Digestive System and Metabolism

the process of physically and chemically breaking food particles down is referred to as

digestion

the _______ runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach

esophagus

the innermost layer of the alimentary canal is referred to as the _______

mucosa

the ____ sphincter, or valve, controls food movement from the stomach into the small intestine

pyloric

the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine are

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

the fingerlike projections of the small intestine increase the surface area and are known as

villi

bile is formed by the

liver

cells are abundant within the large intestine that produce large amounts of lubricating mucus to aid in the passage of feces to the end of the digestive tract are called

goblet cells

the enzyme produced by the salivary glands used in the breakdown of starches is salivary

amylase

when digestion is not occurring in the small intestine, bile is stored in the

gallbladder

the process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called

defecation

two hormones that promote the release of bile and pancreatic juice into the small intestine are

secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK)

the hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach is called

gastrin

hydrochloric acid is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen into its active protein-digesting form called

pepsin

the energy value of foods is measured in units called

kilocalories (kcal) or Calories

sugars and starches are types of organic compounds known as

carbohydrates

refers to all chemical reactions necessary to maintain life

metabolism

which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

the fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements is called the

lingual frenulum

which of the following is the outermost layer of the GI tract that lines the abdominopelvic cavity

visceral peritoneum

hydrochloric acid is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen to

pepsin

the small intestine extends from the

pyloric sphincter (valve) to the ileocecal valve

what organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine

liver and pancreas

enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the

duodenum

one of the main functions of the small intestine is

absorption of nutrients

which one of the following is not a subdivision of the large intestine

duodenum

the organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces is the

large intestine

what is the purpose of mastication

the chew, grind and tear food into smaller pieces while in the mouth

the sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes is called

digestion

we do not have the enzymes to digest

cellulose

proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called

amino acids

which one of the following alimentary segments has no digestive function

esophagus

which digestive system organ is the target of gastrin

stomach

pepsin is necessary for the stomach to break down

proteins

which one of the following is not a main role of the liver

add ammonia to the blood

protein matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

pepsin

lactose matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

lactase

starch matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

amylase

fat matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

lipase

nucleic acids match with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

nuclease

organ where carbohydrate absorption occurs

small intestine

organ where starch digestion begins

mouth

tube through which food is propelled to the stomach but lacks a digestive role

esophagus

organ where protein digestion begins

stomach

organ where pancreatic enzymes and bile enter the alimentary canal

small intestine

organ where bacteria synthesize vitamin k

large intestine

organ where defecation reflex is initiated

large intestine

placement of food into the mouth

ingestion

peristalsis moves food from one organ to the next

propulsion

transport of food products from the lumen of the GI tract to the blood or lymph

absorption

physically fragmenting food particles into smaller particles

mechanical breakdown

elimination of indigestible food residues from the GI tract as feces

defecation

enzymatic reactions that hydrolyze food particles into their building blocks

digestion

name and describe the 4 layers of the GI tract

1. mucosa is the moist innermost layer, lines cavity of the organ 2. the submucosa, contains blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels 3. muscular externis, made up of circular and a longitudinal layer of smooth muscle 4. serosa, consists of 2 single layers of cells, serous fluid between two serosa levels

discuss why an acidic pH is necessary for the stomachs activities to be accomplished

HCl acid makes the stomach contents acid, which makes pepsinogen into pepsin that digests protein in stomach...without acidity about half the process of protein digestion wouldn't be able to occur

Digestive System and Metabolism - Subjecto.com

Digestive System and Metabolism

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the process of physically and chemically breaking food particles down is referred to as

digestion

the _______ runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach

esophagus

the innermost layer of the alimentary canal is referred to as the _______

mucosa

the ____ sphincter, or valve, controls food movement from the stomach into the small intestine

pyloric

the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine are

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

the fingerlike projections of the small intestine increase the surface area and are known as

villi

bile is formed by the

liver

cells are abundant within the large intestine that produce large amounts of lubricating mucus to aid in the passage of feces to the end of the digestive tract are called

goblet cells

the enzyme produced by the salivary glands used in the breakdown of starches is salivary

amylase

when digestion is not occurring in the small intestine, bile is stored in the

gallbladder

the process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called

defecation

two hormones that promote the release of bile and pancreatic juice into the small intestine are

secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK)

the hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach is called

gastrin

hydrochloric acid is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen into its active protein-digesting form called

pepsin

the energy value of foods is measured in units called

kilocalories (kcal) or Calories

sugars and starches are types of organic compounds known as

carbohydrates

refers to all chemical reactions necessary to maintain life

metabolism

which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

the fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements is called the

lingual frenulum

which of the following is the outermost layer of the GI tract that lines the abdominopelvic cavity

visceral peritoneum

hydrochloric acid is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen to

pepsin

the small intestine extends from the

pyloric sphincter (valve) to the ileocecal valve

what organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine

liver and pancreas

enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the

duodenum

one of the main functions of the small intestine is

absorption of nutrients

which one of the following is not a subdivision of the large intestine

duodenum

the organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces is the

large intestine

what is the purpose of mastication

the chew, grind and tear food into smaller pieces while in the mouth

the sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes is called

digestion

we do not have the enzymes to digest

cellulose

proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called

amino acids

which one of the following alimentary segments has no digestive function

esophagus

which digestive system organ is the target of gastrin

stomach

pepsin is necessary for the stomach to break down

proteins

which one of the following is not a main role of the liver

add ammonia to the blood

protein matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

pepsin

lactose matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

lactase

starch matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

amylase

fat matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

lipase

nucleic acids match with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase

nuclease

organ where carbohydrate absorption occurs

small intestine

organ where starch digestion begins

mouth

tube through which food is propelled to the stomach but lacks a digestive role

esophagus

organ where protein digestion begins

stomach

organ where pancreatic enzymes and bile enter the alimentary canal

small intestine

organ where bacteria synthesize vitamin k

large intestine

organ where defecation reflex is initiated

large intestine

placement of food into the mouth

ingestion

peristalsis moves food from one organ to the next

propulsion

transport of food products from the lumen of the GI tract to the blood or lymph

absorption

physically fragmenting food particles into smaller particles

mechanical breakdown

elimination of indigestible food residues from the GI tract as feces

defecation

enzymatic reactions that hydrolyze food particles into their building blocks

digestion

name and describe the 4 layers of the GI tract

1. mucosa is the moist innermost layer, lines cavity of the organ 2. the submucosa, contains blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels 3. muscular externis, made up of circular and a longitudinal layer of smooth muscle 4. serosa, consists of 2 single layers of cells, serous fluid between two serosa levels

discuss why an acidic pH is necessary for the stomachs activities to be accomplished

HCl acid makes the stomach contents acid, which makes pepsinogen into pepsin that digests protein in stomach…without acidity about half the process of protein digestion wouldn’t be able to occur

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