Earth Studies HW 5

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Of the following processes, which is not an example of mechanical weathering?
thermal expansion
frost wedging
root penetration


Considering the following list, which is not an example of chemical weathering?
removal of calcite from rocks by water


Why does water frozen in the cracks of a rock help to break down the rock?

Water expands when frozen and physically forces the rock apart.

What is salt weathering?

the formation of minerals in rock cracks during the evaporation of salty water, forcing rock apart

What do freeze-thaw and salt weathering have in common?

Both freeze-thaw and salt weathering require rain and force rocks apart physically.

Which of the factors listed below does not influence the rate of chemical weathering?
moisture conditions
mass of rock available
mineralogical composition

mass of rock available

In what way does the amount of mechanical weathering that has taken place influence the rate at which chemical weathering occurs?

Mechanical weathering increases the surface area exposed to chemical weathering.

In the silicate minerals, there is a correlation between chemical weathering and Bowen’s Reaction Series. What is the relationship?

Silicate minerals that form at the highest temperatures are most susceptible to chemical weathering.

In many older cemeteries, you can often find headstones made of slate. In viewing these headstones today, the lettering is as sharp and clear as the day it was cut. However, many marble headstone inscriptions are illegible. What property of slate allows it to survive the test of time?

Clay minerals in the slate make it extremely resistant to weathering.

Of the following types of mass wasting, which tends to be the fastest moving and most destructive?


Which of the following examples of mass wasting is characterized by a crescent-shaped scarp or cliff at its head?


Which of the following types of mass wasting is extremely slow and occurs when saturated soil flows downslope?


At a local landfill, the liner beneath the trash was being repaired. In the process, trash from the base of the slope was removed and piled on top of the landfill. After an unusually heavy rainfall, the slope failed very quickly along a curved surface. Which of the following types of mass wasting best describes this slope failure?


During the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, snow and glacial ice on the mountain melted and rushed down the Toutle River. What is the name given to this specific type of mass wasting?


The formation of sedimentary rock requires _____.

weathering and erosion of pre-existing rocks

Which of the following agents is capable of moving sediment from the site of formation to the site of deposition?

running water, wind, ice, waves

Which is an example of a sedimentary rock composed of solid masses of intergrown crystals?
rock salt

rock salt

You find a sedimentary rock that has all its flat particles aligned in parallel. From this you can infer that _____.

the particles have been compacted

Sedimentary rocks that exhibit the intergrowth of crystal masses are generally formed from the products of _____.

chemical weathering

Which two minerals are most common in detrital sedimentary rocks?

clay minerals and quartz

What is the most abundant chemical sedimentary rock in Earth’s crust?


Working in the field, you find a rock that contains rounded fragments that are greater than 2 mm in diameter. What would you call this rock?


The geologic laboratory where you work received a sample for analysis that is composed of calcite that includes many microscopic fossils of marine organisms and reacts with acid. What name would identify this rock?


Which structure is common in sedimentary rock?

ripple marks, mud cracks, cross-bedding, fossils

What property of detrital sedimentary rocks can be indicative of the energy of sediment transport?

grain size

For a detrital sedimentary rock that contains mudcracks, you could be confident that the environment in which it formed was _____.

alternately wet and dry

In your field area you find a quartz sandstone unit with cross-bedding in it that is on the order of 2 m high. In what environment would you deduce this rock formed?

sand dunes

In another field area you find a detrital sedimentary rock that contains particles larger than 264 mm that are rounded and surrounded by finer-grained particles. In what environment might you think these sediments were deposited?

glacial moraine

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