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Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

Ecology focuses on the transfer of _____________


a group of organisms belonging to the same species living in the same place make up a __________________


Several populations interacting with one another in a particular environment make up a _______________


Some beetles break down the remains of dead animals. Some mushrooms breakdown the remains of dead trees. How do these actions most benefit plants?

A) By returning nutrients to the soil
B) By releasing oxygen into the air
C) By making space for new animals
D) By decreasing the population of herbivores


An environment’s biotic and abiotic factors interact to make a(n)
A) habitat
B) ecosystem
C) niche
D) resource


Biotic means
A) Living
B) Nonliving


Abiotic means

A) Living
B) Nonliving


Which of the following is an example of a biotic factor?

A) Sand
B) Temperature
C) Vegetation
D) Water


The role of an organism within its environment is known as its
A) factor
B) ecosystem
C) accommodation
D) niche


A herbivore is an organism that eats only meat.
A) True
B) False


Organisms that make their own food with sunlight or chemical energy are called
A) producers
B) consumers
C) decomposers
D) scavengers


A(n) ____________ is made up of a group of ecosystems that share similar characteristics.


Many types of plants grow in a forest ecosystem. How do plants affect the air that forest animals breathe?
A) Plants use oxygen from the air to make food
B) Plants release pollution into the air.
C) Plants release energy from the sun into the air.
D) Plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the air.


An animal that eats both plants and animals is called a
A) herbivore
B) carnivore
C) dinosaur
D) omnivore


Organisms compete for all of the following except
A) food
B) sunlight
C) camouflage
D) water


An organism which lives on or in another organism and derives its nutrition from that organism would be a
A) heterotroph
B) autotroph
C) parasite
D) child


The ___________ is defined as where an animal lives.
A) biome
B) habitat
C) ecosystem


An organism which lives on or in another organism and derives it nutrition from that organism would be a .
A) autotroph
B) heterotroph
C) parasite
D) saprophyte


In the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen is fixed by
A) nitrogen-fixing bacteria
B) lightning
C) a only
D) a and b
E) none of the above


What do you call an animal that eats herbivores?
A) omnivore
B) herbivore
C) carnivore
D) decomposer


Which best describes the purpose of a food chain?
A) shows what organisms eat which foods
B) shows the importance of the sun’s energy
C) predator/prey relationships between organisms
D) shows transfer of energy between trophic levels


A biome is:
A) Something that is considered hazardous.
B) A small mushroom tree.
C) Ecosystems with similar rainfall, temperature, and water depth.
D) The distance from the equator.


Place the following levels of organization in order from simplest to most complex:

ecosystem, biosphere, community, organism, biome, population

organism –> population –> community –> ecosystem –> biome –> biosphere

What breaks down dead plants and animals?
A) decomposer
B) consumer
C) predator
D) producer


Animals that eat already-dead animals are called:
A) carnivores
B) scavengers
C) prey


Another word for producer is __________


Another word for consumer is ____________


What trophic level consumes only producers?

primary consumers

All of the following are abiotic factors in an ecosystem except
A) water
B) minerals
C) bacteria
D) soil


Why does a food chain begin with plants?
A) Because they produce food from light energy, carbon dioxide and water.
B) Because all the species of the ecosystem depend on them for food.
C) Because they do not depend on other living creatures for food.
D) All of the above


In the process of nitrogen fixation, atmospheric nitrogen is converted into _______________

usable nitrogen (ammonium)

What organisms can act as decomposers?

bacteria, fungus, and protists

What organisms are able to use atmospheric nitrogen and convert or "fix" it into a usable form?


Where do producers get their energy?

the sun

What does this illustration depict?

Energy transfer through trophic levels

What happens to energy and biomass as you move up the pyramid?


If the level occupied by phytoplankton contained 700 of energy, how much energy would you find at the level occupied by carnivorous fish?


If phytoplankton contains 100% of the energy, how much energy would the level of carnivorous fish contain?


If phytoplankton contain 100% of the energy, how much energy would the level of herbivorous zooplankton contain?


Which factors increase the size of a population?
a) birthrate
b) emigration
c) death rate
d) carrying capacity


The relationship that exists between moose and wolves can be best described as…
a) symbiotic
b) predator-prey
c) mutualistic
d) commensalism


If fish are caught faster than they can breed, the population will
a) decrease
b) move to other waters
c) remain the same
d) increase


A stable ecosystem includes .
a) one type of organism
b) two types of organisms
c) less biodiversity
d) a wide variety of organisms – more biodiversity


A stable ecosystem is made up of a wide range of micro-organisms, plants, and animals.
a) True
b) False


What is the term for a group of organisms of the same species in a particular area?
a) biosphere
b) ecosystem
c) population
d) environment


All the biotic and abiotic factors in a pond form a (an)
a) biosphere
b) ecosystem
c) community
d) niche


Which biome has the least amount of precipitation?
a) temperate grassland
b) tropical dry forest
c) desert
d) temperate woodland and shrubland


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