DIET 200 ch. 8

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What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
a. 0.5 lb
b. 2 lbs
c. 3 lbs
d. 4 lbs

d

When an adult gains an extra 10 pounds of body weight, approximately how much of this weight is fat?
a. 5 lbs
b. 7.5 lbs
c. 9.5 lbs
d. 10 lbs

b

Approximately what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass?
a. 0
b. 20
c. 35
d. 50

d

In an adult who gains 20 pounds of excess body weight, about how much of this is lean tissue?
a. 0 lbs
b. 2 lbs
c. 5 lbs
d. 10 lbs

c

What instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods?
a. Energy chamber
b. Exothermic meter
c. Bomb calorimeter
d. Combustion chamber

c

Which of the following describes an association between energy measurement and foods?
a. Indirect calorimetry cannot be used to determine the energy value of alcohol
b. A bomb calorimeter measures the amount of oxygen released when a food is oxidized
c. Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry of the same food rarely give similar values
d. The physiological fuel value of a food is almost always lower than the energy value of that food as determined by bomb calorimetry

d

Which of the following represents an indirect measure of the amount of energy released from food?
a. The increase in heat given off when the food is burned
b. Quantity of oxygen consumed when the food is burned
c. Quantity of carbon dioxide consumed when the food is burned
d. The increase in heat retained by the food when it is slowly brought to 100° C

b

The amount of energy that the body derives from foods is known as the
a. basal metabolism.
b. food combustion value.
c. bomb calorimetry value.
d. physiological fuel value.

d

A person who exhibits a physiological need to eat is most likely experiencing the sensation of
a. hunger.
b. appetite.
c. stress eating.
d. neuropeptide Y suppression.

a

Which of the following correctly identifies a specific food intake behavior?
a. A physiological need to eat is called satiety
b. A pleasurable desire for food is called hunger
c. An intense feeling of hunger is called insatiable nervosa
d. A desire to eat without feelings of hunger is called appetite

d

The desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake after consuming a very large meal is an example of behavior known as
a. satiety.
b. hunger.
c. appetite.
d. pigging out.

c

A person who eats in response to arousal is most likely experiencing
a. stress eating.
b. sensory influences.
c. physiological influences.
d. postabsorptive influences.

a

The feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed
a. satiety.
b. appetite.
c. postabsorptive hunger.
d. resting postabsorptive increment.

a

Which of the following is NOT a typical external cue that may cause an obese person to respond to food?
a. TV commercials
b. Outdoor exercises
c. Availability of food
d. "Time of day" patterns

b

Which of the following hormones is most responsible for signaling satiety as well as reducing food intake during a meal?
a. Gastrin
b. Adipokines
c. Neuropeptide Y
d. Cholecystokinin

d

About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
a. 30 minutes
b. 1.5 hours
c. 4 hours
d. 8 hours

c

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of satiety or satiation?
a. Satiety suppresses hunger
b. Satiation signals the cessation of eating
c. Satiation develops as food enters the GI tract
d. Satiety but not hunger may be overridden by stress

d

Which of the following is NOT a reason that an emotionally insecure person might overeat?
a. To relieve boredom
b. To ward off depression
c. In preference to socializing
d. To satisfy energy needs only

d

Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger?
a. Apples
b. Peanuts
c. Doughnuts
d. Potato chips

a

What is the most satiating macronutrient?
a. Fat
b. Water
c. Protein
d. Carbohydrate

c

The day after Thanksgiving, you and your sisters are a little hungry and want to eat leftovers before going shopping. Which of the following foods would most readily satisfy the feeling of hunger?
a. Turkey
b. Pecan pie
c. Mashed potatoes
d. Noodle casserole

a

Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic related to the fat content in food?
a. High-fat foods are energy dense.
b. Fat has a weak effect on satiation.
c. Eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories.
d. In the small intestine fat triggers release of a hormone that inhibits food intake.

c

High-fat foods stimulate the appetite because they
a. are satiating.
b. are flavorful.
c. suppress salivary gland secretion.
d. trigger the release of oxyntomodulin.

b

The brain chemical neuropeptide Y is known to specifically enhance the craving for
a. fat.
b. salt.
c. protein.
d. carbohydrate.

d

All of the following are characteristics of neuropeptide Y EXCEPT
a. it stimulates appetite.
b. it reduces fat storage.
c. it is synthesized in the brain.
d. it increases carbohydrate cravings.

b

Which of the following describes the process of thermogenesis?
a. Burning of fat
b. Synthesis of fat
c. Generation of heat
d. Generation of water

c

Why might the measurement of the resting metabolic rate in a person be somewhat higher than her basal metabolic rate?
a. She was mildly malnourished
b. She slept through the procedure
c. She was wearing shorts and a tank top
d. She ate right before the measurement was done

d

What fraction of the day’s energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism?
a. About 1/10
b. Up to 1/2
c. About 2/3
d. Over 9/10

c

What is the approximate daily basal metabolism of a 110-pound woman?
a. 500 kcal
b. 1000 kcal
c. 1500 kcal
d. 2000 kcal

b

Which of the following factors has the most influence on the body’s metabolic rate?
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Amount of fat tissue
d. Amount of lean body tissue

d

Which of the following may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?
a. Oxygen consumed
b. Total air exchanged
c. Intestinal gas expelled
d. Carbon dioxide consumed

a

What method is used to measure the amount of heat given off by the body?
a. Bomb calorimetry
b. Basal calorimetry
c. Direct calorimetry
d. Indirect calorimetry

c

Which of the following are all used to compute a woman’s BMR?
a. Body fat, height, and age
b. Body weight, height, and age
c. Physical activity level, body weight, and height
d. Energy intake, physical activity level, and body weight

b

Which of the following does NOT decrease the metabolic rate?
a. Fever
b. Fasting
c. Sleeping
d. Malnutrition

a

You are planning a diet for a hospitalized patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for 6 weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient’s energy expenditure?
a. Body composition
b. Basal metabolic rate
c. Physical activity level
d. Adaptive thermogenesis

b

Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
a. Fever decreases the BMR
b. Fasting increases the BMR
c. Pregnancy increases the BMR
d. Females have a higher BMR than males on a body weight basis

c

Which of the following diets promotes the greatest loss of body heat?
a. High fat, low protein
b. High protein, low fat
c. High carbohydrate, low fat
d. Balanced protein, fat, and carbohydrate

b

What term describes the increase in energy expenditure that occurs in a person who fractures a leg?
a. Febrile hyperthermia
b. Physical hyperthermia
c. Specific thermogenesis
d. Adaptive thermogenesis

d

What is the approximate value for the thermic effect of a 2500-kcalorie diet?
a. 25 kcal
b. 250 kcal
c. 400 kcal
d. 500 kcal

b

What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements?
a. It is too costly to measure
b. It is too variable to measure
c. The value is too low to be meaningful
d. The value is highly influenced by the dietary ratio of protein, fat, and carbohydrate

b

Among the following groups, which has the highest metabolic rate?
a. Females
b. Older individuals
c. Younger individuals
d. People with smaller surface areas

c

If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
a. more body fat.
b. stronger bones.
c. stronger muscles.
d. more muscle mass.

d

What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight?
a. Males are usually taller than females
b. Females have lower levels of thyroid hormones
c. Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass
d. Females have a lower percentage of adipose tissue

c

For every decade beyond the age of 30, what is the percentage decrease in the need for total kcalories?
a. 2
b. 5
c. 10
d. 15

b

If a normal 30-year-old woman has a daily energy expenditure of 2200 kcalories, what would be her expected output when she reaches 60 years of age?
a. 1210 kcal
b. 1450 kcal
c. 1885 kcal
d. 2275 kcal

c

To estimate the energy requirements of individuals, which of the following is used in the equations?
a. Weight
b. Fat intake
c. Surface area
d. Fatfold thickness

a

The weight of the body less the fat content is known as the
a. cherubic index.
b. lean body mass.
c. body mass index.
d. ideal body weight.

b

An index of a person’s weight in relation to height is called
a. body mass index.
b. height to weight index.
c. ideal body weight index.
d. desirable body weight index.

a

A person is at high risk for signs of illness and diminished work capacity when the BMI first drops below
a. 12
b. 14
c. 17
d. 18.5

c

Jim is a 45 year old who eats fast food at least 3 times a week and smokes a pack of cigarettes each day. He just had a physical examination and was told that his body mass index is 24. In what category would Jim’s BMI be classified?
a. Obesity
b. Overweight
c. Underweight
d. Healthy weight

d

Which of the following is a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values?
a. The values include fat and protein but not water
b. It is rare that sedentary, normal-weight people are overfat
c. It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight
d. Body composition can be accurately assessed by measuring body weight

c

Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index?
a. It correlates with disease risks
b. It decreases by 1 unit for every 10 years of life
c. It provides an estimate of the fat level of the body
d. It is defined as the person’s height divided by the square of the weight

a

What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight men 20-39 years of age?
a. 5-10%
b. 18-21%
c. 22-30%
d. 32-40%

b

What is the approximate body mass index of a woman who is 5’5" and 125 lbs?
a. 21
b. 26
c. 31
d. 36

a

Jacki, who has a sedentary lifestyle, is 5’5" tall and weighs 165 lbs. She calculated her BMI to be 27.5. She recognizes that her body weight is unhealthy and vows to improve her eating habits and begin a regular program of physical fitness. Her goal is to achieve a BMI of 22. Approximately how much weight (lbs) must she lose?
a. 21
b. 27
c. 33
d. 41

c

All of the following are features of using weight measures for the assessment of disease risk EXCEPT
a. they are easy to administer.
b. they are inexpensive to obtain.
c. they reveal the location of excess body fat.
d. they are predictive of risk of degenerative diseases.

c

Why does use of the BMI overestimate the prevalence of obesity in the African-American population?
a. Blacks have a higher average height than whites
b. Blacks have denser bones and higher body protein concentrations than whites
c. Blacks tend to have different proportions of brown and white adipose tissue than whites
d. The fat pads in blacks are situated primarily around the hips, whereas in whites the pads are primarily abdominal

b

What is the weight classification assigned both to young women with 30% body fat and young men with 20% body fat?
a. Obese
b. Normal
c. Mildly overweight
d. Slightly underweight

b

What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight women?
a. 9-17%
b. 23-34%
c. 33-37%
d. 38-44%

b

Which of the following is NOT a known side effect of having insufficient fat stores?
a. Infertility
b. Clinical depression
c. Elevated body temperature
d. Abnormal hunger regulation

c

Jenny is 34 years old and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as "pear-like." John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is "apple-like." Why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative diseases?
a. He is male
b. He is older
c. He weighs more
d. He has central obesity

d

Which of the following is a characteristic of excess intra-abdominal fat?
a. It is more common in women than men
b. It has been proven to be a poorer indicator of degenerative diseases than the BMI
c. Some (but not all) research suggests that it is more harmful than fat in other locations
d. It is associated with increased risk for heart disease and diabetes in men but not in women

c

Which of the following defines central obesity?
a. Accumulation of fat during the mid-years of life
b. Storage of excess fat around the trunk of the body
c. Overfatness due to a large number of interacting behavioral problems
d. Overfatness due to reliance on high-fat foods as a central part of the diet

b

Research in obese people seems to show that there is less susceptibility to health problems provided that the excess body fat is distributed around the
a. stomach.
b. arms and chest.
c. hips and thighs.
d. neck and shoulders.

c

Which of the following can be used to gauge the amount of a person’s abdominal fat?
a. BMI
b. Essential body fat
c. Hydrodensitometry
d. Waist circumference

d

Intra-abdominal fat is the same as
a. waist fat.
b. visceral fat.
c. lipid profile fat.
d. subcutaneous fat.

b

Waist circumference can best be used to assess
a. BMI.
b. total body water.
c. abdominal fat stores.
d. subcutaneous fat stores.

c

According to much research, in what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease?
a. Neck
b. Abdomen
c. Hips and thighs
d. Arms and shoulders

b

A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed
a. 24 inches.
b. 28 inches.
c. 35 inches.
d. 42 inches.

c

There is a high risk of obesity-related health problems when a man’s waist circumference begins to exceed
a. 40 inches.
b. 45.5 inches.
c. 50 inches.
d. 52.5 inches.

a

According to much research, which of the following is a characteristic of excess body fat that is distributed primarily around the abdomen?
a. It is related directly to exercise
b. Its presence lowers the risk for diabetes
c. It is less common in women past menopause
d. It is associated with increased mortality for both sexes

d

Visceral fat is stored chiefly
a. around the thighs and neck.
b. within the liver and spleen.
c. around the abdominal organs.
d. within subcutaneous adipocytes.

c

Which of the following is a characteristic associated with using weight measures to assess risk of disease?
a. They are expensive to perform
b. They are complicated to perform
c. They are able to quantitate total body fat
d. They cannot reveal fat distribution and central obesity

d

To assess body composition, health-care professionals most often use BMI and
a. skinfold thickness.
b. hydrodensitometry.
c. waist circumference.
d. bioelectric impedence.

c

Which of the following is a common method used to assess body fat?
a. Impedence densitometry
b. Radioactive sodium count
c. Bioelectric absorptiometry
d. Air displacement plethysmography

d

A graph of the relationship between mortality (Y or vertical axis) and body mass index is shaped like a(n)
a. J.
b. S.
c. backslash.
d. inverted U.

a

Which of the following is NOT a known health risk for being underweight?
a. Diabetes
b. Infertility in women
c. Giving birth to unhealthy infants
d. Increased cancer-induced wasting

a

_____ is second only to _____ in causing premature deaths.
a. Underweight, obesity
b. Tobacco, underweight
c. Tobacco, obesity
d. Obesity, tobacco

d

All of the following are features of the health risks associated with excessive body fat EXCEPT
a. obesity is classified as a disease.
b. obese women have elevated levels of estrogen.
c. the risks are higher in black women than in white women.
d. people with a BMI higher than 35 have a high risk of dying prematurely.

c

Ben is worried that his family history of heart disease and his BMI of 28 are putting him at very high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. What would a clinician advise Ben to help lower his risk?
a. Take steps to raise his LDL and lower his HDL
b. Consider liposuction surgery for removing extra abdominal fat
c. Lose weight as this can lower both blood cholesterol and blood pressure
d. Obtain genetic testing to determine the exact percent chance of developing cardiovascular disease

c

Which of the following is a consequence of losing excess body weight?
a. It reverses atherosclerosis
b. It lowers HDL-cholesterol
c. It increases insulin resistance
d. It raises the number of immune cells in adipose tissue

a

Inflammation is characterized by an increase in
a. adipocytes.
b. stress eating.
c. immune cells.
d. subcutaneous fat stores.

c

Which of the following is a characteristic of chronic inflammation?
a. It increases the risk for obesity by 50%
b. It is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome
c. It is commonly found in people with a BMI less than 24
d. It enhances insulin sensitivity leading to periodic bouts of hypoglycemia

b

Each of the following is an association between type 2 diabetes and body fat EXCEPT
a. people with the disease often have central obesity rather than lower-body obesity.
b a woman who has gained 12 pounds since age 18 has doubled her risk of developing the disease.
c. an obese person is 3 times more likely to develop the disease than is a nonobese individual.
d. overweight people with the disease who lose weight show no improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.

d

What term best describes a failure of the body’s cells to respond to secretion of insulin?
a. Central obesity
b. Insulin resistance
c. Thyroid insufficiency
d. Hypothalamic impedance

b

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of metabolic syndrome?
a. Low blood glucose
b. Low HDL cholesterol
c. Elevated blood pressure
d. High blood triglycerides

a

The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
a. low-protein diets.
b. high-protein diets.
c. excess body weight.
d. prolonged excess carbohydrate intake.

c

Which of the following describes an association between body weight and mortality?
a. Obesity is the fourth leading cause of premature death
b. Overweight men who are physically fit have a lower mortality risk than normal-weight, unfit men
c. Normal-weight men who are physically unfit have a similar mortality risk versus normal-weight fit men
d. The amount of weight gain in adulthood that is not associated with increased mortality is 20 pounds or less

b

Which of the following may best explain the relationship between excess body fat and higher risk for cancers of the female reproductive system?
a. Obese women are more sedentary, which promotes cancer development
b. The higher levels of body fat act as a reservoir of carcinogenic substances
c. Excess body fat produces more estrogen, which may promote tumor development
d. The greater food consumption of obese women provides a higher intake of naturally-occurring carcinogens

c

What term is given to the condition of a female athlete who has an eating disorder and develops amenorrhea and osteoporosis?
a. Female athlete triad
b. Triathlete medical disorder
c. High stress tertiary disorder
d. Nonadaptable training syndrome

a

What is the most common eating disorder in both males and females?
a. Athlete triad
b. Bulimia nervosa
c. Anorexia nervosa
d. Binge-eating disorder

d

What is an emetic?
a. An appetite suppressant
b. An inhibitor of intestinal lipase
c. A substance that induces vomiting
d. An over-the-counter weight loss product

c

A cathartic is a
a. strong laxative.
b. drug that induces vomiting.
c. device to measure skinfold thickness.
d. device to measure the amount of intra-abdominal fat.

a

What are the three most common eating disorders, in order from highest to lowest prevalence?
a. Binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa
b. Anorexia nervosa, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa
c. Bulimia nervosa, binge eating, and anorexia nervosa
d. Bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating

a

Which of the following is a characteristic of amenorrhea?
a. It induces prolonged bone loss
b. It is a risk factor for women with bulimia
c. It is a normal adaptation to strenuous physical training
d. It is precipitated by high serum estrogen concentrations

a

All of the following are typical characteristics of amenorrhea EXCEPT
a. infertility.
b. bone mineral loss.
c. muscle dysmorphia.
d. low blood estrogen.

c

Which of the following is NOT a common behavior of people afflicted with muscle dysmorphia?
a. Use of dietary supplements
b. Use of cathartics and emetics
c. Consumption of high-protein diets
d. Weight training for hours at a time

b

Which of the following is a feature of anorexia nervosa?
a. Often self-diagnosed
b. Underestimating body fatness
c. More frequent menstrual cycles in females
d. Frequently results in a BMI less than 17

d

Which of the following is NOT among the characteristics of anorexia nervosa?
a. In those who recover, energy intakes return to normal
b. Treatment with prescription drugs plays only a limited role
c. It has one of the highest mortality rates among psychiatric disorders
d. Only one-half of women who are treated can maintain body weight at a near healthy level

a

Which of the following is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa?
a. Most are aware of their condition and seek treatment
b. Fewer than 200 women die each year from the disease
c. Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns
d. During initial treatment, metabolism slows and appetite increases but thereafter subsides

c

The first dietary objective in the treatment of anorexia nervosa is to
a. stop further weight loss.
b. increase physical activity.
c. decrease physical activity.
d. eat foods with higher fiber content.

a

Approximately what fraction of people treated for anorexia nervosa show reasonable maintenance of their weight gain?
a. 1/4
b. 1/2
c. 4/5
d. 9/10

b

Typical foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge include all of the following EXCEPT
a. bread.
b. cookies.
c. ice cream.
d. vegetables.

d

Which of the following is characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa?
a. Binge eating usually occurs during the daytime
b. Binge eating is frequently done at restaurant buffets
c. Binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting
d. A binge eating episode is usually completed within 20 minutes

c

Which of the following is not a dietary recommendation for people with bulimia nervosa?
a. Avoid skipping meals.
b. Include fiber-rich foods.
c. Eat cold foods to stimulate satiety.
d. Avoid "finger" foods to minimize overeating.

c

What is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating?
a. Purging is rarely practiced in binge-eating disorder
b. Higher rates of depression are reported in bulimia nervosa
c. More food is consumed at one setting in binge-eating disorders
d. Uncontrollable cravings for high-fat foods are seen only in bulimia nervosa

a

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