Digestive System and Metabolism

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the process of physically and chemically breaking food particles down is referred to as


the _______ runs from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach


the innermost layer of the alimentary canal is referred to as the _______


the ____ sphincter, or valve, controls food movement from the stomach into the small intestine


the 3 subdivisions of the small intestine are

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

the fingerlike projections of the small intestine increase the surface area and are known as


bile is formed by the


cells are abundant within the large intestine that produce large amounts of lubricating mucus to aid in the passage of feces to the end of the digestive tract are called

goblet cells

the enzyme produced by the salivary glands used in the breakdown of starches is salivary


when digestion is not occurring in the small intestine, bile is stored in the


the process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called


two hormones that promote the release of bile and pancreatic juice into the small intestine are

secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK)

the hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach is called


hydrochloric acid is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen into its active protein-digesting form called


the energy value of foods is measured in units called

kilocalories (kcal) or Calories

sugars and starches are types of organic compounds known as


refers to all chemical reactions necessary to maintain life


which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

the fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements is called the

lingual frenulum

which of the following is the outermost layer of the GI tract that lines the abdominopelvic cavity

visceral peritoneum

hydrochloric acid is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen to


the small intestine extends from the

pyloric sphincter (valve) to the ileocecal valve

what organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine

liver and pancreas

enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the


one of the main functions of the small intestine is

absorption of nutrients

which one of the following is not a subdivision of the large intestine


the organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces is the

large intestine

what is the purpose of mastication

the chew, grind and tear food into smaller pieces while in the mouth

the sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes is called


we do not have the enzymes to digest


proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called

amino acids

which one of the following alimentary segments has no digestive function


which digestive system organ is the target of gastrin


pepsin is necessary for the stomach to break down


which one of the following is not a main role of the liver

add ammonia to the blood

protein matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase


lactose matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase


starch matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase


fat matches with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase


nucleic acids match with: pepsin, nuclease, lipase, lactase, amylase


organ where carbohydrate absorption occurs

small intestine

organ where starch digestion begins


tube through which food is propelled to the stomach but lacks a digestive role


organ where protein digestion begins


organ where pancreatic enzymes and bile enter the alimentary canal

small intestine

organ where bacteria synthesize vitamin k

large intestine

organ where defecation reflex is initiated

large intestine

placement of food into the mouth


peristalsis moves food from one organ to the next


transport of food products from the lumen of the GI tract to the blood or lymph


physically fragmenting food particles into smaller particles

mechanical breakdown

elimination of indigestible food residues from the GI tract as feces


enzymatic reactions that hydrolyze food particles into their building blocks


name and describe the 4 layers of the GI tract

1. mucosa is the moist innermost layer, lines cavity of the organ 2. the submucosa, contains blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels 3. muscular externis, made up of circular and a longitudinal layer of smooth muscle 4. serosa, consists of 2 single layers of cells, serous fluid between two serosa levels

discuss why an acidic pH is necessary for the stomachs activities to be accomplished

HCl acid makes the stomach contents acid, which makes pepsinogen into pepsin that digests protein in stomach…without acidity about half the process of protein digestion wouldn’t be able to occur

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