Earth Science ---- #3

Which of the following is NOT part of the continental margin?
A. Continental Trench
B. Continental Slope
C. Continental Rise
D. Continental Shelf

A. Continental Trench

Atolls may be described as

coral reefs surrounding a lagoon.

Which one of the following would you NOT associate with turbidity currents?
A. Deposits of graded beds
B. formation of seamounts
C. density current
D. excavation of submarine canyons

B. formation of seamounts

Submarine canyons found on the continental slope and are believed to have been created ____________.
a. by rivers during the ice age
b. by faulting
c. because of a plate plunging into the mantle
d. none of these

d. none of these

Which of the following is NOT true of deep ocean trenches?
a. they are long and narrow depressions
b. they are sites where plates plunge back into the mantle
c. they are geologically very stable
d. they may act as sediment traps

c. they are geologically very stable

The BEST definition of the outer edge of the continental shelf is that point where __________.
a. the gradient becomes very gentle
b. the water depth reaches 100 fathoms
c. it meets an oceanic ridge
d. a rapid steepening of the gradient occurs

d. a rapid steepening of the gradient occurs

Seamounts ____________.

a. are a special type of oceanic trench
b. are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
c. form only in the Pacific Ocean basin
d. are submarine canyons found near Australia

b. are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor

Which of the following is associated with ocean ridges?

a. rift zones
b. mountainous topography
c. volcanic structures
d. all of these

d. all of these

Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called __________.

a. terrigenous sediment
b. biogenous sediment
c. hydrogenous sediment
d. both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

a. terrigenous sediment

Manganese nodules are an example of __________.

a. terrigenous sediment
b. biogenous sediment
c. hydrogenous sediment
d. both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

c. hydrogenous sediment

Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of __________.

a. terrigenous sediment
b. biogenous sediment
c. hydrogenous sediment
d. both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

c. hydrogenous sediment

The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ____________.

a. continental shelf
b. continental slope
c. continental rise
d. submarine canyon

a. continental shelf

The crests of mid-oceanic ridges __________.

a. are heavily mantled with sediment
b. lie at depths exceeding 6 kilometers
c. contain active rift zones
d. are geologically old features

c. contain active rift zones

The oceans cover approximately __________ percent of Earth's surface.

a. 40
b. 50
c. 60
d. 70

d. 70

The _______ Ocean is largest.

a. Atlantic
b. Pacific
c. Indian
d. Arctic

b. Pacific

Which ocean has the greatest average depth?

a. Atlantic
b. Pacific
c. Indian
d. Arctic

b. Pacific

Which one of the following salts is most abundant in seawater?

a. potassium bromide
b. magnesium chloride
c. sodium bicarbonate
d. sodium chloride

d. sodium chloride

Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true?

a. the percentage of land and water is about the same in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
b. the Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere
c. the Northern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Southern Hemisphere
d. none of the above are true

b. the Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere

Requirements for coral reef growth:

1) warm water 2) shallow water 3) abundant sunlight

The scientist who correctly proposed the theory of atoll formation

Darwin

Calcareous ooze is an example of ____.

biogenous sediment

Directly seaward of the continental shelf is a more steeply sloping region called the

Continental Slope

Within the continental margin, deep, steep-sided valleys known as _______ are found.

submarine canyons

Most available information favors the view that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by

turbidity currents

Charles Darwin was first to explain how reef-building organisms that require shallow water and sunlight could create reef complexes extending for thousands of meters below sea level. Darwin hypothesized that

A) in contrast to modern forms, ancient reef-building organisms could, in fact, live in deep, cold water

B) as sea level dropped during the onset of the ice age, these organisms built the reef in what is presently much deeper water

C) as volcanic islands with fringing coral reefs began to sink, these organisms kept pace by building the reef complex upward

D) as sea level rose during the Pleistocene, these organisms kept pace by building the reef complex upward

C) as volcanic islands with fringing coral reefs began to sink, these organisms kept pace by building the reef complex upward

The development of this instrument greatly enhanced our knowledge of the ocean floor

echo sounder

The continents cover approximately _____ percent of the earth's surface:

a. 30
b. 40
c. 50
d. 60
e. 70

A. 30

35 0/00 is the same as

3.5%

The Coriolis effect makes storms swirl

clockwise in the Southern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere

Which of the following water masses would be the most dense?

a. warm water with a high salinity
b. cold water with a high salinity
c. cold water with a low salinity
d. warm water with a low salinity
e. all of these would be equally dense

b. cold water with a high salinity

water masses from the arctic ocean are a significant part of the deep ocean circulation of

Arctic and Atlantic Ocean

flat-topped volcanic structures located on the floor of the deep ocean basin are termed

guyot

the most extensive mountain range on Earth extends for about 65,000 kilometers on the ocean floor and is known as

midocean ridge

A prominent feature of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a very deep linear valley known as ___ valley

Rift Valley

a gently sloping submerged surface extending from a shoreline toward the deep ocean basin

Continental shelf

The continental shelf, slope, and rise make up a unit called a

Passive Continental Margin

_____ sediment consists of shells and hard parts of marine organisms

biogenous

Manganese nodules are an example of a _________.

hydrogenous sediments

The height, length, and period of a wave depend upon ____________.

a. the length of time the wind has blown
b. the wind speed
c. the fetch
d. all of these

d. all of these

Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?

a. water particles move in an almost circular path
b. such waves are called waves of oscillation
c. is not affected
d. none of these

a. water particles move in an almost circular path

Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is __________.

a. equal to one-half the wavelength
b. equal to the wavelength
c. twice as great as the wavelength
d. three times as great as the wavelength

a. equal to one-half the wavelength

When waves reach shallow water, they are often bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This process is termed __________.

a. oscillation
b. refraction
c. translation
d. reflection

b. refraction

The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed _________.

a. tidal current
b. salinity current
c. beach drift
d. longshore current

d. longshore current

The presence of which one of the following would indicate that the land had been uplifted or that sea level had fallen?

a. an estuary
b. a sea stack
c. elevated marine terrace
d. a tombolo

c. elevated marine terrace

Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are ___________.

a. associated with a submergent coast
b. former river valleys that were flooded by a rise in sea level
c. excellent examples of large estuaries
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?

a. spit
b. estuary
c. tombolo
d. sea arch

d. sea arch

The movement of sand parallel to the shore __________.

a. is created by waves approaching at an oblique angle
b. may create spits
c. is achieved by longshore currents
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

The zigzag movement of sand grains along a beach is ___________.

a. caused by obliquely breaking waves
b. called beach drift
c. very unusual and seldom occurs
d. both a. and b

d. both a. and b

A sand bar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a __________.

baymouth bar

A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a __________.

a. spit
b. jetty
c. groin
d. sea stack

a. spit

An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a __________.

a. spit
b. jetty
c. groin
d. sea stack

d. sea stack

A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a ________.

a. jetty
b. tombolo
c. breakwater
d. sea stack

b. tombolo

A flat, bench-like surface cut in rock along a coast is a ___________.

a. sea stack
b. tombolo
c. wave-cut platform
d. spit

c. wave-cut platform

Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?

a. jetty
b. groin
c. breakwater
d. seawall

c. breakwater

Which of the following is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion?

a. groin

b. beach nourishment

c. seawall

d. all of these

d. all of these

Which of the following is a tidal current?

a. spring tide

b. flood tide

c. ebb tide

d. both flood and ebb tide

d. both flood and ebb tide

The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from ______.

a. salinity variations

b. Coriolis effect

c. prevailing winds

d. density differences

c. prevailing winds

A poleward-moving ocean current is ______.

a. warm

b. cold

c. warm only in the Northern Hemisphere

d. warm only in the Southern Hemisphere

a. warm

Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.

a. right

b. left

c. west

d. east

a. right

Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion in the Southern Hemisphere.

a. right

b. left

c. west

d. east

b. left

The daily tidal range is GREATEST during _______ tide.

a. spring

b. ebb

c. neap

d. none of these

a. spring

The daily tidal range is LEAST during _______ tide.

a. spring

b. ebb

c. neap

d. none of these

c. neap

one high tide and one low tide

Diurnal Tides

two high tides and two low tides

Semidiurnal Tides

two high tides and two low tides each day

Mixed Tides

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Earth Science —- #3

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Which of the following is NOT part of the continental margin?
A. Continental Trench
B. Continental Slope
C. Continental Rise
D. Continental Shelf

A. Continental Trench

Atolls may be described as

coral reefs surrounding a lagoon.

Which one of the following would you NOT associate with turbidity currents?
A. Deposits of graded beds
B. formation of seamounts
C. density current
D. excavation of submarine canyons

B. formation of seamounts

Submarine canyons found on the continental slope and are believed to have been created ____________.
a. by rivers during the ice age
b. by faulting
c. because of a plate plunging into the mantle
d. none of these

d. none of these

Which of the following is NOT true of deep ocean trenches?
a. they are long and narrow depressions
b. they are sites where plates plunge back into the mantle
c. they are geologically very stable
d. they may act as sediment traps

c. they are geologically very stable

The BEST definition of the outer edge of the continental shelf is that point where __________.
a. the gradient becomes very gentle
b. the water depth reaches 100 fathoms
c. it meets an oceanic ridge
d. a rapid steepening of the gradient occurs

d. a rapid steepening of the gradient occurs

Seamounts ____________.

a. are a special type of oceanic trench
b. are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
c. form only in the Pacific Ocean basin
d. are submarine canyons found near Australia

b. are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor

Which of the following is associated with ocean ridges?

a. rift zones
b. mountainous topography
c. volcanic structures
d. all of these

d. all of these

Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called __________.

a. terrigenous sediment
b. biogenous sediment
c. hydrogenous sediment
d. both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

a. terrigenous sediment

Manganese nodules are an example of __________.

a. terrigenous sediment
b. biogenous sediment
c. hydrogenous sediment
d. both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

c. hydrogenous sediment

Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of __________.

a. terrigenous sediment
b. biogenous sediment
c. hydrogenous sediment
d. both terrigenous and biogenous sediment

c. hydrogenous sediment

The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ____________.

a. continental shelf
b. continental slope
c. continental rise
d. submarine canyon

a. continental shelf

The crests of mid-oceanic ridges __________.

a. are heavily mantled with sediment
b. lie at depths exceeding 6 kilometers
c. contain active rift zones
d. are geologically old features

c. contain active rift zones

The oceans cover approximately __________ percent of Earth’s surface.

a. 40
b. 50
c. 60
d. 70

d. 70

The _______ Ocean is largest.

a. Atlantic
b. Pacific
c. Indian
d. Arctic

b. Pacific

Which ocean has the greatest average depth?

a. Atlantic
b. Pacific
c. Indian
d. Arctic

b. Pacific

Which one of the following salts is most abundant in seawater?

a. potassium bromide
b. magnesium chloride
c. sodium bicarbonate
d. sodium chloride

d. sodium chloride

Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true?

a. the percentage of land and water is about the same in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
b. the Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere
c. the Northern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Southern Hemisphere
d. none of the above are true

b. the Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere

Requirements for coral reef growth:

1) warm water 2) shallow water 3) abundant sunlight

The scientist who correctly proposed the theory of atoll formation

Darwin

Calcareous ooze is an example of ____.

biogenous sediment

Directly seaward of the continental shelf is a more steeply sloping region called the

Continental Slope

Within the continental margin, deep, steep-sided valleys known as _______ are found.

submarine canyons

Most available information favors the view that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by

turbidity currents

Charles Darwin was first to explain how reef-building organisms that require shallow water and sunlight could create reef complexes extending for thousands of meters below sea level. Darwin hypothesized that

A) in contrast to modern forms, ancient reef-building organisms could, in fact, live in deep, cold water

B) as sea level dropped during the onset of the ice age, these organisms built the reef in what is presently much deeper water

C) as volcanic islands with fringing coral reefs began to sink, these organisms kept pace by building the reef complex upward

D) as sea level rose during the Pleistocene, these organisms kept pace by building the reef complex upward

C) as volcanic islands with fringing coral reefs began to sink, these organisms kept pace by building the reef complex upward

The development of this instrument greatly enhanced our knowledge of the ocean floor

echo sounder

The continents cover approximately _____ percent of the earth’s surface:

a. 30
b. 40
c. 50
d. 60
e. 70

A. 30

35 0/00 is the same as

3.5%

The Coriolis effect makes storms swirl

clockwise in the Southern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere

Which of the following water masses would be the most dense?

a. warm water with a high salinity
b. cold water with a high salinity
c. cold water with a low salinity
d. warm water with a low salinity
e. all of these would be equally dense

b. cold water with a high salinity

water masses from the arctic ocean are a significant part of the deep ocean circulation of

Arctic and Atlantic Ocean

flat-topped volcanic structures located on the floor of the deep ocean basin are termed

guyot

the most extensive mountain range on Earth extends for about 65,000 kilometers on the ocean floor and is known as

midocean ridge

A prominent feature of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a very deep linear valley known as ___ valley

Rift Valley

a gently sloping submerged surface extending from a shoreline toward the deep ocean basin

Continental shelf

The continental shelf, slope, and rise make up a unit called a

Passive Continental Margin

_____ sediment consists of shells and hard parts of marine organisms

biogenous

Manganese nodules are an example of a _________.

hydrogenous sediments

The height, length, and period of a wave depend upon ____________.

a. the length of time the wind has blown
b. the wind speed
c. the fetch
d. all of these

d. all of these

Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?

a. water particles move in an almost circular path
b. such waves are called waves of oscillation
c. is not affected
d. none of these

a. water particles move in an almost circular path

Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is __________.

a. equal to one-half the wavelength
b. equal to the wavelength
c. twice as great as the wavelength
d. three times as great as the wavelength

a. equal to one-half the wavelength

When waves reach shallow water, they are often bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This process is termed __________.

a. oscillation
b. refraction
c. translation
d. reflection

b. refraction

The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed _________.

a. tidal current
b. salinity current
c. beach drift
d. longshore current

d. longshore current

The presence of which one of the following would indicate that the land had been uplifted or that sea level had fallen?

a. an estuary
b. a sea stack
c. elevated marine terrace
d. a tombolo

c. elevated marine terrace

Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are ___________.

a. associated with a submergent coast
b. former river valleys that were flooded by a rise in sea level
c. excellent examples of large estuaries
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?

a. spit
b. estuary
c. tombolo
d. sea arch

d. sea arch

The movement of sand parallel to the shore __________.

a. is created by waves approaching at an oblique angle
b. may create spits
c. is achieved by longshore currents
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

The zigzag movement of sand grains along a beach is ___________.

a. caused by obliquely breaking waves
b. called beach drift
c. very unusual and seldom occurs
d. both a. and b

d. both a. and b

A sand bar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a __________.

baymouth bar

A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a __________.

a. spit
b. jetty
c. groin
d. sea stack

a. spit

An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a __________.

a. spit
b. jetty
c. groin
d. sea stack

d. sea stack

A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a ________.

a. jetty
b. tombolo
c. breakwater
d. sea stack

b. tombolo

A flat, bench-like surface cut in rock along a coast is a ___________.

a. sea stack
b. tombolo
c. wave-cut platform
d. spit

c. wave-cut platform

Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?

a. jetty
b. groin
c. breakwater
d. seawall

c. breakwater

Which of the following is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion?

a. groin

b. beach nourishment

c. seawall

d. all of these

d. all of these

Which of the following is a tidal current?

a. spring tide

b. flood tide

c. ebb tide

d. both flood and ebb tide

d. both flood and ebb tide

The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from ______.

a. salinity variations

b. Coriolis effect

c. prevailing winds

d. density differences

c. prevailing winds

A poleward-moving ocean current is ______.

a. warm

b. cold

c. warm only in the Northern Hemisphere

d. warm only in the Southern Hemisphere

a. warm

Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.

a. right

b. left

c. west

d. east

a. right

Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion in the Southern Hemisphere.

a. right

b. left

c. west

d. east

b. left

The daily tidal range is GREATEST during _______ tide.

a. spring

b. ebb

c. neap

d. none of these

a. spring

The daily tidal range is LEAST during _______ tide.

a. spring

b. ebb

c. neap

d. none of these

c. neap

one high tide and one low tide

Diurnal Tides

two high tides and two low tides

Semidiurnal Tides

two high tides and two low tides each day

Mixed Tides

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