Developmental Psychology Chapter 1

a social construction

The general term for a concept that is created by society

replication

Dr. Seldor does a study in which she finds that alcohol consumption is correlated to an increased risk of diabetes. She publishes her results. Then Dr. Al-Jaher does the same study using different participants in another nation. Dr. Al-Jaher's work is an example of

education level

An individual's socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her

occupation

An individual's socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her

relationship

A correlation does not indicate that one variable causes the other to occur; rather, it indicates that there is a _____ between the two variables

social class

Socioeconomic status refers to an individual's _____

Bronfenbrenner

The ecological-systems approach was proposed by _____.

neighborhood

An individual's socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her _____

the repetition of a study using different participants

What is replication of a study?

posing a question

The first step in the scientific method involves _____.

microsystem

Dwayne was born to a single mother living in Chicago. Within the context of the ecological-systems approach, knowing this fact allows one to know something about his _____.

can help all people live better lives

From an ethical stance, researchers should choose topics of study that _____

replication

Dr. Kong does a study in which he finds that smoking is correlated to an increased risk of high blood pressure. He publishes his results. Then Dr. Meco does the same study using different participants in another city. Dr. Meco's work is an example of _____

late adulthood

The last developmental stage of the life span is _____.

ethnic group

People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who usually share the same language and religion are called a(n) _____.

the genes that people inherit

In the science of human development, "nature" refers to _____.

conception to death

The life-span perspective takes into account development from _____.

socioeconomic status

Jameel has a college degree, lives in a nice neighborhood, and earns more than $50,000 a year. This information defines his _____.

first

Dr. Furth wonders if a specific brain chemical can be suppressed if a patient is given a large dose of vitamin E. Dr. Furth has just demonstrated the _____ step in the scientific method.

culture

The system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, expectations, and symbolic representations that persist over time and prescribe social rules of conduct is known as _____.

scientific observation

If a researcher watches 1-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using _____.

ethnic

People of a specific _____ group share certain attributes such as religion and language.

develops a hypothesis

After posing a question, a researcher using the scientific method _____.

comparison group (control group)

When differences between the experimental group and the _____ are so large that they could not have occurred simply by chance, they are considered to be significant.

how and why people change over time

What does the science of human development seek to understand?

Epigenetics

_____ refers to the environmental factors that affect the expression of genes.

level of depression

An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be _____.

nature; nurture

Tim told his friend that he is tall because he inherited "tall" genes from his dad. Tim was claiming that _____, but not _____, was responsible for his height.

a hypothesis

Dr. Hernandez predicts that a certain drug will help patients with schizophrenia. Her prediction is called _____.

the aging of the participants

What is NOT a problem with longitudinal research?

developing a hypothesis

The second step in the scientific method involves _____.

falsifying the data to support the hypothesis

An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is _____.

dynamic-systems approach

The idea that human development is an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the body, mind, and every aspect of the environment is known as the _____.

social construction

The Johnson family always eats dinner together as they really value family time. The Smith family, however, never eats dinner together as they all value their independence. The fact that the families have different values is due to _____. This has affected how the Johnson and Smith families act.

critical

Between 1957 and 1961, many pregnant women took thalidomide to alleviate morning sickness; this drug disrupted a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.

there is no connection between the variables

A correlation is considered to be zero if _____.

current middle school students

The people in which group are DEFINITELY members of the same cohort?

critical

A _____ period of development is a time in which a particular development must occur if it is to occur at all.

men perceiving women as intellectually inferior

One historical example of the "different-equals-deficit error" is _____.

life-span perspective

The _____ takes into account all phases of life, from conception through death.

age

Bettie belongs to one cohort; Zahara belongs to another. The only DEFINITE difference between these two women is _____.

case study

Dr. Devalle is conducting interviews, collecting background information, and running a series of tests on a single individual over several years. She is conducting a(n) _____.

how and why

The science of human development seeks to understand _____ people—all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age—change over time.

nature

The term that refers to the traits inherited at conception is _____.

sensitive

A _____ period of development is a time in which a particular development occurs easily.

critical

Thalidomide only caused birth defects if a pregnant woman ingested the drug during the _____ period of prenatal development.

social construction

Two people from different cultures may value the need for achievement or success differently because of the _____ of each culture.

political processes

A person's macrosystem includes _____.

observation, experience, or experiment

Empirical evidence is based on _____.

experimental

In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the _____ group.

experiment

Researchers who want to establish a causal relationship between two variables must use a research design called a(n) _____.

a social construction

According to the text, race is _____.

cross-sectional study

Dr. Bloom wanted to learn if ice cream preferences were different at different stages of development. For her study, she conducted a one-time assessment in which she asked a group of 5-year-olds, a group of 15-year-olds, and a group of 30-year-olds to identify their ice cream preferences. Dr. Bloom conducted a _____.

continuity

The concept of multidirectional development suggests that when change is gradual, as when a tortoise grows larger over its 150-year lifespan, it is an example of _____.

nature and nurture acting together

Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of _____.

nurture

The combination of all environmental influences that affect a developing person is called _____.

environmental influences

In the science of human development, "nurture" refers to _____.

culture

A system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations, and symbolic representations is the definition of _____.

cohort

A(n) _____ is a group of people born at about the same time that experience the same historical events and cultural shifts.

Scientific

_____ observation requires researchers to record behaviors systematically and objectively.

a child learning to speak a second language

Which example best illustrates a sensitive period?

socioeconomic

A person's income and level of education is part of his or her _____ status.

It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.

What is an independent variable?

sensitive

Bobby did not learn to read until he was an adolescent. When he did learn to read it was much harder for him to learn and it took him longer to learn to read. If Bobby had learned to read during the early childhood years into the middle childhood years he would have had an easier time learning to read. Bobby had a hard time learning to read because he did not learn to do so during the _____ period.

nurture

Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children believe in the importance of _____ as it relates to development.

make them more vulnerable to particular experiences

Differential sensitivity means that certain people have genes that _____.

critical

A woman in Honduras worked in a field treated with pesticides during her pregnancy. When her son was born, she was horrified to find that he had no limbs. Her pesticide exposure must have occurred during a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.

discontinuity

With respect to the concept of multidirectional development, when change is rapid and dramatic, such as when a larva becomes a mosquito, it is an example of _____.

study of individuals' behaviors in a systematic and objective manner

Scientific observation allows for the _____.

report the results

The final step in the five steps of the scientific method is to _____.

medical centers and religious institutions

Dr. Kilbey is studying the impact of exosystems on human development. Which of these would she be MOST interested in examining?

a critical period

The human fetus develops fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days after conception but cannot develop fingers and toes before or after that time. This is an example of _____.

microsystem

Tanner's friends do well in school, but Tanner has never really done well in school. They decide to meet once a week to study and soon Tanner is doing better in school. Within the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of Tanner's friends on Tanner's school performance comes from the _____.

the exosystem

In Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems model, a hospital in the community is an example of which system?

It involves recording behavior systematically and objectively.

Which statement about scientific observation is true?

social construction

Social scientists are convinced, based on genetic analysis, that race is a(n) _____.

a fetus developing fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days in utero

Which example best illustrates a critical period?

pose a research question about language acquisition

What is a researcher's first step when designing a research study on children's language acquisition?

asthma and secondhand smoke have some connection

If a researcher finds that there is a correlation between secondhand smoke and children's asthma, he knows for SURE that _____.

negative

The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between Hank's food intake and his hunger is _____.

consent from the parents and children (if children are able to consent)

When doing research with anyone under the age of 18, which of the following must be obtained?

dynamic systems

The approach called _____ refers to the idea that human development is ongoing and ever-changing.

color

Some social scientists believe that _____ terms exaggerate minor differences between people.

prediction that can be tested

A hypothesis is a(n) _____.

microsystem

In Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems model, family and peers are part of a person's _____.

scientific

In order to minimize subjective opinions and personal biases when conducting research, it is important to employ the _____ method.

Survey research

_____ is a quick way to study the development of a large group of people.

environment and heredity combined

Susie, who is 5 years old, is the tallest person in her kindergarten class. When her teacher asked her how she thought she got so tall she said proudly, "My mom and dad are tall and I eat good food!" Susie's statement reflects that she understands that human development comes from _____.

the idea that human traits may change or stay the same over time

What is plasticity?

an experiment

What is the only research method that can establish a cause-and-effect relationship?

replication

In scientific research, collecting additional evidence by studying a different population than that used in the original project is known as _____.

supporting or refuting a hypothesis

The fourth step in the scientific method involves _____.

a teenager who spends a summer in Chile and learns to speak Spanish

Which of these is the BEST example of plasticity?

longitudinal

Cohort-sequential research can be thought of as a mix between a cross-sectional design and a _____ design.

mastosystems

Which term is NOT associated with Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems approach?

ethnicity

All of the following are categories that are associated with potential causes of depression EXCEPT for _____.

Vygotsky

Which developmentalist was the first to describe the interaction between culture and education?

experiment

When a researcher wants to determine the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is a(n) _____.

chronosystem

What term did Bronfenbrenner use to describe the impact of the specific time in history on a person's development?

tested (evaluated) (examined)

A hypothesis is an idea generated by a question that can be _____ by various research methods.

determine a cause-and-effect relationship

Experiments allow researchers to _____.

use the scientific method to collect data and establish facts

Dr. Henderson is curious to know more about how children develop over time. To gain an understanding of this subject not based on opinion or personal bias, Dr. Henderson should _____.

the study of how the environment affects which genes are expressed

What is epigenetics?

having the gene for epilepsy

Which is an example of the influence of nature?

epigenetic

Genes alone do not determine development, but rather environmental forces also shape development, which has led to the understanding that many human characteristics are _____.

conducting research

The third step in the scientific method involves _____.

test the hypothesis

A researcher designed and conducted an experiment to learn if 350 mg of a certain drug would help patients with bipolar disorder. By designing and conducting this experiment the researcher was able to _____.

high levels of serotonin

Which of the following has NOT been linked to depression?

cohort

High school classmates are part of the same _____.

difference-equals-deficit

The human tendency to assume that people unlike us are inferior is called the _____ error.

informed consent

Participants in a research study must understand and agree to the research procedures and also be made aware of any potential risks associated with the research participation. This process is known as _____.

high attendance and high grades occur together

If a researcher finds a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, one can conclude that _____.

data

Empirical evidence refers to _____.

chronosystem

Within Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems approach, he called the historical context that affects other systems the _____.

Nurture

_____ refers to environmental influences on traits.

Institutional Review Board

IRB stands for _____.

chronosystem.

Dorothy was born during the Great Depression. Within the context of the ecological-systems approach, knowing this fact allows one to know about her _____.

mesosystem

In Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems approach, the _____ refers to the interactions among systems.

survey

A _____ is a quick way to collect data from a large number of people.

negative

As children age, they tend to sleep fewer hours. This relationship is an example of a(n) ____ correlation.

a laboratory experiment

To determine if vitamin D consumption causes the progress of multiple sclerosis to slow, a researcher would most likely use _____.

nurture

The term for all the environmental influences that affect development after conception is _____.

multidisciplinary

Afton is seeking therapy for depression. At the first therapy session the therapist informs her that depression is caused by many factors, including genes, neurology, and development. Afton's therapist is referring to the _____ nature of depression, as many areas of study are needed to understand depression.

cross-sequential

Which type of research design combines the cross-sectional design with the longitudinal research design?

one variable increases while the other variable decreases

A correlation is considered to be negative if _____.

nature versus nurture

Dr. Towne believes that heredity is primarily responsible for personality traits. Dr. West believes that environmental influences are primarily responsible for personality traits. They are on different sides of the _____ debate.

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Developmental Psychology Chapter 1

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a social construction

The general term for a concept that is created by society

replication

Dr. Seldor does a study in which she finds that alcohol consumption is correlated to an increased risk of diabetes. She publishes her results. Then Dr. Al-Jaher does the same study using different participants in another nation. Dr. Al-Jaher’s work is an example of

education level

An individual’s socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her

occupation

An individual’s socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her

relationship

A correlation does not indicate that one variable causes the other to occur; rather, it indicates that there is a _____ between the two variables

social class

Socioeconomic status refers to an individual’s _____

Bronfenbrenner

The ecological-systems approach was proposed by _____.

neighborhood

An individual’s socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her _____

the repetition of a study using different participants

What is replication of a study?

posing a question

The first step in the scientific method involves _____.

microsystem

Dwayne was born to a single mother living in Chicago. Within the context of the ecological-systems approach, knowing this fact allows one to know something about his _____.

can help all people live better lives

From an ethical stance, researchers should choose topics of study that _____

replication

Dr. Kong does a study in which he finds that smoking is correlated to an increased risk of high blood pressure. He publishes his results. Then Dr. Meco does the same study using different participants in another city. Dr. Meco’s work is an example of _____

late adulthood

The last developmental stage of the life span is _____.

ethnic group

People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who usually share the same language and religion are called a(n) _____.

the genes that people inherit

In the science of human development, "nature" refers to _____.

conception to death

The life-span perspective takes into account development from _____.

socioeconomic status

Jameel has a college degree, lives in a nice neighborhood, and earns more than $50,000 a year. This information defines his _____.

first

Dr. Furth wonders if a specific brain chemical can be suppressed if a patient is given a large dose of vitamin E. Dr. Furth has just demonstrated the _____ step in the scientific method.

culture

The system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, expectations, and symbolic representations that persist over time and prescribe social rules of conduct is known as _____.

scientific observation

If a researcher watches 1-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using _____.

ethnic

People of a specific _____ group share certain attributes such as religion and language.

develops a hypothesis

After posing a question, a researcher using the scientific method _____.

comparison group (control group)

When differences between the experimental group and the _____ are so large that they could not have occurred simply by chance, they are considered to be significant.

how and why people change over time

What does the science of human development seek to understand?

Epigenetics

_____ refers to the environmental factors that affect the expression of genes.

level of depression

An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be _____.

nature; nurture

Tim told his friend that he is tall because he inherited "tall" genes from his dad. Tim was claiming that _____, but not _____, was responsible for his height.

a hypothesis

Dr. Hernandez predicts that a certain drug will help patients with schizophrenia. Her prediction is called _____.

the aging of the participants

What is NOT a problem with longitudinal research?

developing a hypothesis

The second step in the scientific method involves _____.

falsifying the data to support the hypothesis

An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is _____.

dynamic-systems approach

The idea that human development is an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the body, mind, and every aspect of the environment is known as the _____.

social construction

The Johnson family always eats dinner together as they really value family time. The Smith family, however, never eats dinner together as they all value their independence. The fact that the families have different values is due to _____. This has affected how the Johnson and Smith families act.

critical

Between 1957 and 1961, many pregnant women took thalidomide to alleviate morning sickness; this drug disrupted a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.

there is no connection between the variables

A correlation is considered to be zero if _____.

current middle school students

The people in which group are DEFINITELY members of the same cohort?

critical

A _____ period of development is a time in which a particular development must occur if it is to occur at all.

men perceiving women as intellectually inferior

One historical example of the "different-equals-deficit error" is _____.

life-span perspective

The _____ takes into account all phases of life, from conception through death.

age

Bettie belongs to one cohort; Zahara belongs to another. The only DEFINITE difference between these two women is _____.

case study

Dr. Devalle is conducting interviews, collecting background information, and running a series of tests on a single individual over several years. She is conducting a(n) _____.

how and why

The science of human development seeks to understand _____ people—all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age—change over time.

nature

The term that refers to the traits inherited at conception is _____.

sensitive

A _____ period of development is a time in which a particular development occurs easily.

critical

Thalidomide only caused birth defects if a pregnant woman ingested the drug during the _____ period of prenatal development.

social construction

Two people from different cultures may value the need for achievement or success differently because of the _____ of each culture.

political processes

A person’s macrosystem includes _____.

observation, experience, or experiment

Empirical evidence is based on _____.

experimental

In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the _____ group.

experiment

Researchers who want to establish a causal relationship between two variables must use a research design called a(n) _____.

a social construction

According to the text, race is _____.

cross-sectional study

Dr. Bloom wanted to learn if ice cream preferences were different at different stages of development. For her study, she conducted a one-time assessment in which she asked a group of 5-year-olds, a group of 15-year-olds, and a group of 30-year-olds to identify their ice cream preferences. Dr. Bloom conducted a _____.

continuity

The concept of multidirectional development suggests that when change is gradual, as when a tortoise grows larger over its 150-year lifespan, it is an example of _____.

nature and nurture acting together

Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of _____.

nurture

The combination of all environmental influences that affect a developing person is called _____.

environmental influences

In the science of human development, "nurture" refers to _____.

culture

A system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations, and symbolic representations is the definition of _____.

cohort

A(n) _____ is a group of people born at about the same time that experience the same historical events and cultural shifts.

Scientific

_____ observation requires researchers to record behaviors systematically and objectively.

a child learning to speak a second language

Which example best illustrates a sensitive period?

socioeconomic

A person’s income and level of education is part of his or her _____ status.

It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.

What is an independent variable?

sensitive

Bobby did not learn to read until he was an adolescent. When he did learn to read it was much harder for him to learn and it took him longer to learn to read. If Bobby had learned to read during the early childhood years into the middle childhood years he would have had an easier time learning to read. Bobby had a hard time learning to read because he did not learn to do so during the _____ period.

nurture

Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children believe in the importance of _____ as it relates to development.

make them more vulnerable to particular experiences

Differential sensitivity means that certain people have genes that _____.

critical

A woman in Honduras worked in a field treated with pesticides during her pregnancy. When her son was born, she was horrified to find that he had no limbs. Her pesticide exposure must have occurred during a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.

discontinuity

With respect to the concept of multidirectional development, when change is rapid and dramatic, such as when a larva becomes a mosquito, it is an example of _____.

study of individuals’ behaviors in a systematic and objective manner

Scientific observation allows for the _____.

report the results

The final step in the five steps of the scientific method is to _____.

medical centers and religious institutions

Dr. Kilbey is studying the impact of exosystems on human development. Which of these would she be MOST interested in examining?

a critical period

The human fetus develops fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days after conception but cannot develop fingers and toes before or after that time. This is an example of _____.

microsystem

Tanner’s friends do well in school, but Tanner has never really done well in school. They decide to meet once a week to study and soon Tanner is doing better in school. Within the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of Tanner’s friends on Tanner’s school performance comes from the _____.

the exosystem

In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems model, a hospital in the community is an example of which system?

It involves recording behavior systematically and objectively.

Which statement about scientific observation is true?

social construction

Social scientists are convinced, based on genetic analysis, that race is a(n) _____.

a fetus developing fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days in utero

Which example best illustrates a critical period?

pose a research question about language acquisition

What is a researcher’s first step when designing a research study on children’s language acquisition?

asthma and secondhand smoke have some connection

If a researcher finds that there is a correlation between secondhand smoke and children’s asthma, he knows for SURE that _____.

negative

The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between Hank’s food intake and his hunger is _____.

consent from the parents and children (if children are able to consent)

When doing research with anyone under the age of 18, which of the following must be obtained?

dynamic systems

The approach called _____ refers to the idea that human development is ongoing and ever-changing.

color

Some social scientists believe that _____ terms exaggerate minor differences between people.

prediction that can be tested

A hypothesis is a(n) _____.

microsystem

In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems model, family and peers are part of a person’s _____.

scientific

In order to minimize subjective opinions and personal biases when conducting research, it is important to employ the _____ method.

Survey research

_____ is a quick way to study the development of a large group of people.

environment and heredity combined

Susie, who is 5 years old, is the tallest person in her kindergarten class. When her teacher asked her how she thought she got so tall she said proudly, "My mom and dad are tall and I eat good food!" Susie’s statement reflects that she understands that human development comes from _____.

the idea that human traits may change or stay the same over time

What is plasticity?

an experiment

What is the only research method that can establish a cause-and-effect relationship?

replication

In scientific research, collecting additional evidence by studying a different population than that used in the original project is known as _____.

supporting or refuting a hypothesis

The fourth step in the scientific method involves _____.

a teenager who spends a summer in Chile and learns to speak Spanish

Which of these is the BEST example of plasticity?

longitudinal

Cohort-sequential research can be thought of as a mix between a cross-sectional design and a _____ design.

mastosystems

Which term is NOT associated with Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems approach?

ethnicity

All of the following are categories that are associated with potential causes of depression EXCEPT for _____.

Vygotsky

Which developmentalist was the first to describe the interaction between culture and education?

experiment

When a researcher wants to determine the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is a(n) _____.

chronosystem

What term did Bronfenbrenner use to describe the impact of the specific time in history on a person’s development?

tested (evaluated) (examined)

A hypothesis is an idea generated by a question that can be _____ by various research methods.

determine a cause-and-effect relationship

Experiments allow researchers to _____.

use the scientific method to collect data and establish facts

Dr. Henderson is curious to know more about how children develop over time. To gain an understanding of this subject not based on opinion or personal bias, Dr. Henderson should _____.

the study of how the environment affects which genes are expressed

What is epigenetics?

having the gene for epilepsy

Which is an example of the influence of nature?

epigenetic

Genes alone do not determine development, but rather environmental forces also shape development, which has led to the understanding that many human characteristics are _____.

conducting research

The third step in the scientific method involves _____.

test the hypothesis

A researcher designed and conducted an experiment to learn if 350 mg of a certain drug would help patients with bipolar disorder. By designing and conducting this experiment the researcher was able to _____.

high levels of serotonin

Which of the following has NOT been linked to depression?

cohort

High school classmates are part of the same _____.

difference-equals-deficit

The human tendency to assume that people unlike us are inferior is called the _____ error.

informed consent

Participants in a research study must understand and agree to the research procedures and also be made aware of any potential risks associated with the research participation. This process is known as _____.

high attendance and high grades occur together

If a researcher finds a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, one can conclude that _____.

data

Empirical evidence refers to _____.

chronosystem

Within Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems approach, he called the historical context that affects other systems the _____.

Nurture

_____ refers to environmental influences on traits.

Institutional Review Board

IRB stands for _____.

chronosystem.

Dorothy was born during the Great Depression. Within the context of the ecological-systems approach, knowing this fact allows one to know about her _____.

mesosystem

In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems approach, the _____ refers to the interactions among systems.

survey

A _____ is a quick way to collect data from a large number of people.

negative

As children age, they tend to sleep fewer hours. This relationship is an example of a(n) ____ correlation.

a laboratory experiment

To determine if vitamin D consumption causes the progress of multiple sclerosis to slow, a researcher would most likely use _____.

nurture

The term for all the environmental influences that affect development after conception is _____.

multidisciplinary

Afton is seeking therapy for depression. At the first therapy session the therapist informs her that depression is caused by many factors, including genes, neurology, and development. Afton’s therapist is referring to the _____ nature of depression, as many areas of study are needed to understand depression.

cross-sequential

Which type of research design combines the cross-sectional design with the longitudinal research design?

one variable increases while the other variable decreases

A correlation is considered to be negative if _____.

nature versus nurture

Dr. Towne believes that heredity is primarily responsible for personality traits. Dr. West believes that environmental influences are primarily responsible for personality traits. They are on different sides of the _____ debate.

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