is in gain;
I’ve none whatever in rebuking sin.

How does the excerpt satirize the Church?

by exaggerating the greedy nature of the clergy

Which descriptions portray a chivalric hero? Check all that apply.

one who risks his life to protect his lord one who fulfills a promise to the queen one who upholds strict moral values

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

They went on staring at the knight for some time,

Everyone wondering what it might mean

For a man and a horse to acquire such a color,

As green as the grass grows, and greener still, it seemed,

The green enamel glowing brighter on the gold.

All of them standing there stared and crept closer to him

With all the wonder in the world, to see what he would do.

For they had seen many marvels but never any like this,

So they all thought it might be a phantom or trick of magic,

So that many of the noble knights were afraid to answer,

And all were struck by his voice and stayed stone still,

And there was a silence like death through the great hall.

Not a sound rose out of them, as though they had

all fallen asleep.

Which textual evidence best supports the conclusion that the knights are intimidated by the visitor?

So that many of the noble knights were afraid to answer, And all were struck by his voice and stayed stone still

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"By God," the Green Knight said, "I am glad

That I shall have from your hand what I asked for here,

And that you have repeated fully, in your own words,

The whole of the covenant I asked of the King:

Only now you must swear to me, upon your word,

That you will expect, for yourself, wherever you manage

To find me on earth, to be repaid in kind

For what you accord me today before this high company."

Which statement best describes th

The Green Knight insists on Gawain’s moral obligation in their agreement.

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

When they had washed well, they went to sit at the table,

The most famous knights nearest the top, as was proper,

And Guenever, in high spirits, was seated in the middle of them,

In the arrangement of the famous table, with them arrayed around her,

Fine silk, furthermore, in a canopy over her,

Of Toulouse red, and many Tharsian tapestries

Embroidered and set with the finest of jewels

That would have cost a great deal if someone had tried

to buy them.

The most beautiful there was the Queen,

Flashing her gray eye.

No one had ever seen

Anyone lovelier in his day.

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about Guenever?

She is held in high esteem.

Read the passage.

Though the community center buzzed with excitement, Jose moved his queen forward on the chess board with a steady hand. He eyed the row of his opponent’s captured pieces, and recognized his advantage. He said, "Check."

Across the table, his opponent wiped his brow, his eyes darting around the board. When he spotted an escape route, he exhaled in relief as he moved his king. Seconds ticked by as Jose assessed the board. His eyebrows raised almost imperceptibly, and a sly smile tugged at the corners of his mouth. Then Jose selected his move.

What conclusion can readers draw about Jose?

He expects to win his chess match.

Which of the following is the best definition of chivalry?

the behavior and conduct expected of medieval knights

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"No, I tell you in good faith, it is not a fight I have come for.

These are nothing but beardless boys around this bench.

If I were buckled in armor on a big horse,

There is no man here strong enough to be worth riding against.

And so in this court I call for a Christmas game . . ."

What chivalric value does the Green Knight display in the excerpt?

the morality of fair play

Which characteristics were part of the medieval code of chivalry? Check all that apply.

loyalty morality faithfulness

Which statement best describes knights in the Middle Ages?

Knights were professional warriors who helped nobles protect their land.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

In their great council at Amaurot, to which there are three sent from every town once a year, they examine what towns abound in provisions and what are under any scarcity, that so the one may be furnished from the other; and this is done freely, without any sort of exchange; for, according to their plenty or scarcity, they supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.

The central idea of this excerpt is that Utopians make a regular effort to care for those in need.

Which detail best supports this central idea?

Towns with an abundance provide for those with less.

A text’s central ideas are always

supported by key details.

When writing a critique, a reader first finds the central idea and supporting details, then

states a position on the central idea.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

But after the ambassadors had stayed a day among them, and saw so vast a quantity of gold in their houses (which was as much despised by them as it was esteemed in other nations), and beheld more gold and silver in the chains and fetters of one slave than all their ornaments amounted to, their plumes fell, and they were ashamed of all that glory for which they had formed valued themselves, and accordingly laid it aside . . .

This detail supports the central idea that riches are not important to Utopians. It is best described as a(n)

anecdote.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

The Utopians wonder how any man should be so much taken with the glaring doubtful lustre of a jewel or a stone, that can look up to a star or to the sun himself; or how any should value himself because his cloth is made of a finer thread; for, how fine soever that thread may be, it was once no better than the fleece of a sheep, and that sheep, was a sheep still, for all its wearing it. They wonder much to hear that gold, which in itself is so useless a thing, should be everywhere so much esteemed that even man, for whom it was made, and by whom it has its value, should yet be thought of less value than this metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Utopians are surprised by the great value placed on jewels, cloth, and gold.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

They find pearls on their coasts, and diamonds and carbuncles on their rocks; they do not look after them, but, if they find them by chance, they polish them, and with them they adorn their children, who are delighted with them . . .

This excerpt is most likely More’s reaction to his society’s

greed.

Which line from Utopia is an example of an analogy?

They supply or are supplied from one another, so that indeed the whole island is, as it were, one family.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

The folly of men has enhanced the value of gold and silver because of their scarcity; whereas, on the contrary, it is their opinion that Nature, as an indulgent parent, has freely given us all the best things in great abundance, such as water and earth, but has laid up and hid from us the things that are vain and useless.

Which historical fact will best help readers understand this excerpt?

Explorers during this period went to the New World in search of scarce resources.

Which topics would be helpful to consider when generating ideas for an essay on sixteenth-century journeys to the New World? Check all that apply.

shipbuilding early discoveries famous explorers

Caring for the environment will be one of the most important features of my perfect society. Citizens will be encouraged to reduce waste in many ways. ________, restaurants will offer cloth napkins and reusable utensils instead of paper and plastic.

Which transition creates the most cohesion between the sentences?

For example

A student is using this table to generate ideas for an essay on a perfect world.

Which pair of words are most likely to be included in the values column?

Generosity, Fairness

When this diagram is used to plan an essay, the blue box represents the

introduction.

In a perfect society, educators would be highly valued.

Which detail best supports this idea?

Teachers would be admired and well paid.

A thesis statement states the topic of discussion and is found in an essay’s

opening paragraph.

Which list shows the correct way to structure a body paragraph in an essay?

topic sentence, supporting details, concluding statement

Wouldn’t it be nice to live in a place with no crime, no pollution, and no health problems?

This sentence

hooks readers in the introduction paragraph of an essay.

Historical context helps readers understand a text by providing

background information.

To generate an idea means

to produce an idea

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

"But as you are my uncle whom I live to praise

And your blood is the sole virtue in my body,

And since this affair is so foolish, it does not befit you.

I have asked this of you first, and beg you to grant it,

And if my request is improper, I ask this great court

not to blame me."

All the court began whispering

And all thought the same:

Relieve the crowned King

And let Gawain have the game.

Which chivalric values does Gawain display in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

loyalty to his king bravery despite danger moral integrity

Which statements describe the Middle Ages? Check all that apply.

The Christian Church was a powerful institution. A feudal system of government ruled the land. Men of nobility, such as dukes and barons, controlled areas of land. Knights helped nobles protect their land and their subjects.

Central idea: People in Utopia care about the common good.

Which statement provides a critique of the central idea?

Slavery shows that not everyone in Utopia is treated equally.

Characterization is the way an author

develops personalities through thoughts, words, and actions.

The purpose of an essay’s introduction is to

hook readers and state thesis

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

When the King and his knights came into the hall,

The chanting in the chapel had come to an end

And a loud cry went up from the clerics and the others

Proclaiming Noel once more, calling out the word again,

And then the nobles ran and got the gifts ready . . .

What element of medieval court culture is evident in the excerpt?

the importance of Christian practices

Read the excerpt from Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

The men charged in tournaments again and again,

Noble knights jousting in high spirits;

Then they rode to the court and danced to carols,

And the feast went on like that a full fifteen days,

With all the food and entertainment anyone could imagine.

The laughter and merrymaking were a glory to hear . . .

Based on the excerpt, what conclusion can readers draw about the knights?

They celebrate festively.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"But, sirs, it is not courteous of you
To speak so roughly to an old man, who
Has not offended you by word or deed.
It’s there in Holy Writ for you to read:
"Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head
Of an old man"—and therefore do no harm,
I warn you, to an old man while you’re young,
Any more than you’d like to have it done
To you in old age, should you live so long.
Now God be with you! I go where I must go."

How is the old man is characterized in this excerpt?

as a sage counselor reproving the youth

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

Dear brethren, God forgive you your trespass,
And keep you from the sin of avarice;
My holy pardon here can save you all,
And will, so long as you make offerings
Of gold and silver coin, spoons, brooches, rings—
Bow down your heads before this holy bull!
Come, ladies, make an offering of your wool!
I’ll put your name down on my prayer-roll,
And you shall enter to the bliss of heaven

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

Chaucer criticizes the notion that divine forgiveness depends on giving money.

Which terms are transition words that are used to introduce an example?

specifically, such as

Topic sentence: In my personal utopia, society would place great importance on nutrition and healthy habits.

Which details would help develop the topic sentence? Check all that apply.

Fresh fruits and vegetables would be sold at affordable prices. Time would be set aside each morning for an hour of exercise. I have found that getting plenty of sleep helps me in my schoolwork.

Which statements describe the Middle Ages? Check all that apply.

It was a period of time between 500 and 1500 CE. The Pope was the leader of the church. The majority of people participated in church activities. A rising middle class was challenging class distinctions.

Read the excerpt from Utopia.

If these metals were laid up in any tower in the kingdom it would raise a jealousy of the Prince and Senate, and give birth to that foolish mistrust into which the people are apt to fall—a jealousy of their intending to sacrifice the interest of the public to their own private advantage. If they should work it into vessels, or any sort of plate, they fear that the people might grow too fond of it, and so be unwilling to let the plate be run down, if a war made it necessary, to employ it in paying their soldiers. To prevent all these inconveniences they have fallen upon an expedient which, as it agrees with their other policy, so is it very different from ours, and will scarce gain belief among us who value gold so much, and lay it up so carefully. They eat and drink out of vessels of earth or glass, which make an agreeable appearance, though formed of brittle materials; while they make their chamber-pots and close-stools of gold and silver, and that not only in their public halls but in their private houses. Of the same metals they likewise make chains and fetters for their slaves, to some of which, as a badge of infamy, they hang an earring of gold, and make others wear a chain or a coronet of the same metal . . .

What is the central idea of this excerpt?

Gold and silver are not valued in Utopia.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"To start with, I declare where I’ve come from,
And then produce my certificates, one by one;
My licence with the seal of our lord bishop
Which I show first—that’s to protect myself
So that nobody, whether priest or cleric,
Dares interdict me from Christ’s holy work."

What feature of medieval life is reflected in the excerpt?

the acceptance of the church’s authority

What is a relic?

a holy object associated with a saint

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

For I’ll have money, wool, and cheese, and wheat,
Though given by the poorest serving-lad,
Or by the poorest widow in the place,
Were all her children dying of famine,
No, no! I’ll drink the ichor of the vine,
And have a pretty girl in every town.
But hear me out now, gentlemen . . .

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

NOT The Pardoner’s excessive drinking underscores the need for moderation. NOT The Pardoner’s poverty suggests that the Church is too stingy.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"God’s arms!" exclaimed one of these debauchees,
"Is the fellow then so dangerous to meet?
In highways and in byways, street by street,
I’ll seek him out, I vow it on God’s bones.
Now listen, fellows: let us three be one,
Each of us hold his hand up to the other,
And each of us become the other’s brother,
And we will kill this black betrayer, Death,
And kill the killer, by God’s holy breath,
And that before the sun goes down on us!"

Which statement best describes how the speaker in the excerpt is characterized?

He is impassioned and persuasive.

Satire is an author’s use of

humor to criticize human folly.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"Think what a safeguard it must be for you
That I, who can absolve both high and low
When soul from body is about to go,
Should chance to fall in with your company!
Let me suggest that our host here begin,
Since he’s the one who’s most wrapped up in sin.
Step forward, Mister Host—your offering first,
And you can kiss the relics, every one!
All for a penny! Out now with your purse!"

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

NOT Chaucer highlights the need for confession before death. NOT Chaucer highlights the sinful indulgences of the church leaders.

Read the excerpt from The Pardoner’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales.

And it fell to the youngest of them all,
And he set off at once towards the town.
And thereupon, so soon as he was gone,
One of the two who stayed said to the other:
"You know, of course, that you are my sworn brother.
I’ll tell you something that you won’t lose by.
As you can see, our friend has gone away,
And here is gold, and that in greatest plenty,
All waiting to be split between us three.
How would it be, if I can work it so
That it is only shared between us two,
Wouldn’t I be doing you a friendly turn?"

How does Chauc

as deceitful

Confession

A formal admission of one’s sins to a priest

Pardoner

A church official who could preach and distribute indulgences

Indulgences

Documents that absolved people from sin; originally granted in exchange for services or donations to the church

Relic

A holy object related to a saint

Characterization

The way an author presents and develops a character

How is the Pardoner characterized in this passage?

"I only preach of avarice and the like,
And in this way induce them to be free
In giving cash—especially to me.
Because my only interest is in gain;"

He is greedy and self-centered.

Satire

The use of humor, irony or exaggeration to expose or criticize a human folly or vice; can be used to address social issues. Critiques society in order to encourage social change.

Which of these are examples of satire? Check all that apply.

– A magazine article exaggerating the public’s extreme reaction to a celebrity – A funny political cartoon exposing the flaws in a new government policy – An ironic short story that draws attention to how unmotivated people can be

How does the passage satirize pardoners?

"I’ll tell you in a word what I’m about:
I preach for money, and for nothing else."

By exaggerating the Pardoner’s extreme greed

In what way does the passage accurately represent real medieval pardoners?

"To start with, I declare where I’ve come from,
And then produce my certificates, one by one;
My licence with the seal of our lord bishop"

The passage shows that pardoners were officially authorized by the Church.

How is the Pardoner characterized in this passage?

"I preach just as you’ve heard me say; and tell
A hundred taradiddles more as well.
And then I do my best to stretch my neck
And bob my head in every direction""…I only preach of avarice and the like,
And in this way induce them to be free
In giving cash—especially to me."

The Pardoner is characterized as an effective speaker and a skilled con artist.

How is the Pardoner characterized in this passage?

"I’ll tell you in a word what I’m about:
I preach for money, and for nothing else.
And so my text is what it always was:
Radix malorum est cupiditas.
Thus I know how to preach against the vice
Which masters me—and that is avarice."

The Pardoner is dishonest and hypocritical.

What vice is Chaucer satirizing in this passage?

"My holy pardon here can save you all,
And will, so long as you make offerings
Of gold and silver coin, spoons, brooches, rings—"

Greed

What is satirical about this passage from the end of The Pardoner’s Tale?

"If any here should wish, out of devotion,
To make an offering, and have absolution,
Let them come forward now, and kneeling down
Humbly receive my blessing and pardon."

The Pardoner is so greedy that he tries to extract money even from people who know his tricks.

Satire in The Pardoner’s Tale

1. The Pardoner delivers a Sermon 2. The Pardoner describes his corrupt work to the other pilgrims 3. He admits that he sells indulgences and displays false relics and explains how he tricks people into giving him money 4. To show that greed it he root of all evil, he tells a story about three friends who betray each other for money 5. After telling the story the Pardoner then asks the other pilgrims to give him money

How does Chaucer shed light on social problems?

Chaucer uses satire in his characterization of the fictional Pardoner to draw attention to real corruption among medieval church officials

In the Middle Ages, Christians were expected to visit a priest yearly to offer

Confessions

How does the excerpt satirize the clergy?

"I can sting with my tongue; and when I preach
I sting so hard, the fellow can’t escape
Slander and defamation, if so be
He’s wronged my fellow-pardoners, or me,
Even if I don’t give his actual name,
Yet everybody knows that he’s the one
From hints, and other circumstantialities—
That’s how I deal with people who annoy us;
That’s how I spit out venom, under guise
Of piety, and seem sincerely pious."

By revealing the clergy’s vindictive abuse of power

Which statements accurately describe medieval pardoners? Check all that apply.

– They translated the Bible into English – They distributed indulgences – They were authorized to preach. – They accepted donations for the church.

Which word best characterizes the Pardoner in this passage?

"Thus I know how to preach against the vice
Which masters me—and that is avarice.
Though I myself am guilty of the sin,
I know how to make other people turn
From avarice, and bitterly repent."

Hypocritical

In the Middle Ages, an indulgence was

A document that offered forgiveness for sin.

How does the excerpt satirize pardoners?

"I preach just as you’ve heard me say; and tell
A hundred taradiddles more as well.
And then I do my best to stretch my neck
And bob my head in every direction
Over the folk, now this way, and now that,
Just like a pigeon sitting on a barn.
Both hands and tongue are busy, and so quick
That it’s a joy to watch me at my work."

By suggesting that their sermons are scripted performances

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

"Think what a safeguard it must be for you
That I, who can absolve both high and low
When soul from body is about to go,
Should chance to fall in with your company!
Let me suggest that our host here begin,
Since he’s the one who’s most wrapped up in sin.
Step forward, Mister Host—your offering first,
And you can kiss the relics, every one!
All for a penny! Out now with your purse!"

NOT Chaucer highlights the sinful indulgences of the church leaders.

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

"For I’ll have money, wool, and cheese, and wheat,
Though given by the poorest serving-lad,
Or by the poorest widow in the place,
Were all her children dying of famine,
No, no! I’ll drink the ichor of the vine,
And have a pretty girl in every town.
But hear me out now, gentlemen . . ."

The Pardoner’s disregard for the poor reveals the Church’s hypocrisy.

Which word best characterizes the young people in this passage?

"In Flanders there was once a company
Of youngsters wedded to such sin and folly
As gaming, dicing, brothels, and taverns,
Where, night and day, with harps, lutes, and citherns,
They spend their time in dicing and in dancing,
Eating and drinking more than they can carry;
And with these abominable excesses"

Immoral

Which statement best describes how the Pardoner is characterized in this passage?

"Gentlemen" said he, "I take pains to preach
In churches with a lofty, resonant voice,
Regular as a bell I ring it out,
For everything I say I have by heart:
My text’s the same one as it always was . . ."

NOT He is a caring counselor who is devoted to service.

How does the excerpt satirize the Church?

"I only preach of avarice and the like,
And in this way induce them to be free
In giving cash—especially to me.
Because my only interest is in gain;
I’ve none whatever in rebuking sin."

By exaggerating the greedy nature of the clergy

Which statements are examples of characterization? Check all that apply.

– "I don’t think your joke is funny," she huffed, glowering at her friend. – The tardy bell rang, but he sauntered to class unconcerned. – She waited patiently as she carefully adjusted the telescope.

How is the pardoner characterized in this passage?

He is greedy and self-centered

Which of these are examples of satire? Check all that apply

-A magazine article exaggerating the public’s extreme reaction to a celebrity -A funny political cartoon exposing the flaws in a new gov’t policy -An ironic short story that draws attention to how unmotivated people can be

How does the passage satirize pardoners?

"I’ll tell you in a word what I’m about:
I preach for money, and for nothing else."
-The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer

By exaggerating the pardoner’s extreme greed

In what way does the passage accurately represent real medieval pardoners?

"To start with, I declare where I’ve come from,
And then produce my certificates, one by one;
My licence with the seal of our lord bishop
Which I show first—that’s to protect myself
So that nobody, whether priest or cleric,
Dares interdict me from Christ’s holy work."

-The Canterbury Tales,
Geoffrey Chaucer

The passage shows that pardoners were officially authorized by the Church.

How is the Pardoner characterized in this passage?

"I preach just as you’ve heard me say; and tell
A hundred taradiddles more as well.
And then I do my best to stretch my neck
And bob my head in every direction
Over the folk, now this way, and now that,
Just like a pigeon sitting on a barn.
Both hands and tongue are busy, and so quick
That it’s a joy to watch me at my work.
I only preach of avarice and the like,
And in this way induce them to be free
In giving cash—especially to me."

-The Canterbury Tales,
Geoffrey Chaucer

The Pardoner is characterized as an effective speaker and a skilled con artist.

How is the Pardoner characterized in this passage?

"I’ll tell you in a word what I’m about:
I preach for money, and for nothing else.
And so my text is what it always was:
Radix malorum est cupiditas.
Thus I know how to preach against the vice
Which masters me—and that is avarice."

-The Canterbury Tales,
Geoffrey Chaucer

The Pardoner is dishonest and hypocritical.

What vice is Chaucer satirizing in this passage?

"Dear brethren, God forgive you your trespass,
And keep you from the sin of avarice;
My holy pardon here can save you all,
And will, so long as you make offerings
Of gold and silver coin, spoons, brooches, rings—
Bow down your heads before this holy bull!"

-The Canterbury Tales,
Geoffrey Chaucer

Greed

What is satirical about this passage from the end of The Pardoner’s Tale?

"If any here should wish, out of devotion,
To make an offering, and have absolution,
Let them come forward now, and kneeling down
Humbly receive my blessing and pardon.
Or take my pardon as we go along,
Take it at every milestone, fresh and new,
Only renew, and yet again renew,
Your offerings in sound gold and silver coin."

-The Canterbury Tales,
Geoffrey Chaucer

The Pardoner is so greedy that he tries to extract money even from people who know his tricks.

Consider Chaucer’s use of satire in The Canterbury Tales. What purpose does this satire serve? Write three to four sentences connecting details from the story to what you know about medieval England.

Sample response: Chaucer uses satire in his characterization of the Pardoner to criticize the Church. The Pardoner’s sermon against greed humorously contrasts with his exaggerated greediness. Chaucer creates such an excessively greedy character to draw attention to real corruption in the Church and to bring about change.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"Gentlemen" said he, "I take pains to preach
In churches with a lofty, resonant voice,
Regular as a bell I ring it out,
For everything I say I have by heart:
My text’s the same one as it always was . . ."

Which statement best describes how the Pardoner is characterized in this passage?

He is a confident, suave performer.

In the Middle Ages, an indulgence was

a document that offered forgiveness for sin.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"For I’ll have money, wool, and cheese, and wheat,
Though given by the poorest serving-lad,
Or by the poorest widow in the place,
Were all her children dying of famine,
No, no! I’ll drink the ichor of the vine,
And have a pretty girl in every town.
But hear me out now, gentlemen . . ."

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

The Pardoner’s disregard for the poor reveals the Church’s hypocrisy.

Which statements accurately describe medieval pardoners? Check all that apply.

-They were authorized to preach. -They distributed indulgences. -They accepted donations for the church.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"To start with, I declare where I’ve come from,
And then produce my certificates, one by one;
My licence with the seal of our lord bishop
Which I show first—that’s to protect myself
So that nobody, whether priest or cleric,
Dares interdict me from Christ’s holy work."

What feature of medieval life is reflected in the excerpt?

the acceptance of the church’s authority

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"Thus I know how to preach against the vice
Which masters me—and that is avarice.
Though I myself am guilty of the sin,
I know how to make other people turn
From avarice, and bitterly repent."

Which word best characterizes the Pardoner in this passage?

hypocritical

Which statements are examples of characterization? Check all that apply.

-"I don’t think your joke is funny," she huffed, glowering at her friend. -The tardy bell rang, but he sauntered to class unconcerned. -She waited patiently as she carefully adjusted the telescope.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

"Think what a safeguard it must be for you
That I, who can absolve both high and low
When soul from body is about to go,
Should chance to fall in with your company!
Let me suggest that our host here begin,
Since he’s the one who’s most wrapped up in sin.
Step forward, Mister Host—your offering first,
And you can kiss the relics, every one!
All for a penny! Out now with your purse!"

Which statement best describes the satire in the excerpt?

Chaucer criticizes the idea that forgiveness is available for purchase.

Read the excerpt from The Canterbury Tales.

I can sting with my tongue; and when I preach
I sting so hard, the fellow can’t escape
Slander and defamation, if so be
He’s wronged my fellow-pardoners, or me,
Even if I don’t give his actual name,
Yet everybody knows that he’s the one
From hints, and other circumstantialities—
That’s how I deal with people who annoy us;
That’s how I spit out venom, under guise
Of piety, and seem sincerely pious.

How does the excerpt satirize the clergy?

by revealing the clergy’s vindictive abuse of power

In the Middle Ages, Christians were expected to visit a priest yearly to offer

confessions

Read the beginning of Trevor’s narrative.

Thinking back on that afternoon, I knew then that my best friend was keeping something from me. If I thought about it—I mean, really thought about it—there had been other signs. They may have been subtle, but they had been there, nonetheless.

Trevor decides not to tell his story in chronological order. What is the most likely reason Trevor chose to begin his story in this way?

to eliminate the need to include events that occurred before this statement
to clarify potential confusion for the reader by clearly stating the conflict
to capture the reader’s attention by creating suspense about his best friend
to explain why he no longer trusts the words and actions of his best friend

c.

Which elements does strong narrative writing always contain? Check all that apply.

engaging dialogue
rich descriptions
a famous quotation
cited sources
thoughtful reflection

1,2,5

Read the paragraph from Lucy’s narrative.

I could see that my neighbor was struggling with the lone bag of groceries cradled in her arms, but I wasn’t sure what I should do. Grandma June—what all the neighborhood kids had called her for as long as I could remember—had always been the one to care for us, to help us build stronger forts, to grow better flowers, and to learn from our mistakes. To ask if she needed help with something as simple as carrying in one bag of groceries would be like shouting to the world that she was aging, that she was no longer as strong as she once had been. Hesitantly, I walked to the wooden gate that divided our front lawn from hers and stood there as the package she was carrying threatened to spill from her arms.

Which element of a narrative should Lucy include next to most effectively move the story forward?

a sentence that clearly establishes who is telling the story
a reflection that explains what the writer learns from the experience
a detailed description of the package in Grandma June’s arms
a few lines of dialogue between the writer and Grandma June

d.

Which sentence makes the best use of descriptive language?

Malia grabbed her suitcase and purse and headed to the nearby airport.
The piercing squeal of tires on asphalt startled Katrina from a deep sleep.
Tara wanted a job so she could save enough money to buy a new bike.
In the morning, it was windy enough to fly the kite Johnny had purchased.

b.

Read the paragraph from Nick’s personal narrative.

Standing alone in my family’s barn, I thought about how much hard work and time my parents had invested—how much hard work and time we had all invested—in maintaining a fully operational farm. I did not remember a time when my clothes had not reeked of manure or my hair had not held fast to brittle pieces of straw. What would happen if my parents had to sell the farm so we could move closer to my grandparents? Just as I was attempting to imagine a life in the city, a sudden commotion erupted and interrupted my thoughts. With animals squawking and dust flying, I scrambled to pinpoint the source of this unexpected intrusion. In seconds that felt more like minutes, I was successful . . . and I could scarcely believe what my eyes were seeing.

Which element of a personal narrative would be best for Nick to include next?

a precise description of what the writer is witnessing when he says that he "could scarcely believe what [his] eyes were seeing"
a line of dialogue in which the narrative’s subject shouts, "Oh my! I can’t believe what my eyes are seeing!"
a reflection that includes specific examples of how the experience has changed the writer and an analysis of what made it memorable
a detailed paragraph that helps to clearly establish the point of view from which the narrative is being told

a.

Read the paragraph from Lucy’s narrative.

I could see that my neighbor was struggling with the lone bag of groceries cradled in her arms, but I wasn’t sure what I should do. Grandma June—what all the neighborhood kids had called her for as long as I could remember—had always been the one to care for us, to help us build stronger forts, to grow better flowers, and to learn from our mistakes. To ask if she needed help with something as simple as carrying in one bag of groceries would be like shouting to the world that she was aging, that she was no longer as strong as she once had been. Hesitantly, I walked to the wooden gate that divided our front lawn from hers and stood there as the package she was carrying threatened to spill from her arms.

Lucy decides that this may not be the most effective way to tell her story. If she wants to create more suspense in the plot, what would be the best possible change she could make?

She could remove the background information about her past with Grandma June, allowing suspense to build as the reader wonders who Grandma June is.
She could include more reasons she is hesitant to assist Grandma June, allowing suspense to build as the reader begins to believe she will not help.
She could start with the last sentence instead, allowing suspense to build as the reader wonders why she is hesitant to ask if Grandma June needs help.
She could begin with more stories about Grandma June, allowing suspense to build as the reader wonders why she is talking about Grandma June.

c.

Read the excerpt from Dominique’s narrative.

1 Tired of waiting for the bus, which was late for the fifth day in a row, I sat leafing through an old magazine I had stuffed in my purse the previous night. 2 It was terribly warm for a September afternoon, and the sun cast transitory shadows on the bus stop sign with each car that passed. 3 I fleetingly wondered when the weather would get cooler and when the new bus driver would start arriving on time. 4 It was about then that I first noticed the apparent agitation of the man sitting next to me.

5 Finally, the bus arrived and ambled to a gradual stop directly in front of the restless man. 6 The doors widened, and the bus driver greeted the man with his usual banter in his usual monotone.

7 "Good afternoon. How are you today?"

Which sentence would best create a strong, descriptive image in the reader’s mind if it were added after sentence 4?

He was casting quick, sideways glances in the direction the bus should be coming from, and his left foot beat a steady rhythm on the hot pavement.
All of the man’s actions and mannerisms clearly indicated his distress, and I could not help staring at him while we waited for the bus to finally arrive.
The man’s behaviors led me to guess that he was anxious about something, and I wondered if the tardy bus could have caused such upset in someone.
In fact, he appeared to be so aggravated that I thought for a second that he would explode with anger, but then he just sat down and silently waited.

a.

Read the paragraph from Nick’s personal narrative.

Standing alone in my family’s barn, I thought about how much hard work and time my parents had invested—how much hard work and time we had all invested—in maintaining a fully operational farm. I did not remember a time when my clothes had not reeked of manure or my hair had not held fast to brittle pieces of straw. What would happen if my parents had to sell the farm so we could move closer to my grandparents? Just as I was attempting to imagine a life in the city, a sudden commotion erupted and interrupted my thoughts. With animals squawking and dust flying, I scrambled to pinpoint the source of this unexpected intrusion. In seconds that felt more like minutes, I was successful . . . and I could scarcely believe what my eyes were seeing.

Nick would like to rearrange his plot so that it begins with the commotion in the barn. Which statement best describes how starting in the middle of an exciting part will affect the plot?

Nick will need to go back and explain why his parents have worked so hard to keep the farm.
Nick will need to provide other exciting details in order to maintain the reader’s attention.
Nick will need to provide a more detailed conclusion to make up for the events he did not include.
Nick will need to go back and relate the events that led up to that moment in the story.

d.

Read the concluding reflection from Kyle’s essay.

My infatuation with reading, ignited in the sixth grade, significantly changed my life. Ultimately, it was from my sixth-grade teacher that I learned the true power that lies between the covers of a book. It wasn’t because she demanded we read or because she encouraged us to read or because she explained why we should read. It was because she opened the doors to reading and invited us into fantastic worlds we had never before experienced. Using books as her compass, she led the way, and all we had to do was follow.

To revise his reflection and make a stronger statement, Kyle should more clearly explain .

what effect reading had on his life

Read the sentence from a personal narrative.

My grandfather used to spend hours telling me stories I loved to hear.

Which best revises the sentence above to make the writing more precise?

My grandfather always had a lot of stories to tell, and I would always beg to hear them. He would talk for hours, and I did not even notice. I loved these stories, and I loved that my grandfather was willing to spend hours sharing them with me.
I used to love spending summers with my grandparents on their ranch. We did all sorts of fun things. One of my very favorite parts of those summers was listening to my grandfather tell me the cool stories that I always loved and begged to hear.
Years ago, my grandfather would spend hours telling me all kinds of stories. I always loved his stories because they were funny and he did a great job telling them. They were about all sorts of subjects, and I thought he was the best and coolest storyteller who had ever lived.
When I was younger, I would spend entire summers on my grandparents’ ranch. Every evening after dinner, Grandpa would tell me stories about what life on the ranch had been like for him when he was my age. I appreciated his stories because they let me get to know Grandpa better.

d.

Read the reflection from Kara’s narrative.

1 Ironically, it is from my much younger—and, I used to think, less wise—brother that I learned the value of being honest even when a lie may seem far more tempting at the time. 2 I knew that what he did that day must have been extremely difficult for him. 3 Yet there he stood, taking responsibility for his actions with not a glimmer of hesitation. 4 It is this determination and resolve to do what is right—even when what is right is not what is easy—that I remembered many years later in college when faced with a similar predicament of my own.

Which line would most strengthen the reflection in Kara’s essay if it were added after sentence 4?

When deciding how honest to be about the role I had played in the situation, I kept thinking of my little brother and how he had the wisdom, even at his young age, to do what was right.
After unintentionally breaking my roommate’s treasured figurine, I squared my shoulders and took responsibility for my actions, much like my little brother had done all those years ago.
Even though it had been an accident, I was afraid to admit what had happened and found myself wishing that my younger brother could be there to bolster my courage.
To this day, I still remember the incident as vividly as if it had happened yesterday, and I know it is a valuable lesson I will one day share with children of my own.
Submitted

b.

Read the excerpt from Spencer’s narrative.

As we waited for our new football coach to enter the locker room, we all secretly wondered what he would be like. Would he be tough but fair? Would he be demanding but understanding? Would he motivate us before each game with a rousing speech the way Coach Jackson always had? These thoughts were abruptly interrupted when our new coach entered the locker room, stood before us, and commanded our attention. "He" was a "she"! Our new coach was a female? Stunned, my mouth gaping, I barely heard what she said to the team next.

How does Spencer’s use of chronological order affect the plot of his narrative?

Readers are able to share in Spencer’s surprise at discovering that his new coach is female because this fact is not revealed at the beginning of the story.
Readers are able to understand the conflict more easily because Spencer reveals what is bothering him at the very beginning of the story.
Readers do not understand Spencer’s surprise because they had no idea what Spencer was thinking before the new football coach arrived.
Readers do not have to read the entire story because they are now able to predict what will happen once the new football coach speaks to the team.

a.

Read the paragraph from a personal narrative.

1 It may have seemed like an ordinary day to everyone else, but to me, it couldn’t have been further from it. 2 Today was my first day working as a waitress at Pete’s Pizza Haven, and I could not have been more excited. 3 In fact, I was so excited that I rushed to get ready much faster than I typically do. 4 "I’m ready to go!" I shouted, bouncing down the stairs and flying into the kitchen, where my mom was making breakfast. 5 "I have so much to learn and don’t want to be late," I declared for emphasis. 6 My mom just grinned and placed a steaming plate of eggs before me.

Which should be added after sentence 6 to most effectively move the plot forward?

The excitement of my new job started to wane, and I began to reconsider if this was truly how I wanted to spend my summer.
Once I arrived, I quickly learned that my job would also entail wiping tables, mopping floors, and washing dishes.
I gulped down my food, grabbed my bus card, and pecked my mother on the cheek as I raced out the door.
As I think back on my first job, I remember the many mistakes I made and the important lessons I learned.

c.

Read the paragraph from Liam’s narrative.

1I had never been more frightened in my entire life. 2As I stepped onto the diving platform, I waited for instructions from my diving coach. 3Only because his directions were so clear, and because he was so nice, was I able to do it. 4It had all been worth it, I thought, as I changed from my bathing suit back into clothes. 5I had achieved what I had set out to do.

Which sentence could replace sentence 5 to make the paragraph more precise?

I was able to accomplish the goal I had set for myself.
I had finally managed to dive from the highest platform.
I had surprised myself by being able to do what I didn’t think I could.
I truly owed a lot to Coach Wilkerson for all the help he had given me.

b.

Read the excerpt from Dominique’s personal narrative.

Tired of waiting for the bus, which was late for the fifth day in a row, I sat leafing through an old magazine I had stuffed in my purse the previous night. It was terribly warm for a September afternoon, and the sun cast fleeting shadows on the bus stop sign with each car that passed. I wondered when the weather would get cooler and when the new bus driver would start arriving on time. It was about then that I first noticed the apparent agitation of the man sitting next to me.

Finally, the bus arrived and ambled to a gradual stop directly in front of the restless man. The doors widened, and the bus driver greeted the man with his usual banter in his usual monotone.

"Good afternoon. How are you today?"

When writing the next few lines of dialogue, Dominique should be certain that the lines

provide clues about what will happen later on in the narrative.
contain made-up details that make the story more exciting.
include everyday language that seems real and natural.
use precise words that make both men sound educated.

c.

Which elements does strong narrative writing always contain? Check all that apply.

engaging dialogue
rich descriptions
a famous quotation
cited sources
thoughtful reflection

1,2,5

Read the paragraph from Gordon’s personal narrative.

1 When I first entered the room, I was really struck by what I saw. 2 It was my first day of cooking lessons, and I was on my way to fulfilling my dreams of one day becoming a chef in my own world-renowned restaurant. 3 I had spent countless hours of my childhood watching my parents, both professional chefs, prepare savory meals for my sisters and me. 4 From them, I had already obtained a solid foundation of cooking basics. 5 However, it was in this room that I would build upon those basics and begin my ascent as a chef in my own right.

Which sentence should Gordon revise to make it more precise, and why?

Gordon should revise sentence 1 to provide specific details about what "struck" him as he first entered the room.
Gordon should revise sentence 2 to describe his dreams more clearly and explain what he hopes to accomplish one day.
Gordon should revise sentence 3 to replace vague words like "countless" and "delicious" with more precise adjectives.
Gordon should revise sentence 4 to add detailed examples about the many cooking basics he learned from his parents.

a.

Read the beginning of Trevor’s narrative.

Thinking back on that afternoon, I knew then that my best friend was keeping something from me. If I thought about it—I mean, really thought about it—there had been other signs. They may have been subtle, but they had been there, nonetheless.

Trevor decides not to tell his story in chronological order. What is the most likely reason Trevor chose to begin his story in this way?

to eliminate the need to include events that occurred before this statement
to clarify potential confusion for the reader by clearly stating the conflict
to capture the reader’s attention by creating suspense about his best friend
to explain why he no longer trusts the words and actions of his best friend

c.

Doctors are very special people in this world. I consider a Doctor to be a hero in my eyes. A doctor saves peoples lives on a daily basis. If you don’t consider that a hero then i don’t know what to tell you. A hero can have many aspects. In my eyes a hero doesn’t need a cape or super powers. A hero could be anyone of us. I chose a Doctor because I’ve seen things that they can do. Just last week i broke my hand and i needed surgery on it. If it wouldn’t have been for that Doctor then my hand would still be broken right now and my bone would stay broken and my hand would be hurting everyday and night. You can find doctors all over the world. If you have a flu you go see a doctor, if somethings hurting you go see a doctor. People go to the doctors for any little reason just to make sure they’re healthy. Long ago when i was young i spent most of my life in hospitals. I had kidney problems. If it wouldnt have been for those Doctors i would not be here right now. I thank Doctors for giving me the life i have right now. I am so thankful for them.

final

Doctors are very special people in this world. I consider a Doctor to be a hero in my eyes. A doctor saves peoples lives on a daily basis. If you don’t consider that a hero then i don’t know what to tell you. A hero can have many aspects. In my eyes a hero doesn’t need a cape or super powers. A hero could be anyone of us. I chose a Doctor because I’ve seen things that they can do. Just last week i broke my hand and i needed surgery on it. If it wouldn’t have been for that Doctor then my hand would still be broken right now and my bone would stay broken and my hand would be hurting everyday and night. You can find doctors all over the world. If you have a flu you go see a doctor, if somethings hurting you go see a doctor. People go to the doctors for any little reason just to make sure they’re healthy.

rough

Doctors are very special people in this world. I consider a Doctor to be a hero in my eyes. A doctor saves peoples lives on a daily basis. If you don’t consider that a hero then i don’t know what to tell you. A hero can have many aspects. In my eyes a hero doesn’t need a cape or super powers. A hero could be anyone of us. I chose a Doctor because I’ve seen things that they can do. Just last week i broke my hand and i needed surgery on it. If it wouldn’t have been for that Doctor then my hand would still be broken right now and my bone would stay broken and my hand would be hurting everyday and night. You can find doctors all over the world. If you have a flu you go see a doctor, if somethings hurting you go see a doctor. People go to the doctors for any little reason just to make sure they’re healthy.

pre

Features of Anglo-Saxon culture:

– Warrior tribes – Lords and thanes – Gift-giving – Hospitality and feasts – Pagan and Christian traditions

ac- = "to"
cept = "take or receive"
ex- = "leave out"

Which sentence uses the underlined word correctly?

d

biblio = "book"
circum- = "around"
crypto = "hidden"
graph = "written"
hemi- = "half"
scribe = "write"
sphere = "ball"

Which word is spelled incorrectly?

d

-al = "pertaining to"
inter- = "between, among"
judge = "decide"
ment = "mind"
nation = "country"

Which word is spelled correctly?

d

chron = "time"
geo = "earth"
graph = "write"
meter = "measure"

Which word most likely means "a timepiece fitted with a recording device that marks down exact intervals of time"?

a

Which word contains a suffix?

c

dia- = "with"
log = "word"
pro- = "before"

Which sentence uses the underlined word correctly?

d

What is an affix?

c

Which is the word root in democratically?

b

Which sentence uses stationery correctly?

c

A prefix is added to the of a word.

beginning

Both Beowulf and Grendel

b

1. Which excerpt from Jamal’s poem best fulfills the assignment?

c

2. Read the passage from Beowulf.

"My lord, the conquering king of the Danes,
bids me announce that he knows your ancestry;
also that he welcomes you here to Heorot
and salutes your arrival from across the sea.
You are free to move forward
to meet Hrothgar, in helmets and armour,
but shields must stay here and spears be stacked
until the outcome of the audience is clear."

Which phrase from the passage contains a feature of Anglo-Saxon culture?

b

Which line best helps the reader understand Grendel’s character?

c

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

"Let your heart inspire you
to be joyous in battle, to forget about death.
If we help each other and fight side by side,
we will make a lasting name for ourselves,
we will stamp our fame on men’s minds forever."

Which sentence best states the theme of the excerpt?

b

Which qualities define an epic hero? Check all that apply.

1,2,4

Consider these themes from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

Battle forces people to acknowledge their mortality.

Success in battle results in glory.

Which statement best describes how these themes interact in the tale?

b

Read the excerpt from Grendel.

He sang of battles and marriages, of funerals and hangings, the whimperings of beaten enemies, of splendid hunts and harvests. He sang of Hrothgar, hoarfrost white, magnificent of mind.

When he finished, the hall was as quiet as a mound. I too was silent, my ear pressed tight against the timbers. Even to me, incredibly, he had made it all seem true and very fine.

Which statement best describes Grendel’s perspective?

c

Which word best completes the comparison of Beowulf and Grendel?

Readers of Beowulf will likely view Grendel as a villain. Readers of Grendel, however, will likely view the character as more ________.

d

Consider the excerpt and theme from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

Gilgamesh climbed to the mountaintop,
he poured out flour as an offering and said,
"Mountain, bring me a favorable dream."
Enkidu did the ritual for dreams,
praying for a sign. A gust of wind
passed. He built a shelter for the night,
placed Gilgamesh on the floor and spread
a magic circle of flour around him,
then sprawled like a net across the doorway.

Theme One: Great leaders seek supernatural help.

What other theme is addressed in the excerpt?

d

Perspective is

b

Read the passage from Beowulf.

They marched in step,
hurrying on till the timbered hall
rose before them, radiant with gold.
Nobody on earth knew of another
building like it. Majesty lodged there,
its light shone over many lands.
So their gallant escort guided them
to that dazzling stronghold and indicated
the shortest way to it; then the noble warrior
wheeled on his horse and spoke these words:
"It is time for me to go. May the Almighty
Father keep you and in His kindness
watch over your exploits. I’m away to the sea,
back on alert against enemy raiders."

Which excerpts from the passage provide strong evidence that Hrothgar’s hall is famous throughout the lands? Check all that apply.

2,3

Beowulf is a(n) epic poem.

anglo saxon

Which of these are features of epic poetry? Check all that apply.

1,3,4,5

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

At four hundred miles they stopped to eat,
at a thousand miles they pitched their camp.
They had traveled for just three days and nights,
a six weeks’ journey for ordinary men.
When the sun was setting, they dug a well,
they filled their waterskins with fresh water,
Gilgamesh climbed to the mountaintop

Which statement best describes the epic feature used in this excerpt and its effect on the plot?

c

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

Gilgamesh climbed to the mountaintop,
he poured out flour as an offering and said,
"Mountain, bring me a favorable dream."
Enkidu did the ritual for dreams,
praying for a sign. A gust of wind
passed.

This excerpt is repeated several times. What effect does this repetition have on the epic?

d

Read the line from Grendel.

Hrothgar met with his council for many nights and days, and they drank and talked and prayed to their curious carved-out creatures and finally came to a decision.

Which statement best describes Grendel’s perspective?

c

is the way an author presents a character.

characterization

Read the excerpt from Grendel.

Now and then some trivial argument would break out, and one of them would kill another one, and all the others would detach themselves from the killer as neatly as blood clotting, and they’d consider the case and they’d either excuse him, for some reason, or else send him out to the forest to live by stealing from their outlying pens like a wounded fox. At times I would try to befriend the exile, at other times I would try to ignore him, but they were treacherous. In the end, I had to eat them.

How is Grendel characterized in this excerpt?

d

Read the line from Grendel.

I was safe in my tree, and the men who fought were nothing to me, except of course that they talked in something akin to my language, which meant that we were, incredibly, related.

This is an example of a

a

In Grendel, John Gardner uses

b

Read the passage from Beowulf.

So the Helming woman went on her rounds,
queenly and dignified, decked out in rings,
offering the goblet to all ranks,
treating the household and the assembled troop
until it was Beowulf’s turn to take it from her hand.

Which feature of Anglo-Saxon culture is described in the excerpt?

b

refers to a conclusion based on evidence in the text.

inference

To make an inference correctly, a reader should

c

Which are features of Anglo-Saxon culture? Check all that apply.

A society organized into warrior tribes An emphasis on gift-giving and hospitality A mixture of pagan and Christian traditions

Beowulf is an Anglo-Saxon poem that was written down in about 1000 CE

True

The story is:

– Set in sixth-century Scandinavia – Describes the heroic deeds of a warrior named Beowulf – Blends elements of Pagan and Christian culture

The plot of Beowulf:

– Hrothgar is the King of the Danes – Heorot, Hrothgar’s hall, is under attack by a monster named Grendel – Beowulf, a famous warrior, belongs to a tribe called the Geats – Beowulf defeats Grendel and then defeats Grendel’s mother – Beowulf becomes King of the Geats and slays a dragon

Beowulf:

A Geat who wins three major battles

Grendel:

A monster who attacks Heorot

Heorot:

Hrothgar’s hall

Hrothgar:

The King of the Danes

An inference is ________

A conclusion that can be drawn based on evidence in a text

Read the passage about Beowulf’s followers. Which inference is best supported by the passage?

The warriors are disciplined and well equipped.

Which evidence from the passage best supports the inference that the thanes are loyal and obedient to their leader? Check all that apply.

"Surrounded closely / by his powerful thanes" "Led by their prince"

Which feature of Anglo-Saxon culture is reflected in the passage?

"I will take this message,
in accordance with your wish, to our noble king,
our dear lord, friend of the Danes,
the giver of rings."

The expectation that a king gives gifts to his thanes

Which evidence from the passage best supports the inference that Hrothgar is a generous king?

"There’s nothing you wish for / that won’t be yours if you win"

Read Beowulf’s account of his battle at sea. Which inference is best supported by the passage?

Often, for undaunted courage,
fate spares the man it has not already marked.
However it occurred, my sword had killed
nine sea-monsters. Such night-dangers
and hard ordeals I have never heard of
nor of a man more desolate in surging waves.
But worn out as I was, I survived,
came through with my life.

Beowulf is stronger and braver than the average warrior.

Which additional evidence from the text best supports the inference that Beowulf is stronger and braver than the average warrior?

"I hereby renounce / sword and the shelter of the broad shield, / the heavy war-broad: hand-to-hand / is how it will be, a life-and-death / fight with the fiend."

Which feature of Anglo-Saxon culture is reflected in the passage?

My household-guard
are on the wane, fate sweeps them away
into Grendel’s clutches—
but God can easily
halt these raids and harrowing attacks!

The blending of pagan and Christian traditions

Old English:

Beowulf was written in Old English, the language was spoken in Britain until about 1100 CE

Which statement accurately describes the relationship of Old English to modern English?

Old English is a Germanic language, while modern English is heavily influenced by French.

Alliteration is _______

The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or stressed syllables in a line of poetry

Write two to three sentences explaining what you notice about the language of the poem.

I can hear that Beowulf uses alliteration and a pattern of stressed syllables. The language of the poem does not sound much like modern English, likely because Old English is more closely related to Germanic languages. * The poem uses alliteration. * The poem relies on a pattern of stressed syllables. * There are pauses. * The language of the poem sounds very different from modern English.

What connections can you make between Beowulf and Anglo-Saxon culture?

Beowulf can help readers understand many features of Anglo-Saxon culture, such as an emphasis on hospitality and gift-giving and the mixing of Pagan and Christian traditions

The passage features Anglo-Saxon culture because people are

Then it was like old times in the echoing hall,
proud talk and the people happy,
loud and excited; until soon enough
Halfdane’s heir had to be away
to his night’s rest. He realized
that the demon was going to descend on the hall,
that he had plotted all day, from dawn-light
until darkness gathered again over the world
and stealthy night-shapes came stealing forth
under the cloud-murk.

Feasting

Both Old English and modern English poetry use alliteration, which is

The repetition of consonant sounds.

When a student studies the way the English language has evolved, the student is studying English’s

Development.

Which inference is most supported by the passage?

Wealhtheow came in,
Hrothgar’s queen, observing the courtesies.
Adorned in her gold, she graciously saluted
the men in hall, then handed the cup
first to Hrothgar, their homeland’s guardian,
urging him to drink deep and enjoy it
because he was dear to them. And he drank it down
like the warlord he was, with festive cheer.
So the Helming woman went on her rounds,
queenly and dignified, decked out in rings,
offering the goblet to all ranks,
treating the household and the assembled troop
until it was Beowulf’s turn to take it from her hand.
With measured words she welcomed the Geat
and thanked God for granting her wish
that a deliverer she could believe in would arrive
to ease their afflictions.

Wealhtheow has not been impressed by the men who have fought Grendel up to this point.

Which feature of Anglo-Saxon culture is described in the excerpt?

So the Helming woman went on her rounds,
queenly and dignified, decked out in rings,
offering the goblet to all ranks,
treating the household and the assembled troop
until it was Beowulf’s turn to take it from her hand.

A gift-giving

Which interpretation of Beowulf does the passage best support?

"It bothers me to have to burden anyone
with all the grief Grendel has caused
and the havoc he has wreaked upon us in Heorot,
our humiliations. My household-guard
are on the wane, fate sweeps them away
into Grendel’s clutches—
but God can easily
halt these raids and harrowing attacks!

While reading Beowulf, the reader encounters aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture such as Christian and Pagan traditions.

Which excerpt from the modern translation of Beowulf most strongly reflects the half-line style of Old English poetry?

"will go and ask him about your coming here, then hurry back"

Old English developed from ________ tribes

Germanic

The passage supports the inference that Unferth is

From where he crouched at the king’s feet,
Unferth, a son of Ecglaf’s, spoke
contrary words. Beowulf’s coming,
his sea-braving, made him sick with envy:
he could not brook or abide the fact
that anyone else alive under heaven
might enjoy greater regard than he did:

Petty.

Which feature of Old English poetry did this modern translation maintain?

They marched in step,
hurrying on till the timbered hall
rose before them, radiant with gold.
Nobody on earth knew of another
building like it. Majesty lodged there,
its light shone over many lands.

Alliteration

Read the passage from Beowulf.

The hero arose, surrounded closely
by his powerful thanes. A party remained
under orders to keep watch on the arms;
the rest proceeded, led by their prince
under Heorot’s roof.
And standing on the hearth
in webbed links that the smith had woven,
the fine-forged mesh of his gleaming mail-shirt,
resolute in his helmet, Beowulf spoke:

Which word from the passage is a feature of Anglo-Saxon culture?

thanes

Read the passage from Beowulf.

Wealhtheow came in,
Hrothgar’s queen, observing the courtesies.
Adorned in her gold, she graciously saluted
the men in hall, then handed the cup
first to Hrothgar, their homeland’s guardian,
urging him to drink deep and enjoy it
because he was dear to them. And he drank it down
like the warlord he was, with festive cheer.
So the Helming woman went on her rounds,
queenly and dignified, decked out in rings,
offering the goblet to all ranks,
treating the household and the assembled troop
until it was Beowulf’s turn to take it from her hand.
With measured words she welcomed the Geat
and thanked God for granting her wish
that a deliverer she could believe in would arrive
to ease their afflictions.

Which inference is most supported by the passage?

Wealhtheow has not been impressed by the men who have fought Grendel up to this point.

Which excerpt from the modern translation of Beowulf most strongly reflects the half-line style of Old English poetry?

will go and ask him about your coming here, then hurry back

Read the passage from Beowulf.

From where he crouched at the king’s feet,
Unferth, a son of Ecglaf’s, spoke
contrary words. Beowulf’s coming,
his sea-braving, made him sick with envy:
he could not brook or abide the fact
that anyone else alive under heaven
might enjoy greater regard than he did:

The passage supports the inference that Unferth is

petty.

Read Anja’s inference about Hrothgar.

Despite Grendel’s success in killing Hrothgar’s men, Hrothgar’s faith in God remained unshaken.

Which passage best supports her inference?

[Hrothgar] Now Holy God has, in His goodness, guided him here to the West-Danes, to defend us from Grendel.

Read Micah’s inference about Beowulf.

Beowulf does not fear death.

Read the passage from Beowulf.

If Grendel wins, it will be a gruesome day;
he will glut himself on the Geats in the war-hall,
swoop without fear on that flower of manhood
as on others before. Then my face won’t be there
to be covered in death: he will carry me away
as he goes to ground, gorged and bloodied;
he will run gloating with my raw corpse
and feed on it alone, in a cruel frenzy,
fouling his moor-nest. No need then
to lament for long or lay out my body:
if the battle takes me, send back
this breast-webbing that Weland fashioned
and Hrethel gave me, to Lord Hygelac.
Fate goes ever as fate must."

Which sentence or phrase from the passage most likely helped Micah make his inference?

Fate goes ever as fate must.

Read the passage from Beowulf.

So the Helming woman went on her rounds,
queenly and dignified, decked out in rings,
offering the goblet to all ranks,
treating the household and the assembled troop
until it was Beowulf’s turn to take it from her hand.

Which feature of Anglo-Saxon culture is described in the excerpt?

a cup-bearer

Read the passage from Beowulf.

Then it was like old times in the echoing hall,
proud talk and the people happy,
loud and excited; until soon enough
Halfdane’s heir had to be away
to his night’s rest. He realized
that the demon was going to descend on the hall,
that he had plotted all day, from dawn-light
until darkness gathered again over the world
and stealthy night-shapes came stealing forth
under the cloud-murk.

The passage features Anglo-Saxon culture because people are

feasting.

Read the passage from Beowulf.

They marched in step,
hurrying on till the timbered hall
rose before them, radiant with gold.
Nobody on earth knew of another
building like it. Majesty lodged there,
its light shone over many lands.

Which feature of Old English poetry did this modern translation maintain?

alliteration

Old English developed from ? tribes.

Germanic

Consider the passage and theme.

Devin kept a low profile in school. He attended classes and talked with his friends in the hall, but few knew him well. He rarely raised his hand in class and never spoke out of turn. Even in band class, he refused to draw attention to himself. Though he had earned the honor of first-chair saxophone, he did not reveal his passion for his instrument to his classmates.

Then, sophomore year, Devin joined the marching band despite his fear of public scrutiny. The night of the first football game, his palms were sweating and his heart was racing as the band marched onto the field. But as soon as he began to play, his fears were forgotten, and through the glare of the lights he could see the crowd swaying and clapping to the music. Devin was completely at ease during his solo, and after the game a friend told him, "You were great! I didn’t know you had it in you."

Theme One: It is important to take risks.

What other theme is addressed in the passage?

a

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

Gilgamesh backed away. He said,
"How dreadful Humbaba’s face has become!
It is changing into a thousand nightmare
faces, more horrible than I can bear.
I feel haunted. I am too afraid to go on."

Enkidu answered, "Why, dear friend,
do you speak like a coward? What you just said
is unworthy of you. It grieves my heart.
We must not hesitate or retreat."

Which sentence best states the theme of the excerpt?

a

In Gilgamesh: A New English Version, Gilgamesh represents an epic hero because he

c

Which statement is a theme?

c. Encouragement can be a source of strength.

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

Gilgamesh answered, "Dear friend, dear brother,
I cannot kill Humbaba alone.
Please stay here with me. Stand at my side.
‘Two boats lashed together will never sink.
A three-ply rope is not easily broken.’
If we help each other and fight side by side,
what harm can come to us?"

The author includes this excerpt to establish Gilgamesh as

a

Consider these themes from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

Good leaders motivate through compelling speech.

Soldiers must persevere through challenging trials.

Which statement best describes how these themes interact in the tale?

c

Consider the passage and theme.

Ria was thrilled when her doctor removed her cast. It had only been a month, but the inconvenience of wearing a cast and using crutches had been a constant challenge. She had learned that her high school, while accessible, was not easy to navigate with crutches. The stairs were treacherous, and the elevator was slow, but what bothered Ria the most were the entrances. Since her high school sat on a hill with a wide, concrete stairway to the front door, all of the ramps were at entrances far off her usual course.

Fortunately, Ria made some new friends venturing to and from the ramps. She noticed that these friends were upbeat and determined, and they had more interesting things to discuss than the minor inconvenience of a ramp. Still, when the student council asked for suggestions about a class project, Ria submitted a proposal for a front-entrance ramp instead of the high-def scoreboard she had once prioritized.

Theme One: Lessons are often learned through one’s struggles.

What other theme is addressed in the passage?

b

In Gilgamesh: A New English Version, Enkidu is a loyal companion who proves himself to be an archetype of

bravery

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

At four hundred miles they stopped to eat,
at a thousand miles they pitched their camp.
They had traveled for just three days and nights,
a six weeks’ journey for ordinary men.
When the sun was setting, they dug a well,
they filled their waterskins with fresh water,
Gilgamesh climbed to the mountaintop,
he poured out flour as an offering and said,
"Mountain, bring me a favorable dream."

Which feature of epic poetry does this excerpt most clearly show?

c

Which character from Gilgamesh: A New English Version is an example of a supernatural force who intervenes?

Lord Shamash

Which best defines the word repetition in epic poetry?

the recurrence of words and phrases for a specific effect

In Gilgamesh: A New English Version, Gilgamesh repeatedly has dreams and says, "Enkidu, dear friend, I have had a dream."

It creates a rhythmic pattern that the audience can follow, and it signals that the audience will hear a new dream.

Which statement best describes the effect of Gilgamesh’s repeated dreams in Gilgamesh: A New English Version?

The repetition of the dreams creates rhythm, interest, and drama.

Which of these are elements of an epic poem’s structure and style? Check all that apply

the use of poetic verse throughout the epic a narrative voice that tells the story elevated, or eloquent, style compelling speeches

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

At four hundred miles they stopped to eat,
at a thousand miles they pitched their camp.
They had traveled for just three days and nights,
a six weeks’ journey for ordinary men.

It emphasizes the length of Gilgamesh’s and Enkidu’s journey.

Which statement best describes how Gilgamesh’s dreams affect the plot of Gilgamesh: A New English Version?

The dreams create conflict and suspense.

After each dream, Gilgamesh says to Enkidu, "Dear friend, tell me, what does this mean?" What effect does this repetition have?

It reinforces Enkidu’s role as Gilgamesh’s adviser.

Which detail from Gilgamesh: A New English Version best illustrates a challenging journey?

The two men travel a thousand miles at a time before they stop for the night.

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

Enkidu said, "Don’t worry, my friend,
the dream you had is a favorable one.
The eagle that you saw, with a lion’s head,
stands for Humbaba. Though it dived straight toward you
and terrifying flames shot from its mouth,
nothing could cause you harm. The young man
who came to your rescue was our lord, Shamash.
He will stand beside us when the monster attacks.
Whatever happens, we will prevail."

– WRONG – The difficult journey that Gilgamesh must undertake causes him to feel defeated.

Which statement best describes the epic feature used in this excerpt and its effect on the plot?

Enkidu said, "Don’t worry, my friend,
the dream you had is a favorable one.
The eagle that you saw, with a lion’s head,
stands for Humbaba. Though it dived straight toward you
and terrifying flames shot from its mouth,
nothing could cause you harm. The young man
who came to your rescue was our lord, Shamash.
He will stand beside us when the monster attacks.
Whatever happens, we will prevail."

The intervention of the supernatural gives Gilgamesh hope that he will defeat Humbaba.

Which best defines the word repetition in epic poetry?

The recurrence of words and phrases for a specific effect

Why is repetition an important part of an epic’s structure? Check all that apply.

1. It allows poets to remember and retell the poem. 2. It helps the audience absorb the poem. 3. It creates a rhythmic pattern. 4. It emphasizes important ideas.

What effect does Lord Shamash’s intervention have on the epic?

Then, from heaven, the voice of the god
called to Gilgamesh: "Hurry, attack,
attack Humbaba while the time is right,
before he enters the depths of the forest,
before he can hide there and wrap himself
in his seven auras with their paralyzing glare.
He is wearing just one now. Attack him! Now!"

It encourages Gilgamesh to fight and adds excitement for the audience.

Based on the excerpt, how will Lord Shamash most likely affect the battle with Humbaba?

Enkidu said, "Don’t worry, my friend,
the dream you had is a favorable one.
Again, the mountain stands for Humbaba.
He threw you down, but he could not kill you.
As for the handsome young man who appeared,
he stands for Lord Shamash, who will rescue you
and grant you everything you desire."

Lord Shamash will help Gilgamesh defeat Humbaba.

Which statement best describes how Gilgamesh’s dreams affect the plot of Gilgamesh: A New English Version?

The dreams create conflict and suspense

Which detail from Gilgamesh: A New English Version best illustrates a courageous hero?

Gilgamesh standing at edge of the Cedar Forest, ready to battle Humbaba

Based on the excerpt, which statement best describes Humbaba’s effect on the epic’s plot?

Enkidu said, "Don’t worry, my friend,
the dream you had is a favorable one.
The fiery heavens stand for Humbaba,
who tried to kill you with lightning and flames.
But in spite of the fire, he could not harm you."

Humbaba creates tension and suspense in the story.

Which feature of epic poetry does this excerpt most clearly show?

The man who pulled you up from the ground
and gave you fresh water from his waterskin
is Lugalbanda, your personal god.
With his help, we will achieve a triumph
greater than any man has achieved.

Supernatural forces, such as gods or monsters, that intervene

Consider the passage and theme.

Liam’s first job at the fast-food chain was not glamorous. He worked early-morning shifts, loading biscuits into ovens and dipping countless batches of hash-browned potatoes into vats of grease. Every day he encountered harried, impolite customers and complaining coworkers; nevertheless, he maintained a positive outlook. Liam methodically completed his duties: wrapping sandwiches, filling orders, and cleaning his work space. Liam’s manager appreciated his diligence, and by his third month of employment, he was no longer assigned to the pre-dawn shift. Within a year, Liam was an assistant manager earning double his initial pay.

Theme One: Every job is worth doing well.

What other theme is addressed in the passage?

c

Which lines from Gilgamesh: A New English Version best establish Gilgamesh as triumphant in battle?

d

Which statement is a theme?

d true friends

Consider the excerpt and theme from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

Enkidu said, "Don’t worry, my friend,
the dream you had is a favorable one.
The eagle that you saw, with a lion’s head,
stands for Humbaba. Though it dived straight toward you
and terrifying flames shot from its mouth,
nothing could cause you harm. The young man
who came to your rescue was our lord, Shamash.
He will stand beside us when the monster attacks.
Whatever happens, we will prevail."
Gilgamesh, happy with his good dream,
smiled, and his face lit up with pleasure.

Theme One: Dreams have valuable meanings.

What other theme is addressed in the excerpt?

b

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

They could hear Humbaba’s terrifying roar.
Gilgamesh stopped. He was trembling. Tears
flowed down his cheeks. "O Shamash," he cried,
"protect me on this dangerous journey.
Remember me, help me, hear my prayer."
They stood and listened. A moment passed.
Then, from heaven, the voice of the god
called to Gilgamesh: "Hurry, attack,
attack Humbaba while the time is right,
before he enters the depths of the forest"

What characteristic of an epic hero does the excerpt reveal?

d

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

[Gilgamesh and Enkidu] charged at Humbaba like two wild bulls.
The monster let out a deafening cry,
his roar boomed forth like a blast of thunder,
he stamped and the ground burst open, his steps
split the mountains of Lebanon,
the clouds turned black, a sulfurous fog
descended on them and made their eyes ache.
Then Shamash threw strong winds at Humbaba,
the south wind, the north wind, the east and the west,
storm wind, gale wind, hurricane, tornado,
to pin him down and paralyze his steps.
He could not move forward, could not retreat.
Gilgamesh saw it, he leaped upon him,
he held a knife to Humbaba’s throat.

What characteristics of an epic hero does Gilgamesh exhibit in the excerpt? Check all that apply.

2, 4

Read the excerpt from Gilgamesh: A New English Version.

At four hundred miles they stopped to eat,
at a thousand miles they pitched their camp.
They had traveled for just three days and nights,
a six weeks’ journey for ordinary men.
When the sun was setting, they dug a well,
they filled their waterskins with fresh water,
Gilgamesh climbed to the mountaintop

What characteristic of an epic hero does the excerpt reveal?

b

What topics are commonly explored in epics? Check all that apply.

2,4,5

A literary theme is defined as

b

Which comparison of Beowulf and Grendel is most accurate?

c

Read the excerpt from Grendel.

Then they would fight. Spears flying, swords whonking, arrows raining from the windows and doors of the meadhall and the edge of the woods. Horses reared and fell over screaming, ravens flew, crazy as bats in a fire, men staggered, gesturing wildly, making speeches, dying or sometimes pretending to be dying, sneaking off. Sometimes the attackers would be driven back, sometimes they’d win and burn the meadhall down, sometimes they’d capture the king of the meadhall and make his people give weapons and gold rings and cows.

It was confusing and frightening, not in a way I could untangle. I was safe in my tree, and the men who fought were nothing to me, except of course that they talked in something akin to my language, which meant that we were, incredibly, related. I was sickened, if only at the waste of it: all they killed—cows, horses, men—they left to rot or burn.

Which statement best describes Grendel’s perspective?

d

Which statements accurately compare Beowulf and Grendel? Check all that apply.

2,3

Read the excerpt from Grendel.

There was nothing to stop the advance of man. Huge boars fled at the click of a harness. Wolves would cower in the glens like foxes when they caught that deadly scent. I was filled with a wordless, obscurely murderous unrest.

How is Grendel characterized in this passage?

c

read the excerpt from Grendel.

I was safe in my tree, and the men who fought were nothing to me, except of course that they talked in something akin to my language, which meant that we were, incredibly, related. I was sickened, if only at the waste of it: all they killed—cows, horses, men—they left to rot or burn. I sacked all I could and tried to store it, but my mother would growl and make faces because of the stink.

How is Grendel characterized in this excerpt?

b

Read the description of Grendel from the epic poem Beowulf.

If Grendel wins, it will be a gruesome day;
he will glut himself on the Geats in the war-hall,
swoop without fear on that flower of manhood
as on others before. Then my face won’t be there
to be covered in death: he will carry me away
as he goes to ground, gorged and bloodied;
he will run gloating with my raw corpse
and feed on it alone, in a cruel frenzy,
fouling his moor-nest.

This version of Grendel is more ________ than the version in John Gardner’s novel.

a

Read the excerpt from Grendel.

It wasn’t because he threw that battle-ax that I turned on Hrothgar. That was mere midnight foolishness. I dismissed it, thought of it afterward only as you remember a tree that fell on you or an adder you stepped on by accident, except of course that Hrothgar was more to be feared than a tree or snake. It wasn’t until later, when I was full-grown and Hrothgar was an old, old man, that I settled my soul on destroying him—slowly and cruelly.

What does the author use in this excerpt to develop Grendel’s character?

b

Read the excerpt from Grendel.

Thus I fled, ridiculous hairy creature torn apart by poetry—crawling, whimpering, streaming tears, across the world like a two-headed beast, like mixed-up lamb and kid at the tail of a baffled, indifferent ewe—and I gnashed my teeth and clutched the sides of my head as if to heal the split, but I couldn’t.

How is Grendel characterized in this excerpt?

c

Read these lines from Beowulf.

He realized
that the demon was going to descend on the hall,
that he had plotted all day, from dawn-light
until darkness gathered again over the world
and stealthy night-shapes came stealing forth
under the cloud-murk.

Read this excerpt from Grendel.

Thus I fled, ridiculous hairy creature torn apart by poetry—crawling, whimpering, streaming tears, across the world like a two-headed beast, like mixed-up lamb and kid at the tail of a baffled, indifferent ewe—and I gnashed my teeth and clutched the sides of my head as if to heal the split, but I couldn’t.

Which statement best compares the two excerpts?

a

Read the excerpt from Grendel.

I clamped my palms to my ears and stretched up my lips and shrieked again: a stab at truth, a snatch at apocalyptic glee. Then I ran on all fours, chest pounding, to the smoky mere.

What does the author use in this excerpt to develop Grendel’s character?

a

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