Earth Science- Chapter 3

An igneous rock that contains vesicles:

a) is also extrusive
b) is also fine grained
c) contains many small holes
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form:

decreases

Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

a) limestone
b) rhyolite
c) slate
d) shale

rhyolite

Intrusive rocks:

a) are generally fine grained
b) form at Earth's surface
c) are quite often vesicular
d) none of the above

d) none of the above

Granite and gabbro

a) have a similar mineral composition
b) have a similar texture
c) a and b
d) are in no way similar

b) have a similar texture

Obsidian exhibits what kind of texture?

Glassy

Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit what kind of texture?

coarse-grained

This igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes.

Porphyritic

Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock.

Granite

Select the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar from the list below:

a) basalt
b) andesite
c) granite
d) diorite

Granite

This rock gets its name from a chain of mountains located in South America.

Andesite

Which of the rocks listed below is a popular building stone?

a) basalt
b) andesite
c) granite
d) diorite

granite

The texture of an igneous rock:

records the rock's cooling history

Igneous rock is formed:

by crystallization of molten rock

The most important mechanical weathering process is?

frost action

Chemical weathering would be most effective in what climate?

in a warm, humid climate

Which of the following is NOT a product of chemical weathering of potassium feldspar?

a) silica
b) potassium ions
c) iron oxide
d) clay

potassium ions

Which one of the following is NOT true about mechanical weathering?

a) produces smaller pieces
b) adds to the effectiveness of chemical weathering
c) does not change the rock's chemical composition
d) does not affect metamorphic rocks

d) does not affect metamorphic rocks

Which of the following is not related to chemical weathering:

a) decomposition
b) frost wedging
c) hydrolysis
d) oxyidation

b) frost wedging

Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering:

a) mineral content
b) climate
c) topography
d) all of these

d) all of these

Sedimentary rocks

a) may contain fossils
b) hold important clues to Earth's history
c) may be economically important
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of:

particle size

Sedimentary rocks compose approximately what percent of Earth's outermost 10 miles?

a) 5

Which rock type is associated with a high-energy environment?

a) conglomerate
b) shale
c) chert
d) none of these

a) conglomerate

Which pair of minerals is most common in detrital sedimentary rocks?

clay and quartz

Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except:

a) swamp
b) salt flat
c) river floodplain
d) delta

b) salt flat

Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for:

a) shale
b) sandstone
c) conglomerate
d) breccia

a) shale

The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is:

limestone

Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt?

a) detrital sedimentary rocks
b) varieties of dolostone
c) varieties of coal and peat
d) evaporites, chemical, sedimentary rocks

evaporites, chemical, sedimentary rocks

Coal beds originate in what?

freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

Metamorphism may result from:

a) heat
b) pressure
c) chemical action
d) all of these

d) all of these

What is as strong parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock?

Foliation

Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism?

a) certain minerals may recrystallize
b) the rocks become more compact
c) crystals may grow larger
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is what?

marble

What is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals?

gneiss

This dense, nonfoliated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone.

Quartzite

The agents of metamorphism are?

heat, pressure, and chemical fluids

The primary agent of contact metamorphism is:

heat

What type of metamorphic rock will shale normally become following low-grade metamorphism?

slate

Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?

a) phyllite, slate, schist
b) schist, slate, phyllite
c) slate, phyllite, slate
d) slate, schist, phyllite

c) slate, phyllite, slate

a) shale
b) sandstone
c) breccia
d) conglomerate

a) shale

a) lithification
b) cementation
c) weathering
d) compaction

c) weathering

a) pressure
b) recrystallization
c) melting
d) chemical fluids

c) melting

a) granite
b) basalt
c) diorite
d) gabbro

b) basalt

a) oxidation
b) dissolution
c) hydrolysis
d) sheeting

d) sheeting

Bowen's reaction series predicts the sizes of the different mineral grains that grow from crystallizing magmas.

False

Olivine and quartz are commonly found together in the same rock.

False

One magma can produce several different igneous rocks having different mineral compositions.

True

Basalt is the fine-grained equivalent of gabbro

True

Glassy igneous rock form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow.

True

Quartz is quite resistant to weathering and is an important component of sand in riverbeds and on beaches.

True

Like most other liquids, water decreases in volume when it freezes.

False

The particles in breccia are primarily silt sized.

False

The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale.

True

Evaporites have a biochemical origin.

False

Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks.

True

Most limestone has a biochemical origin.

True

Compaction is most significant as a lithification process for sedimentary rocks composed of sand-sized particles.

False

During metamorphism the material undergoing deformation remains a solid

True

The single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is strata or beds.

True

The largest quantity of metamorphic rock is produced by regional metamorphism.

True

Slate is associated with high-grade metamorphism.

False

Metamorphism is commonly associated with mountain building.

True

Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks

False

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Earth Science- Chapter 3

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An igneous rock that contains vesicles:

a) is also extrusive
b) is also fine grained
c) contains many small holes
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form:

decreases

Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

a) limestone
b) rhyolite
c) slate
d) shale

rhyolite

Intrusive rocks:

a) are generally fine grained
b) form at Earth’s surface
c) are quite often vesicular
d) none of the above

d) none of the above

Granite and gabbro

a) have a similar mineral composition
b) have a similar texture
c) a and b
d) are in no way similar

b) have a similar texture

Obsidian exhibits what kind of texture?

Glassy

Rocks that contain crystals that are roughly equal in size and can be identified with the unaided eye are said to exhibit what kind of texture?

coarse-grained

This igneous texture is characterized by two distinctively different crystal sizes.

Porphyritic

Rhyolite is the fine-grained equivalent of this igneous rock.

Granite

Select the coarse-grained rock which is composed mainly of quartz and potassium feldspar from the list below:

a) basalt
b) andesite
c) granite
d) diorite

Granite

This rock gets its name from a chain of mountains located in South America.

Andesite

Which of the rocks listed below is a popular building stone?

a) basalt
b) andesite
c) granite
d) diorite

granite

The texture of an igneous rock:

records the rock’s cooling history

Igneous rock is formed:

by crystallization of molten rock

The most important mechanical weathering process is?

frost action

Chemical weathering would be most effective in what climate?

in a warm, humid climate

Which of the following is NOT a product of chemical weathering of potassium feldspar?

a) silica
b) potassium ions
c) iron oxide
d) clay

potassium ions

Which one of the following is NOT true about mechanical weathering?

a) produces smaller pieces
b) adds to the effectiveness of chemical weathering
c) does not change the rock’s chemical composition
d) does not affect metamorphic rocks

d) does not affect metamorphic rocks

Which of the following is not related to chemical weathering:

a) decomposition
b) frost wedging
c) hydrolysis
d) oxyidation

b) frost wedging

Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering:

a) mineral content
b) climate
c) topography
d) all of these

d) all of these

Sedimentary rocks

a) may contain fossils
b) hold important clues to Earth’s history
c) may be economically important
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) primarily on the basis of:

particle size

Sedimentary rocks compose approximately what percent of Earth’s outermost 10 miles?

a) 5

Which rock type is associated with a high-energy environment?

a) conglomerate
b) shale
c) chert
d) none of these

a) conglomerate

Which pair of minerals is most common in detrital sedimentary rocks?

clay and quartz

Detrital sediments would predominate in all of the following environments except:

a) swamp
b) salt flat
c) river floodplain
d) delta

b) salt flat

Compaction would probably be most significant as a lithification process for:

a) shale
b) sandstone
c) conglomerate
d) breccia

a) shale

The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock is:

limestone

Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and rock salt?

a) detrital sedimentary rocks
b) varieties of dolostone
c) varieties of coal and peat
d) evaporites, chemical, sedimentary rocks

evaporites, chemical, sedimentary rocks

Coal beds originate in what?

freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

Metamorphism may result from:

a) heat
b) pressure
c) chemical action
d) all of these

d) all of these

What is as strong parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock?

Foliation

Which of the following changes may occur during metamorphism?

a) certain minerals may recrystallize
b) the rocks become more compact
c) crystals may grow larger
d) all of the above

d) all of the above

The common rock produced by the metamorphism of limestone is what?

marble

What is composed of alternating bands of light and dark silicate minerals?

gneiss

This dense, nonfoliated metamorphic rock is produced most often from sandstone.

Quartzite

The agents of metamorphism are?

heat, pressure, and chemical fluids

The primary agent of contact metamorphism is:

heat

What type of metamorphic rock will shale normally become following low-grade metamorphism?

slate

Which of the following lists the rocks in the order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?

a) phyllite, slate, schist
b) schist, slate, phyllite
c) slate, phyllite, slate
d) slate, schist, phyllite

c) slate, phyllite, slate

a) shale
b) sandstone
c) breccia
d) conglomerate

a) shale

a) lithification
b) cementation
c) weathering
d) compaction

c) weathering

a) pressure
b) recrystallization
c) melting
d) chemical fluids

c) melting

a) granite
b) basalt
c) diorite
d) gabbro

b) basalt

a) oxidation
b) dissolution
c) hydrolysis
d) sheeting

d) sheeting

Bowen’s reaction series predicts the sizes of the different mineral grains that grow from crystallizing magmas.

False

Olivine and quartz are commonly found together in the same rock.

False

One magma can produce several different igneous rocks having different mineral compositions.

True

Basalt is the fine-grained equivalent of gabbro

True

Glassy igneous rock form when magma cools too fast for mineral grains to grow.

True

Quartz is quite resistant to weathering and is an important component of sand in riverbeds and on beaches.

True

Like most other liquids, water decreases in volume when it freezes.

False

The particles in breccia are primarily silt sized.

False

The most abundant sedimentary rock is shale.

True

Evaporites have a biochemical origin.

False

Particle size is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks.

True

Most limestone has a biochemical origin.

True

Compaction is most significant as a lithification process for sedimentary rocks composed of sand-sized particles.

False

During metamorphism the material undergoing deformation remains a solid

True

The single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is strata or beds.

True

The largest quantity of metamorphic rock is produced by regional metamorphism.

True

Slate is associated with high-grade metamorphism.

False

Metamorphism is commonly associated with mountain building.

True

Metamorphism can affect only sedimentary rocks

False

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