Developmental Test 3

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5-2. Throughout the life span, which of the following is the only time when girls are, on average, taller than boys?

a) by age 10
b) by age 11
c) by age 12
d) by age 13

B

5-5. Mrs. Alverez has concerns regarding her daughter’s body image. She believes her daughter is attempting to measure up to different kinds of body representations she sees in the media. Mrs. Alverez has scheduled a meeting with the school psychologist to discuss her concerns. What can the school psychologist suggest to Mrs. Alverez to lessen her concerns?

a) She can try to speak with her daughter against these influences by teaching her that the U.S. has a preoccupation with slimness, which permeates the entire society and that media representations are often exaggerated and unattainable.
b) This is a normal part of pre-adolescent development and, in time, it will pass.
c) Her daughter may need to seek counseling to understand body images and proper ways to identify with these images.
d) Testing may be indicated to assess the impact of any media representation.

A

5-6. Which of the following activities is considered a gross motor activity?

a) Coloring "inside the lines"
b) Tying a shoelace
c) Zipping up a jacket
d) Throwing a baseball

D

5-7. The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that boys and girls should engage in sports and games, and __________,

a) boys should play with boys
b) girls should play with girls
c) boys and girls should engage in sports and games in mixed-gender groups until puberty
d) boys and girls should engage in sports and games in mixed-gender groups despite the onset of puberty

C

5-8. At what age can both boys and girls judge and intercept directions of small balls thrown from a distance and run 17 feet per second?

a) 7 years old
b) 8 years old
c) 10 years old
d) 12 years old

C

5-9. Which of the following is NOT a fine motor skill?

a) Typing on a keyboard
b) Writing in cursive with a pen
c) Jumping rope
d) Tying shoes

C

5-10. Which of the following is a fine motor skill?

a) Typing on a keyboard
b) Throwing a football
c) Jumping rope
d) Running and skipping

A

5-11. At approximately what age should a child be able to tie his/her shoes?

a) 3 years old
b) 5 years old
c) 7 years old
d) 9 years old

C

5-12. At approximately what age should a child be able to use each hand independently?

a) 2-3 years old
b) 4-5 years old
c) 6-7 years old
d) 8-9 years old

D

5-13. At approximately what age should a child be able to manipulate objects with almost as much capability as an adult?

a) 5 to 6 years old
b) 8 to 9 years old
c) 11 to 12 years old
d) 15 to 16 years old

C

5-14. What is one significant reason for the advances in fine motor skills in children six to eight years old?

a) Children live long enough to get more practice with fine motor skills.
b) Children’s cognitive development is increasing.
c) Children have more opportunity to model fine motor skill behavior(s) from others and practice on a consistent basis.
d) The amount of myelin in the brain increases to protect, insulate, and surround the nerve cells, raising the speed at which electrical impulses travel between neurons.

D

5-21. Which of the following is the most likely reason why children’s psychological disorders are neglected?

a) Parents and family members are embarrassed.
b) Children often express psychological symptoms differently than adults.
c) There are no treatments available for children with psychological problems.
d) Most children grow out of their symptoms.

B

5-22. What is the term for a difficulty in seeing that may include blindness or partial sightedness?

a) Visual acuity
b) Amblyopia
c) Color blindness
d) Visual impairment

D

5-23. Which of the following is NOT considered one of the prevalent disorders that affects children with normal intelligence?

a) Sensory difficulties
b) Psychosomatic illnesses
c) Attention-deficit disorders
d) Learning disabilities

B

5-24. If a person has the inability to see even at 20 feet what a typical person can see at 200 feet (20/200) after correction (corrective lenses, etc.), this is known as __________.

a) blindness
b) partial sightedness
c) legally blind
d) impairment

A

5-25. Some symptoms that a boy/girl with vision impairment may exhibit while doing schoolwork include all of the following EXCEPT __________.
a) complaining of headaches or dizziness
b) holding a book close to his/her face
c) glancing away for long periods of time, apparently "daydreaming."
d) continual blinking or making facial contortions while reading

C

5-26. Auditory impairment, which is a special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing, affects __________ percent of the school-age population.

a) 1-2
b) 2-4
c) 4-6
d) 6-8

A

5-27. Severe and early loss of hearing is associated with all of the following EXCEPT __________.

a) impairments in abstract thinking
b) problems developing the ability to produce speech
c) reduced intelligence
d) speech impairments

C

5-28. What is the term for speech that deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker?

a) A disorder of executive functioning
b) Auditory language processing disorder
c) Auditory impairment
d) Speech impairment

D

5-29. What percentage of school-age children demonstrates speech/language impairment?

a) 1 to 3 percent
b) 3 to 5 percent
c) 5 to 7 percent
d) 7 to 9 percent

B

5-30. What is the term for a substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech and is the most common speech impairment?

a) Echolalia
b) Auditory language processing delays
c) Stuttering
d) Dyspraxia

C

5-31. If a child is demonstrating difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities, the child is exhibiting a(n) __________.

a) intellectual disability
b) pervasive developmental disorder
c) learning disability
d) developmental delay

C

5-32. How many school-age children are labeled with a learning disability?

a) 1 in 10
b) 1 in 5
c) 1 in 4
d) 1 in 3

A

5-33. Which of the following is an accurate description of a learning disability?

a) A speech/language impairment
b) A significant discrepancy between the child’s actual academic performance and his/her apparent potential to learn
c) A vision impairment in which the child cannot see at 20 feet what most people can see at 200 feet
d) A hearing impairment

B

5-34. The causes of learning disabilities, while not well understood, are generally attributed to __________.

a) low birth weight in infancy
b) brain dysfunction due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors
c) inadequate access to learning
d) speech/language problems in early childhood

B

5-35. What is the term for a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity?

a) Bipolar disorder
b) Childhood schizophrenia
c) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
d) Generalized anxiety disorder

C

5-36. Frank was tested by the school psychologist and diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The test results have been explained to his parents. His parents are curious as to brain involvement and ADHD. The school psychologist informs them that __________.

a) some research indicates that ADHD is related to a delay in neural development
b) there is little research to link ADHD with specific brain involvement
c) if there is a lag in neural functioning, it will decline with age
d) ADHD would be considered a developmental delay

A

5-37. All of the following include factors that help differentiate normal active behavior in children from those children with ADHD EXCEPT __________.

a) persistent difficulty in finishing tasks, following instructions, and organizing work
b) frequent interruptions of others or excessive talking
c) difficulty waiting or remaining seated
d) interest in very active, fast-paced games

D

5-39. All of the following are side effects of medication treatment for ADHD (e.g., Ritalin) EXCEPT __________.

a) irritability
b) reduced appetite
c) depression
d) mild stuttering

D

5-40. Which of the following is NOT considered an additional and/or alternative method of ADHD treatment?

a) Hormonal replacement therapy
b) Behavior therapy that includes use of rewards
c) Dietary changes to address fatty acids and/or food additives in the child’s diet
d) Increased structure in the classroom environment

A

5-41. If a preschool child thinks largely in an egocentric manner, then from Piaget’s perspective we would say that the child is in the __________ stage.

a) concrete operational
b) decentering
c) abstract operational
d) preoperational

D

5-42. What is the term that refers to the stage of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic?

a) Concrete operational
b) Decentering
c) Abstract operational
d) Preoperational

A

5-43. Concrete operational thought involves applying __________ to concrete problems.

a) dichotomous reasoning
b) intuition or hunches
c) logical operations
d) abstract concepts

C

5-52. What is the term for an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood?

a) Recall
b) Rehearsal
c) Metamemory
d) Working memory

C

5-55. Which of the following is a noteworthy educational innovation, based upon Vygotsky’s work, where children work together in groups to achieve a common goal?

a) Reciprocal teaching
b) Metamemory
c) Zone of proximal development
d) Cooperative learning

D

5-59. When middle-school-age children understand the rules of language that indicate how words and phrases can be combined to form sentences, this is called __________.

a) metalinguistic skills
b) metacognition
c) syntax
d) phonemes

C

5-61. What is the term for an understanding of one’s own use of language?

a) Metamemory
b) Comprehension
c) Metalinguistic awareness
d) Expressive/receptive communication

C

5-62. Middle-school-age children utilize __________ when information is fuzzy or incomplete, such as asking for clarifications of information.

a) metacognitive skills
b) metalinguistic awareness
c) pragmatics
d) syntax

B

5-66. Children begin to use reading as a source for learning around __________.

a) kindergarten
b) first grade
c) fourth grade
d) sixth grade

C

5-70. At which stage does reading become a means to an end and a way for a child to learn? What grade(s) is the child most likely attending?

a) Stage 1; first and second grades
b) Stage 2; second and third grades
c) Stage 3; fourth to eighth grades
d) Stage 4; eighth grade and beyond

C

5-85. What is the term for a measure of intelligence that takes into account a student’s mental and chronological age?

a) Standard age
b) Chronological/physical age
c) Intelligence quotient
d) Mental age

C

5-86. What is the name of a test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested?

a) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
b) Deviation IQ scores
c) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)
d) Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

C

5-87. What is the name of the test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance (or nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score?

a) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
b) Deviation IQ scores
c) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)
d) Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

A

5-88. What is the name of an intelligence test that measures children’s ability to integrate different stimuli simultaneously and to use sequential thinking?

a) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
b) Deviation IQ scores
c) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)
d) Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

D

5-89. Intelligence tests most frequently used in schools are based on a common idea that intelligence is a single factor or unitary mental ability called __________.

a) deviation IQ
b) full scale IQ
c) g factor
d) intelligence quotient

C

5-90. Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for intelligence that reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory?

a) Triarchic theory of intelligence
b) Fluid intelligence
c) Crystallized intelligence
d) Intellectual quotient

B

5-91. Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations?

a) Triarchic theory of intelligence
b) Fluid intelligence
c) Crystallized intelligence
d) Intellectual quotient

C

5-92. According to Robert Sternberg, who developed the __________, intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing.

a) triarchic theory of intelligence
b) fluid intelligence theory
c) crystallized intelligence theory
d) theory of intellectual quotient

A

5-94. Although no test is completely without bias, which of the following tests is designed to be equally valid regardless of the cultural background of the test-taker?

a) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
b) System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)
c) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)
d) Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

B

5-98. If a person has significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills, this person is said to __________.

a) need mainstreaming
b) be intellectually disabled
c) need psychoeducational evaluation
d) need special education

B

5-99. If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of 50 or 55 to 70, this is known as __________.

a) profound intellectual disability
b) moderate intellectual disability
c) borderline intellectual development
d) mild intellectual disability

D

5-100. If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of around 35 or 40 to 50 or 55, this is known as __________.

a) intellectual disability
b) moderate intellectual disability
c) borderline intellectual development
d) mild intellectual disability

B

5-101. If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of around 20 or 25 to 35 or 40, this is known as __________.

a) intellectual disability
b) moderate intellectual disability
c) severe intellectual disability
d) mild intellectual disability

C

5-102. If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range below 20 or 25, this is known as __________.

a) intellectual disability
b) moderate intellectual disability
c) severe intellectual disability
d) profound intellectual disability

D

5-105. According to Erikson, from roughly ages 6 to 12, children go through the period characterized by efforts to meet the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. This stage is called __________.

a) inferiority versus superiority
b) industry versus inferiority
c) social comparison
d) puberty

B

5-109. Twelve-year-old Sam believes he is a pretty good soccer player but not as good in chorus. This is an indication of Sam’s __________.

a) self-esteem
b) self-concept
c) social reality
d) social comparison

B

5-110. __________ is an individual’s overall and specific self-evaluation (which is more emotionally oriented); whereas __________ reflects beliefs and cognitions about the self.

a) Self-concept; self-esteem
b) Self-esteem; self-concept
c) Self-esteem; social comparison
d) Social comparison; self-concept

B

5-112. Which of the following terms relates to an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation?

a) Social comparison
b) Self-concept
c) Self-esteem
d) Downward social comparison

C

5-113. Harry is facing an important test and expects to do poorly. He is so anxious that he cannot concentrate or study effectively, but he figures that since he’s going to do badly anyway, he should not bother. This is an indication of Harry’s __________.

a) self-esteem
b) self-concept
c) social reality
d) social comparison

A

5-114. Generally, overall self-esteem is high during middle childhood but begins to decline around the age of __________ due to __________.

a) 15; puberty
b) 16; sexual activity
c) 12; change of schools
d) 11; self-concept

C

5-125. According to Kohlberg’s theory, the 4th stage of development is __________.

a) authority and social-order-maintaining morality
b) universal moral principles that are considered broader than the rules of a particular society
c) obedience and punishment orientation
d) morality of contract, individual rights, and democratically accepted law

A

5-126. Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg found that __________ is relatively rare.

a) preconventional reasoning
b) a lack of morality
c) postconventional morality
d) conventional morality

C

5-127. Kohlberg proposes that moral development occurs in a fixed order, and that people are unable to reach the highest stage of moral reasoning until __________ due to __________.

a) middle childhood; deficits in cognitive development
b) adolescence; lack of experience and peer pressure
c) young adulthood; lack of experience
d) adolescence; deficits in cognitive development

D

5-128. Which of the following psychologists developed the three stages of moral development for women?

a) Lawrence Kohlberg
b) B. F. Skinner
c) Carol Gilligan
d) Sigmund Freud

C

5-129. According to Gilligan, girls view morality in all the terms below EXCEPT __________.

a) broad principles of justice and fairness
b) responsibility toward individuals
c) compassion for individuals, which is a greater factor in moral behavior for women than for men
d) gradual transition from selfishness to responsibility, which includes thinking about what would be best for others

A

5-130. Which of the following best describes the first of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

a) Goodness as self-sacrifice
b) Orientation toward individual survival
c) Morality of nonviolence
d) Moral equivalence established between self and others

B

5-131. Which of the following best describes the second of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

a) Goodness as self-sacrifice
b) Orientation toward individual survival
c) Morality of nonviolence
d) Moral equivalence established between self and others

A

5-134. According to Damon, the first stage of building friendship for middle-school age children is __________.

a) basing friendship on intelligence
b) basing friendship on others’ behavior
c) basing friendship on trust
d) basing friendship on psychological closeness

B

5-135. According to Damon, when Sammy (who is a kindergarten student) is asked, "How do you know that someone is your best friend?" it is highly likely that he will respond, __________

a) "Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it."
b) "Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what."
c) "Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot."
d) "Because a friend is somebody who is kind and puts my feelings first."

C

5-133. According to psychologist William Damon, a child’s view of friendship passes through all of the stages below EXCEPT __________.

a) basing friendship on intelligence
b) basing friendship on others’ behavior
c) basing friendship on trust
d) basing friendship on psychological closeness

A

5-136. According to Damon, when Martha (who is nine years old) is asked, "How do you know that someone is your best friend?" it is highly likely that she will respond, __________

a) "Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it."
b) "Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and
they will stick with you no matter what."
c) "Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot."
d) "Because a friend is somebody who is kind and puts my feelings first."

A

5-137. Which of the following is considered to be the centerpiece of friendship during middle childhood?

a) Similar racial or ethnic background
b) Mutual trust
c) Similar size and weight
d) Living geographically near one another

B

5-138. Friends influence children’s development during the middle childhood years in all of the following ways EXCEPT __________.

a) friendship provides a child with information about the world as well as themselves
b) friendship provides emotional support the helps the child respond more effectively to stress
c) friendship teaches a child how to communicate and interact with others
d) friendships provide more security than relationships with parents and other family members

D

5-139. According to Damon, the second stage of building friendship for middle-school age children is __________.

a) basing friendship on intelligence
b) basing friendship on others’ behavior
c) basing friendship on trust
d) basing friendship on psychological closeness

C

5-140. According to Damon, the third stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is __________.

a) basing friendship on intelligence
b) basing friendship on others’ behavior
c) basing friendship on trust
d) basing friendship on psychological closeness

D

5-141. According to Damon, when Steven (who is 15 years old) is asked, "How do you know that someone is your best friend?" it is highly likely that he will respond __________

a) "Because a friend is someone who shares his/her possessions with you."
b) "Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what."
c) "Because I can play a lot with him/her and stay over his/her house a lot."
d) "Because a friend is somebody who likes the same things that you do."

B

5-145. Research indicates that popular children share the following personality characteristics EXCEPT __________.

a) having a sense of humor
b) being domineering
c) appreciating others’ sense of humor
d) being cooperative

B

5-146. Compared to less popular children, popular children are more likely to do all of the following EXCEPT __________.

a) demonstrate a good sense of humor and appreciate others’ attempts at humor
b) read others’ nonverbal behavior and understand others’ emotional experiences
c) control their own nonverbal behavior more effectively
d) disregard others’ emotional experiences

D

5-151. The segregation of friendships according to gender occurs __________.

a) in the United States only
b) only among separate racial groups
c) in almost all societies
d) when boys are assigned one type of chore, and girls are assigned another type of chore

C

5-152. The lack of cross-gender interaction in the middle childhood years means that __________.

a) girls and boys may not learn to like each other and may have difficulty making cross-gender friendships
b) boys’ and girls’ friendships are restricted to members of their own sex
c) girls and boys do not have enough time or opportunity to learn about each other’s differences and/or similarities
d) it is more difficult for boys and girls to build social competence

B

5-154. Which of the following terms means rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group?

a) Social competence
b) Status
c) Dominance hierarchy
d) Social problem solving

C

5-155. Boys’ play tends to come in bursts rather than in more extended, tranquil episodes, due in part to __________.

a) lack of social competence skills
b) their concern over dominance hierarchy, known as restrictive play
c) lack of dominance hierarchy, leading to equal status of different members
d) lack of social problem-solving skills

B

5-156. Middle-school-age girls tend to __________; middle-school-age boys tend to
__________.

a) focus on one or two "best friends"; develop a dominance hierarchy
b) have a smaller network of friends; ignore differences in status
c) avoid differences in status; have a smaller network of friends
d) focus on one or two "best friends"; smooth over disagreements

A

5-159. Which of the following is true when it comes to middle-school-age children’s friendships?

a) Children tend to make an equal number of same-race and different-race friends.
b) Children can show a high degree of mutual acceptance.
c) Children tend to make same-gender but different-race group friends.
d) Children cannot make more different-race friendships as they age.

B

5-168. Following a divorce, a child may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT __________.

a) sleep disturbance
b) depression
c) ADHD
d) anxiety

C

5-167. Immediately after a divorce, both children and parents may show several types of psychological maladjustment for a period that may last from __________.

a) one to two years
b) three months to three years
c) six months to two years
d) three to six years

C

5-170. With regard to children of divorced parents, all of the following are true EXCEPT __________.

a) twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families
b) 18 months to 2 years after the divorce, most children begin to return to their predivorce state of psychological adjustment
c) people who have experienced parental divorce are more at risk for experiencing divorce themselves
d) divorce is not beneficial to children living in households overwhelmed by parental strife

D

5-173. By definition, a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them is called a __________ family.

a) multigenerational
b) single-parent
c) blended
d) mixed

C

5-176. When living in a blended family, roles and expectations can be unclear, and this is called __________.

a) autonomy
b) self-care
c) shared benefits
d) role ambiguity

D

5-183. The word "orphanage" has been replaced by the words __________.

a) foster home
b) group home or residential treatment center
c) alternative lifestyle
d) latchkey child

B

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