Earth Science ch. 19

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The force exerted by the weight of the air above is called ____.

a. air pressure

Which of these instruments is NOT used to measure air pressure?

c. anemometer

Standard sea level pressure in millibars is ____.

d. 1013.2

Who invented the mercury barometer?

b. Torricelli

What is the ultimate energy source for most wind?

c. solar radiation

Which force generates winds?

c. pressure differences

Which of the following is NOT a force that influences wind?

b. magnetic field

In Figure 19-1, the lines on the weather map that connect points of equal pressure are ____.

a. isobars

In Figure 19-1, closely spaced lines indicate ____.

a. high winds

A steep pressure gradient ____.

b. produces strong winds

Widely spaced isobars indicate ____.

c. light winds

Variations in air pressure from place to place are the principal cause of ____.

c. wind

Fast-moving currents of air that occur above the friction layer are called ____.

d. jet streams

High-altitude, high-velocity "rivers" of air are called ____.

b. jet streams

The Coriolis effect influences ____.

b. wind direction

the deflection of wind due to the Coriolis effect is strongest at ____.

d. the poles

In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a low-pressure system blow ____.

a. counterclockwise toward the center

In the Southern Hemisphere, winds associated with a low-pressure system blow ____.

a. clockwise toward the center

In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a high-pressure system blow ____.

c. clockwise outward from the center

Centers of low pressure are called ____.

d. cyclones

Air subsides in the center of a(n) ___

b. high-pressure system

Fair weather can usually be expected with the approach of which of the following?

b. anticyclone

High-pressure systems are usually associated with which of the following?

descending air, relatively dry conditions. clear weather d. all of the above

The general movement of low-pressure centers across the United States is from ____.

c. west to east

Which of the following does NOT describe the surface air movement of a Northern Hemisphere low?

d. divergent

What is NOT true about lows that move across the United States?

b. Their paths are very predictable.

The net inward movement of air causes the area occupied by an air mass to shrink, a process known as ____.

b. horizontal convergence

Seasonal changes in wind direction associated with large landmasses and adjacent water bodies are called

c. monsoons

Which surface winds blow between the subtropical high and the equator?

a. trade winds

The deserts of the Sahara and Australia are associated with the ____.

b. subtropical high

In the winter, large landmasses such as Asia develop a seasonal ____.

a. high-pressure system

Near the equator, rising air is associated with a pressure zone known as the ____.

b. equatorial low

If Earth did not rotate, how would air at the equator move?

b. Air would rise and move toward the poles

Valley and mountain breezes are examples of ____.

c. local winds

A sea breeze usually originates during the ____.

b. day and flows toward the land

A land breeze usually originates during the ____.

c. evening and flows toward the water

When is a sea breeze most intense?

a. during mid- to late afternoon

A wind that consistently blows more often from one direction than from any other is called a ____.

b. prevailing wind

Which instrument is used to measure wind speed?

a. anemometer

Winds are labeled according to which of the following?

b. the direction from which they blow

Which phenomenon is associated with surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific that are colder than

a. La Niña

Which of the following is a warm countercurrent that periodically flows southward along the coasts of
Ecuador and Peru?

d. none of the above

Which of the following can be impacted by El Niño?

the fish industry. the farming industry .climate d. all of the above

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