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which of the following statements regarding the NREMT is correct?
a) the NREMT is a governmental agency that certifies EMTs
b) the NREMT is the exclusive certifying body for EMTs
c) EMS training standards are regulated by the NREMT
d) the NREMT provides national standard for EMS testing

d) the NREMT provides national standard for EMS testing

which of the following scenarios does NOT involve the administration of ALS?
a) a 64 y/o cardiac arrest patient who is defibrillated with an automated external defrib (AED)
b) a 53 y/o patient who is given glucagon for significant hypoglycemia
c) a 61 y/o trauma patient whose chest is decompressed with a needle

a) a 64 y/o cardiac arrest patient who is defib with an AED (because EMTs are CPR/AED certified)

which of the following is a unique function of the Emergency medical dispatcher?
a) providing callers with life-saving instructions
b) obtaining patient info from the caller
c) relaying relevant info to the EMTs
d) directing the ambulance to the correct address

a) providing callers with life-saving instructions

EMRs such as fire fightesr, police, and park rangers, are an integral part of the EMS system because…
a) the avg response time for the EMT crew is approx 15 mins
b) the presence of a person trained to initiate BLS care cannot be ensured
c) they are usually trained to assist paramedics w/ certain procedures


according to the National EMS Scope of Practice model, an EMT would require special permission from the Med Director and the state EMS office in order to…
a) give aspirin to a patient with chest pain
b) apply and interpret a pulse oximeter
c) perform blood glucose monitoring
d) use an automatic transport ventilator

c) perform bloood glucose monitoring

The continuous quality improvement (CQI) process is designed to…

identify ares of improvement and provide remedial training if needed

The criteria to be licensed and employed as an EMT include:

proof of immunization against certain communicable diseases

EMT training in nearly every state meets or exceeds the guidelines recommended by the…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

The person who is responsible for authorizing EMTs to perform emergency medical care in the field is the…

medical director

Why are prehospital emergency care guidelines updated on a regular basis?

additional information and evidence indicate that the effectiveness of certain interventions has changed

obtaining continuing medical education is the responsibility of the:

individual EMT

if an EMT candidate has been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor, he or she should…

contact the state EMS office and provide them with the required documentation

an appropriate demonstration of professionalism when your patient is frightened, demanding or unpleasant is to:

continue to be nonjudgemental, compassionate, and respectful

cardiac monitoring, pharmacological interventions, and other advanced treatment skills are the function of a…


the standards for prehospital emergency care and the individuals who provide it are typically regulated by the:

state office of EMS

laypeople are often trained to perform all of the following skills, EXCEPT:
a) splinting of possible fracture
b) insertion of an OPA
c) control of life-threatening bleeding
d) one- or two-rescuer CPR


as an EMT you may be authorized to administer aspirin to a patient with chest pain based on…

local EMS protocols

which of the following errors is an example of knowledge-based failure?

an EMT administers the wrong drug to a patient bc she did not know the pertinent information about the drug

which of the following is an example of a primary prevention strategy??

community awareness programs that emphasize the dangers of drinking and driving

which of the following skills or interventions is included at every level of prehospital emergency training?
a) AED
b) oral glucose for hypoglycemia
c) intranasal medication administration
d) use of a manually triggered ventilator


the _____ deals with well-being of the EMT, career progression, and EMT compensation.

human resources department

an EMS provider who has extensive training in various aspects of ALS is called a…


If a defibrillator manufacturer calims that its device terminates ventricular fibrillation on the first shock 95% of the time, you should..

recognize that this does mean it will save more lives

The determination that prompt surgical care in the hospital is more important than performing time-consuming procedures in the field on a major trauma patient is based MOSTLY on

EMS research

Which of the following statements regarding the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is correct?

ADA prohibits employers from failing to provide full and equal employment to the disabled

according to the National EMS scope of practice model, an EMT should be able to:

assist a patient with certain prescribed meds

Which of the following descriptions MOST accurately portrays emergency medical services (EMS)?
A. a team of health care professionals who are responsible for providing emergency care and transportation to the sick and injured
B. a team of paramedics and emergency physicians who are responsible for providing emergency care to critically injured patients
C. a system composed exclusively of emergency medical responders (EMRs) and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) who are responsible for providing care to sick and injured patients


Continuing education in EMS serves to…
A. maintain, update, and expand your knowledge and skills.
B. enforce mandatory attendance to agency-specific training.
C. provide an ongoing review and audit of the EMS system.

A. maintain, update, and expand your knowledge and skills

What type of medical direction do standing orders and protocols describe?


When you and your partner arrive at the residence of a man in cardiac arrest, you immediately recognize the patient as the drunk driver who killed your brother several years earlier. A backup ambulance is en route to the scene. You should:

being 2 rescuer CPR and apply the AED as soon as possible

In which of the following circumstances can the EMT legally release confidential patient information?
A. the family requests a copy for insurance purposes
B. the patient is competent and signs a release form
C. a media representative inquires about the patient
D. a police officer requests a copy to place on file

b. the patient is competent and signs a release form

You are assessing a woman who was thrown from her horse. She is located in a large field and you can see that a thunderstorm is rapidly approaching. Suddenly, you feel your skin begin to tingle and the hair on your arms stands on end. The ambulance is located about 30 yards away. You should:

crouch down in a position so that only your feet are touching the ground

Which of the following scenarios MOST accurately depicts abandonment?
A. An AEMT transfers patient care to a paramedic.
B. A physician assumes patient care from an EMT.
C. An EMT gives a verbal report to an emergency room nurse.
D. A paramedic transfers patient care to an EMT.


You and your partner respond to the residence of a 66-year-old male with shortness of breath. As you are assessing the patient, his wife tells you that he was recently diagnosed with lung cancer. The patient is verbally abusive and tells you that failure of the health care system caused his disease. What stage of the grieving process is this patient’s behavior consistent with?


You suspect that a 6-year-old girl has broken her leg after falling from a swing at a playground. Shortly after you arrive, the child’s mother appears and refuses to allow you to continue treatment. You should:

try to persuade the mother that treatment is needed

You are dispatched to a middle school for a 16-year-old female experiencing an asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in severe respiratory distress. The school nurse informs you that she has tried several times to contact the patient’s parents but has not been successful. You should:
A. transport the child to the closest hospital and let them provide any treatment.
B. recognize that you cannot begin treatment without expressed parental consent.
C. administer oxygen only until you receive parental consent for further treatment.
D. provide treatment up to your level of training and transport the child at once.


Maintaining the chain of evidence at the scene of a crime should include:

not cutting through holes in clothing that were caused by weapons.

While on duty, your partner asks you out on a date and touches you in an inappropriate location without your consent. You should:

tell ur partner to stop and report the incident to your supervisor

Your BEST protection against legal liability when a competent patient refuses EMS care and transport is to:

thoroughly document the entire event

Physiologic manifestations of stress include:

perspiration, increased blood glucose levels, and dilated pupils.

You and your partner are the first to arrive at a potential crime scene with a critically injured patient involved. The scene is safe. Your first priority is to:

provide immediate patient care

Where would you MOST likely find information regarding a patient’s wishes to be an organ donor?

DRIVER’s license

In the eyes of the court, an incomplete or untidy patient care form indicates:

inadequate patient care was administered

While transporting a woman with diabetes, you inadvertently give her oral glucose even though her blood glucose level was high. You reassess the patient and note that her condition did not change; she remained stable. You should:

contact medical control and notify him or her of the error

Which of the following statements regarding the Good Samaritan law is correct?
A. It provides the EMT immunity from a lawsuit.
B. The law does not protect EMTs who are off duty.
C. It guarantees that the EMT will not be held liable if he or she is sued.
D. It will not protect the EMT in cases of gross negligence.

D. it will not protect the EMT in cases of gross negligence

You suspect that a pregnant 16-year-old girl has a broken leg after she was hit by a car. You explain that you plan to splint her leg, and she agrees to treatment. What type of consent is her agreement considered?


As an EMT, it is important to remember that the signs and symptoms of cumulative stress:

May not be obvious or present all the time

If you use a waterless handwashing substitute in the field, it is important to:

wash your hands with soap and water at the hospital

You are dispatched to the scene of a crash involving a large tanker truck. While you are en route, dispatch advises you that there are multiple patients and that the fire department is en route as well. As you approach the scene, you should..

maintain a safe distance and try to read the placard with binoculars

vector borne transmission of an infectious organism occurs via:

animals or insects

You arrive at the scene of a domestic violence situation. As you approach the doorway of the apartment, you hear screaming and the statement "He has a gun!" Your MOST appropriate action should be to:

seek a safe place and request law enforcement assistance

Gloves, a mask, eye protection, and a face shield should be used:

when performing endotracheal intubation

You are dispatched to an apartment complex for a shooting. Law enforcement personnel are present and have the suspect in custody. You find the patient lying in a narrow space between the couch and coffee table of his small apartment. He is semiconscious and has a large gunshot wound to his chest. You should:

quickly move the coffee table so you can access and treat the patient

your partner, a veteran EMT who u have worked with regularly for the past 4 years, seems agitated during a call involving an elderly patient. upon arrival back at your station, you note the obvius smell of alcohol on his breath. what do you do?

discreetly report your suspicions to your supervisor

what should you do before attempting to access a patient trapped in a vehicle?

ensure the vehicle is stable

the manner in which the EMT must act or behave when caring for a patient is called the.

standard of care

you arrive at the scene of an apparent death. when evaluating the patient which of the following is a definitive sign of death?
A. absent breath sounds
b. dependent lividity
c. absence of a pulse


at the scene of a MCI, you have a patient as an organ donor. when triaging the other patients, you:

may have to assign the donor patient a lower triage priority

you have been working at the scene of a major building collapse for 8 hours. many injured people are still being removed, and everyone is becoming frustrated and losing focus. this situation is most effectively managed by:

requesting a CISM team to provide on-scene peer support

which of the following types of consent allows treatment of a patient who is unconscious or mentally incapacitated?


upon arriving at the scene of a MVC, you note that two small cars collided head-on. the fire department is in the process of stabilizing the vehicles and law enforcement personnel are directing traffic. after parking the ambulance at a safe distance, you and your partner should:

put on high-visibility safety vests

you respond to the home of a 59-year-old man who is unconscious and has a weak pulse. the family states that the patient has terminal brain cancer and does not wish to be resuscitated. they are unable to locate the DNR order. what should you?

begin treatment and contact medical control as needed

which of the following statements regarding the hepatitis B vaccine is correct?

OSHA requires that your employer offer you the vaccine free of charge

the final stage of death and dying is most commonly displayed as:


determination of exposure is an important component of an infection control plan because it:

defines who is at risk for contact with blood and body fluids and which tasks pose a risk of exposure

to minimize the risk of litigation, the EMT should always…

provide competent care that meets current standards

when a patient is dying, he or she may experience regression. this is most accurately defined as:

behavioral consistent with an earlier developmental stage

which of the following statements would not be appropriate to say to the family of a dying patient..
A."things will get better in time"
b. "tell me how you are feeling"
c. "this must be painful for you"
d. "it is okay to be angry and sad"


which of the following statements regarding consent is most correct??

a patient can consent to transport but can legally refuse to be treated

which of the following is the most effective strategy for managing stress?

focus on delivering high-quality patient care

acting in such a way as to make another person fear immediate bodily harm is called:


during your monthly internal quality improvement meeting, you review several patient care reports with the staff of your EMS system. you identify the patient’s name, age, and sex, and then discuss the treatment that was provided by the EMT’s in the field. by taking this approach to the QI process, you…

are in violation of HIPAA bc you did not remove the PHI from the PCR beforehand

according to the occupational safety and health administration regulations, an employer must:

offer a workplace environment that reduces the risk for exposure

if it is not possivle to adequately claean your ambulance at the hospital following a call, you should..

clean the ambulance at your station in a designated area that is well ventilated

when performing his or her duties, the EMT is generally expected to:

exercise reasonable care and act prudently

you arrive at the scene of a motor vehicle vs. pedestrian accident. the patient, a 13-year-old, is unconscious and has multiple injuries. as you are treating the child, a law enforcement officer advises you that the child’s parents will be at the scene in approx 15 mins. what should you do?

transport the child immediately and have the parents meet you at the hospital

the compliance monitoring component of an infection control plan should:

ensure that employees understand what they should do and why it is important

the most serious consequence of drug or alcohol abuse among EMS personnel is:

substandard or inappropiate patient care

if you are exposed to a patient’s blood or other bodily fluid, your first action should be to:

transfer care of your patient to another EMS provider

a patient regains consciousness en route from his office to the emergency department. the patient tells you that he feels fine and doesnt want to go to ths hopistal. under these circumstances, you should:

assess whether or not the patients mental condition is impaired

while decontaminating the back of your ambulance after a call, you should:

allow surfaces to air dry unless otherwise indicated in the product directions

in order for a DNR order to be valid it must…

clearly state the patient’s medical problem

which of the following is not considered to be protected health information? (PHI)

location of the call

prescription glasses do not provide adequate eye protection bc they:

offer little to no side protection

which of the following situations requires you to notify the appropriate authorities?
accidental knife wound, drug overdose, attempted suicide, or cardiac arrest

attempted suicide

you are assessing a middle-aged man with chest pain that you suspect is caused by a cardiac problem. the patient tells you that he does not want to go to teh hospital and wants you to leave him alone.

explain the seriousness of hte situation to him but avoid causing undue alarm

which of the following most accurately depicts informed consent?
a) an EMT advises a patient of the risks of receiving treatment
b) a patient advises an EMT of why he or she is refusing care
c) a patient is advised by an EMT of the risks of refusing care
d) an EMT initiates immediate care for an unconscious adult

A. an EMT advises a patient of the risks of receiving treatment

common factors that influence how a patient reacts to the stress of an illness/injury include all of the following EXCEPT:
mental disorders
distrust of the EMT
history of chronic disease
fear of medical personnel

distrust of the EMT

hazards that are associated with a structural fire include all of the following except…
high ambient temperatures
carbon dioxide deficiency
smoke and toxic gases
the risk of building collapse

carbon dioxide deficiency

which of the following scenarios most accurately depicts a PTSD reaction?

an EMT becomes distracted at the scene of a MVC involving the same type of car in which a child was previously killed

if a person is partially immune to a particular disease, he or she…

may develop illness from germs that lie dormant from the initial infection

patients who become dependent on EMS personnel may often feel…


the manner in which the EMT act or behave when caring for a patient is called the

standard of care

you are summoned to a center for an 88 y/o female with an altered mental status. a staff nurse advises you that the patient has terminal cancer and is going to die within the next few hours, a valid DNR form is presented to you. when caring for the patient you should…

make her comfortable and provide emotional support

a positive skin TB test indicates that..

you have been exposed to the disease

when performing his or her duties, the EMT is generally expected to…

exercise reasonable care and act prudently

the PCR ensures…

continuity of care

you could be sued for _____ if your radio report to the hospital describes the patient in a manner that injuries his or her rep


any radio hardware containing a transmitter and receiver that is located in a fixed location is called…

base station

after being dispatched, you should expect the dispatcher to provide you with all of the following info EXCEPT

general geographic location of the incident

while at the scene of a MVC, you attempt to contact the dispatcher with your portable radio but are unsuccessful, you should

use the mobile radio in the ambulance to contact dispatch

ethnocentrism is defined as:

considering your own cultural values as more important when interacting with people of a diff culture

a 4 y/o boy had a seizure. he is conscious and calm and is sitting on his mother’s lap, his fther is sitting nearby. the child’s mother suddenly begins crying uncontrollably, which causes the child to start crying. you should:

consider asking the father to hold the child so you can assess him while your partner tries to calm the mother

when you begin an oral report you should state the pts age, sex and..

cheif complaint

dedicated line?

it is a constantly open line of communication that cannot be accessed by outside users

you and your partner are attempting to resuscitate a female in cardiac arrest. bc of remote location you are in, you are unable to contact medical control. what should you do??

follow locally established protocols or standing orders

during your assessment of a 20 year old man with a sever headache, you ask him when his headache began but he doesnt answer your question immediately. you should:

allow him time to think about the question and respond to it

what type of communications equipment functions as a radio receiver and searchers across several frequencies?


general guidelines for effective radio communications include all of the following except:

using 10 codes to ensure radio traffic confidentiality

two-way communication that requires the EMT to "push to talk" and "release to listen" describes what model?


which of the following is not appro to document in the narrative section of a PCR?

"general impression revealed the patient was intoxicated"

when obtaining patient care orders from a physician via a two-way radio, it is most important to remember that:

his/her instructions are based on the info YOU provide

You are interviewing a 52-year-old man who complains of chest discomfort. The patient is a retired paramedic and is very anxious because he thinks he is having a heart attack. Which of the following statements would be appropriate to say

"It is possible that you are experiencing a heart attack. I am going to give you four baby aspirin to chew and swallow."

When communicating information over the radio, you should:

use the words "Affirmative" and "negative" instead of yes and no

You are assessing a 75-year-old woman with mild shortness of breath. As you are asking her questions regarding her chief complaint and medical history, you progressively move closer and closer to her.

as you physically get closer to the patient, a greater and greater sense of trust must be established.

Typical components of an oral patient report include all of the following, EXCEPT:

the set of baseline vital signs taken at the scene.

Communicating with hearing-impaired patients can be facilitated by doing all of the following, EXCEPT:

elevating the tone of your voice and exaggerating word pronunciation

Medical control gives you an order that seems inappropriate for the patient’s condition. After confirming that you heard the physician correctly, you should:

advise the physician that the order is unclear and ask for clarification.

A 60-year-old man complains of chest pain. He is conscious and alert and denies shortness of breath. Which of the following questions would be the MOST appropriate to ask him?

"Do you have any heart problems or take any medications?"

All information recorded on the PCR must be:

considered confidential

Which of the following statements regarding standing orders is MOST correct?
A. Standing orders only highlight the care that you may provide.
B. Standing orders should be followed when physician contact is not possible.
C. Standing orders have less legal authority than orders given via radio.
D. Standing orders require you to contact medical control first.

B. Standing orders should be followed when physician contact is not possible.

Which of the following incidents does NOT require a report to be filed with local authorities?
A. spousal abuse
B. gunshot wounds
C. animal bites
D. cardiac arrest


A patient’s refusal for EMS treatment and/or transport must be:

an informed refusal

Which of the following statements regarding a patient refusal is MOST correct?
A. A mentally competent adult has the legal right to refuse EMS care and transport.
B. A patient who consumed a few beers will likely be able to refuse EMS treatment.
C. Advice given to a patient who refuses EMS treatment should not be documented.
D. Documentation of proposed care is unnecessary if the patient refuses treatment.

A. A mentally competent adult has the legal right to refuse EMS care and transport.

Which of the following statements regarding anaerobic metabolism is correct?
A. Without anaerobic metabolism, perfusion to the body would suffer and cellular death would occur.
B. Anaerobic metabolism can be supported in most of the body’s cells for up to 10 minutes.
C. Anaerobic metabolism produces lactic acid and occurs when cellular oxygen is limited.
D. The body functions optimally and produces maximum ATP during anaerobic metabolism.


The inferior cartilaginous tip of the sternum is called the:

xiphoid process

What is the function of the fallopian tubes?

A. transport a mature egg to the uterus

Which of the following signs of respiratory distress is typically unique to infants and children?

seesaw respirations

The connecting nerve, a nerve of the peripheral nervous system, functions by:

connecting the sensory and motor nerves and bypassing the brain.

Which of the following statements regarding nervous system control of the cardiovascular system is correct?

Baroreceptors located throughout the body provide information to the brain regarding the blood pressure.

The ___________ of the heart is the inferior portion of the left ventricles.


If an average-sized patient’s chest barely moves during inhalation, even if his or her respiratory rate is normal, you should suspect that:

minute volume is decreased.

Which of the following statements regarding smooth muscle is correct?

B. A person has no voluntary control over smooth muscle.

Which of the following statements regarding the kidneys is correct?

C. The kidneys eliminate toxic waste products from the body and control its balance of water and salt.

What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a dead space volume of 150 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min?

5600 mL

Which of the following skin layers contains sweat and oil glands, hair follicles, blood vessels, and nerve endings?


Which of the following statements regarding the heart is correct?

under control of the autonomic NS

Which of the following glands regulates the function of all other endocrine glands in the body?


The ____________ is a muscular dome that forms the inferior boundary of the thorax, separating the thorax from the abdomen.


The __________ fills the entire anteroposterior depth of the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen.


Abnormalities in metabolism are MOST likely caused by dysfunction of the:


A patient has a blood pressure of 130/70 mm Hg. The "130" represents:

D. ventricular contraction.

Stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors results in:

constriction of the blood vessels

The bones that comprise the fingers and toes are called:


Movement or motion away from the body’s midline is called:


The atlas is the:

D. first cervical vertebra, which articulates with the skull.

The primary function of the right atrium is to:

receive blood from the vena cava

What set of nerves is responsible for carrying information from the body to the central nervous system?


The average adult has approximately ___________ of blood in his or her body.


The largest portion of the brain, which is commonly referred to as the "gray matter," is called the:


An intoxicated 40-year-old male is found lying face down. How would you document his body’s position?


The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) is a part of the brain stem and is responsible for:

initiating respiration

Which of the following organs or structures lies within the retroperitoneal space?

kidneys..or pancreas

The electrical impulse of the heart normally begins at the:

sinoatrial node

The elbow is an example of a ____________ joint.


During each heartbeat, ___________ of blood is ejected from the adult heart. This is called stroke volume (SV).

70-80 mL

How does respiration differ from ventilation?

D. Respiration is the process of gas exchange, whereas ventilation is the simple movement of air between the lungs and the environment.

What happens when blood volume is lost from the body?

arteries contract to increase BP

What function does the pneumotaxic center serve?

A. inhibits the DRG, resulting in shorter, faster respirations

Relative to the adult’s airway, the child’s:

C. pharynx is smaller and less deeply curved.

The primary organ responsible for absorption of products of digestion is the:

small intestine

Capillary sphincter closure during internal or external bleeding is detrimental because:

A. waste products are not removed and nutrients are not delivered to the cells.

Which of the following statements regarding the medulla oblongata is correct?

B. The medulla is sensitive to pH changes and sends messages via the phrenic nerve to contract the diaphragm.

Relative to the kidneys, the liver is:


Large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is generated when:

B. the cells function with adequate oxygen.

Negative pressure breathing involves:

C. a drop in pressure within the chest cavity.

The bony prominence on the lateral/superior aspect of the thigh is called the:

greater trochanter

The air you breathe is _______ oxygen, and the air you exhale is _______ oxygen.

D. 21%, 16%

Key hormones of the sympathetic nervous system include:

epi and nor-epi

Select the areas of the spinal column in descending order.

cervical thoracic lumbar sacral coccyx

A patient in a semireclined position with the head elevated to facilitate breathing is in the ___________ position:


Urine is transported from the kidneys to the urinary bladder via the:


the vocal cords are located in the:


The supporting bone of the arm is the:


The part of the brain that controls the left side of the body is the:

right side of cerebrum

The Hering-Breuer reflex is stimulated when:

D. stretch receptors in the chest wall detect that the lungs are too full.

Deoxygenated blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities is returned to the right atrium via the:

A. inferior vena cava.

Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system would result in:

a slow heart rate

Which of the following is NOT a facial bone?


Which of the following statements regarding agonal respirations is correct?

C. Agonal respirations are characterized by fast irregular breaths.

The ___________ is made up of the maxilla and zygoma, as well as the frontal bone of the cranium.


The diaphragm is a unique muscle because it:

D. is both a voluntary and involuntary muscle.

Cardiac output (CO) is affected by:

SV and HR

All necessary life functions are coordinated in what part of the brain?

brain stem

Your ability to remain awake is a function of the:

C. reticular activating system.

A 5-year-old boy has fallen and has a severe deformity of the forearm near the wrist. He has possibly sustained a fracture of the:

distal forearm

The topographic term used to describe the location of body parts that are closer toward the midline or center of the body is:


the most superior portion of the sternum is called the:


____ pressure is the pressure exerted by a liquid and occurs when blood is moved through the artery at relatively high pressure


the cervical spine is composed how __ vertebrae


The CNS is composed of:

brain and spinal cord

which of the following are central pulses?

femoral and carotid

leaf-shaped flap that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea


the kidney and pancreas are called retroperitoneal organs bc they:

are located behind the abdominal cavity

the ____ of the heart is the inferior portion of the left ventricles


the brain connects to the spinal cord thru a large opening at the base of the skull called the

foramen magnum

the axial skeleton is composed of:

skull, face, thorax, and vertebral column

does the skeletal system contain smooth muscle?


the large flat triangular bone that overlies the posterior thoracic wall is:


which part of the CNS is respon for coordinating bodily movements such as writing or sewing?


waste products of aerobic metabolism include:

CO2 and water

the ___ is made up of the maxilla and zygoma, as well as the frontal bone of the cranium


trauma to the _____ lobe of the brain would likely result in visual disturbances


signs of adequate breathing in an adult including all of the following EXCEPT:

reduction in tidal volume

the backup system of respirtatory control which is based on low concentrations of oxygen in the blood is called the:

hypoxic drive

trendelenburg’s position is accurately defined as:

supine position w/ legs elevated 6-12" higher than the head

each pelvic bone is formed by the fusion of the:

ilium, ischium, and pubis

activities such as walking, talking, and writing are regulated by:

somatic nervous system

a fracture of the humerus just above the elbow would be described as a :

distal humerus fracture

a by-product of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation is:


the major artery that supplies all other arteries with blood is:


bile is produced in the liver and concentrated and stored in the…


the diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract during


the ____ plane separates the body into left and right halves


the distal aspect of the tibia forms the:

medial malleolus

which of the following organs is not part of the digestive system:


which of the following arteries does NOT carry highly oxygenated blood


a young male jumped from a tree and landed feet first, what aspect of his body sustained the initial injury


what layer of the skin is composed of fatty tissue and serves as an insulator for the body


the ___ portion of hte spinal column is joined to the iliac bones of the pelvis


the carpal bones form the:


the femoral head forms a ball-and-socket joint with the:


an increase in HR and contractility occurs due to stimulation of:

beta-1 receptors

the phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles fill with blood is called


the descending aorta branches into the:

common iliac arteries

the left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the:

pulmonary veins (arteries take AWAY)

function of the upper airway

warms and humidifies inhaled air

In ___________ administration, you are administering medication to yourself or your partner.


You are dispatched to a movie theater for a 39-year-old female with signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction. As you are assessing her, she pulls an epinephrine auto-injector out of her purse and hands it to you. After administering 100% oxygen, you should:

contact medical control

Infants are often referred to as "belly breathers" because:

C. their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.

Which of the following is an anatomic difference between children and adults?

D. An infant’s tongue is proportionately larger than an adult’s.

You are assessing a 13-month-old female who is running a fever and has been vomiting. While you are performing your physical examination on this child, you will MOST likely find that she:

A. responds to her name but is fearful of your presence.

A 37-year-old male is found unconscious in his car. His airway is patent and his respirations are rapid and labored. As you and your partner are assessing and treating the patient, a police officer hands you a medication named Alupent, which he found in the backseat of the patient’s car. This medication suggests that the patient has a history of:


You are treating a middle-aged man with chest discomfort. He has a history of three previous heart attacks and takes nitroglycerin as needed for chest pain. You have standing orders to administer aspirin to patients with suspected cardiac-related chest pain or discomfort. While your partner is preparing to give oxygen to the patient, you should:

B. confirm that the patient is not allergic to aspirin, give him the appropriate dose of aspirin, and document the time and dose given.

Which of the following is an example of a drug’s generic name?


An EMT may administer aspirin to a patient if:

B. authorization from medical control has been obtained.

When communicating with an older patient, it is important to remember that:

A. age-related changes diminish the effectiveness of the eyes and ears.

A 31-year-old female is experiencing an acute asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in obvious respiratory distress. After assisting her with her prescribed MDI, you should:

B. reassess the patient and document her response to the medication.

When assessing an 80-year-old patient in shock, it is important to remember that:

A. age-related changes in the cardiovascular system may make the patient less able to compensate for decreased perfusion.

The risk of bleeding in the skull, which increases with age, is MOST directly related to:

shrinkage of the brain

The process of binding or sticking to a surface is called:


Activated charcoal is frequently suspended in sorbitol, a complex sugar that:

D. facilitates movement through the digestive system.

In late adults, the amount of air left in the lungs after expiration of the maximum amount of air:

A. increases, which hampers diffusion of gases because of stagnant air that remains in the alveoli.

Which of the following is the MOST rapidly acting medication administration route?


In contrast to secure attachment, anxious-avoidant attachment occurs when a child:

shows little emotional response to a parent or caregiver following repeated rejection.

Which of the following statements regarding toddlers and preschoolers is correct?

Toddlers and preschoolers commonly experience upper respiratory infections because of a loss of passive immunity.

Activated charcoal is an example of a :


Which of the following medication routes would be the MOST appropriate to use in an unconscious patient when intravenous access cannot be obtained?


The human body should be functioning at its optimal level between the ages of:

19 -25

Shortly after assisting a 65-year-old female with her prescribed nitroglycerin, she begins complaining of dizziness and experiences a drop of 30 mm Hg in her systolic blood pressure. The patient remains conscious and her breathing is adequate. You should:

place her supine and elevate her legs

Which of the following statements regarding age-related changes in the nervous system is correct?

Interconnections between brain cells often prevent a loss of knowledge or skill, despite a loss of neurons.

You are dispatched to a call for a 4-month-old infant with respiratory distress. While you prepare to take care of this child, you must remember that:

small infants are nose breathers and require clear nasal passages at all times.

The average pulse rate of individuals between 19 and 60 years of age is typically:

70 bpm

Why does the incidence of diabetes mellitus increase with age?

decreased physical activity, increased weight gain, and decreased insulin production

Age-related changes in the renal system result in:

C. a decreased ability to clear wastes from the body and a decreased ability to conserve fluids when needed.

Which of the following describes the Moro reflex?

The neonate opens his or her arms wide, spreads his or her fingers, and seems to grasp at something after being startled.

With the flowmeter set at 6 L/min, the nasal cannula will deliver up to _______ oxygen.


Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of epinephrine?

decreases HR and BP

When gathering a patient’s medications, you find the following: Isordil, Lasix, Motrin, and Digoxin. Which of these medications can be obtained over-the-counter (OTC)?


After taking diphendydramine (Benadryl) for an allergic reaction, a person begins experiencing drowsiness and a dry mouth. These findings are an example of a :

side effect

Factors that contribute to a decline in the vital capacity of an elderly patient include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. increased surface area available for air exchange.
B. decreased residual volume.
C. increased stiffness of the thoracic cage.
D. a loss of respiratory muscle mass.


The pulse rate of a child from ages 6 to 12 years is approximately:


You suspect that a 75-year-old man has internal injuries after he fell and struck his ribs and abdomen on the corner of a table. When assessing and treating an injured patient of this age, you must recall that:

C. his ability to physiologically compensate for his injury may be impaired due to an inability to increase cardiac output.

which of the following med routes has the slowest rate of absorption?


physical changes that occur in early adults include:

increase in fatty tissue which leads to weight gain

the low normal systolic bp for a 30 year old is

90 mm Hg

which of the following statements regarding parenteral meds is correct?

parenteral meds are absorbed more quickly than enteral meds

which of the following statements regarding middle adults is correct?

CV health bcomes an issue as does the greater incidence of cancer

noticeable characteristics of a 9-month-old infant?

places objects in his mouth, pulls himself up

what medication form does oral glucose come in?


breathing is more labor intensive in older adults bc:

elasticity of the lungs decreases

with increasing age, the heart must work harder to move blood effectively bc:

the blood vessels become stiff

the anterior fontanelle fuses together b/w the ages of:

9 and 18 months



which of the following statements regarding an infant’s vital signs is correct

infant’s normal body temp is higher than a preschoolers

age-related changes in the renal system result in:

decreased ability to clear wastes from the body and a decreased ability to conserve fluids when needed

physical change that typically occurs in the adolescent age group?

secondary sexual development begins

aspirin is beneficial to patients suspected of having a heart attack bc:

prevents the aggregation of platelets

a mucosal automizer device (MAD) is used to deliver meds via the:

intranasal route

the decline in cardiac function tht commonly occurs in late adulthood is most often related to:


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