Earth and its moon

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The slowly increasing distance between South America and Africa is due to

seafloor spreading

Old Faithful Geyser at Yellowstone National Park in the United States acquires its energy from

a hot spot

Layered _________exposed by erosion can be seen when looking at the Grand Canyon in the United States

sedimentary rock

Australia is composed of relatively old and thick

continental crust

The extremely deep ocean Marianas Trench is a result of


________found in the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe is composed of dense and relatively young rock.

Seafloor crust

The earthquakes that occur in Southern California generally occur above a


Earth’s magnetic field is the result of our planet’s large, permanently magnetized iron core


The deepest that geologists have drilled into Earth is about the same as

the altitude most commercial jet airplanes fly.

If Earth had no Moon, then tides would

occur with the same frequency, but would not be as strong

Which of the following layers of the earth is unique among the terrestrial planets?


What is true of spring tides?

The difference between low and high tides would be greatest.

At what phase are the tides least noticeable?

third quarter

What is true of the Moon’s orbital and rotational periods?

They are equal

Almost all of our atmospheric gases lie in the:


The critical part of the atmosphere for protecting life on the ground from excessive ultraviolet radiation is the:

ozone layer.

In what part of our atmosphere do we live?


Without the greenhouse effect operating in our atmosphere,

Earth would have an average temperature of -23 degrees Celsius.

The average rate of erosion on the Moon is far less than on Earth because

the Moon lacks wind, water and an atmosphere.

We determine the structure of the Earth’s core using

seismic wave data.

Seismic waves are most useful for mapping:

the Earth’s core and mantle.

Which statement about seismic waves is true?

P waves travel faster, and thus arrive sooner than do the S waves.

The rate of cratering in the lunar highlands shows us that

they range from 4.6 – 4.4 billion years old, on average.

What is true of the lunar highlands?

They are the oldest part of the lunar surface..

The presence of a magnetic field is a good indication that:

we have a liquid metal outer core, spinning rapidly as we rotate

When strong solar winds are displaced poleward by our magnetic fields, we get

intense auroral displays.

Earth’s magnetic field

prevents charged particles in the solar wind from reaching the surface

Which of these theories seems to best explain the Moon’s origin?

Impact Theory

Greenhouse gases in our atmosphere trap just enough heat to keep the earth’s oceans liquid.


The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere.


Seismic P-waves can travel through both solid and liquid materials


Seismic S-waves can travel through Earth’s liquid outer core


In the past, most of the landmass on Earth was concentrated in a single, large continent.


When plates collide, they fuse together and come to rest


The lunar mare radioactively date back to 4.6 billion years, at the origin of the Moon, hence their dark color due to this aging


The atmospheric gases primarily responsible for our greenhouse effect are

water vapor and carbon dioxide

The lunar mare are found

mainly on the near side

The region in which charged particles are trapped by our magnetic fields is the

Van Allen radiation belt

Our Earth is about four times larger than the Moon in diameter


The Earth’s hotter, inner core is liquid and its cooler, outer core is solid


The tidal pull of the Moon is an example of a differential force, as the near and far sides of the Earth do not experience the same gravitational pull of the Moon


The Moon keeps one side facing the Earth because it doesn’t rotate on its axis


Weather occurs in the troposphere


The continuing rise of carbon dioxide concentration in our troposphere is leading to worldwide cooling as dry ice forms at the poles


The three most abundant gases in our atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen, and argon


There is no evidence for plate tectonics on the Moon today


Most lunar craters are volcanic in origin


Today most scientists favor the capture theory of the Moon’s origin, since it would explain why the Moon still orbits in the ecliptic plane, as do other planets.


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