DEP 3053 UF final review questions

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The unique effect of the Great Depression can be characterized as

a cohort effect

The difference between a continuous and a discontinuous view of development is the following:

the former views development as an increase in size while the latter treats it as a change in quality.

As Warren looks back over his long life, he feels a sense of unity in his life’s accomplishments. He can be said to be in Erikson’s ________ stage of psychosocial development.

ego integrity vs. despair

Freud believed that the ego operates on the

reality principle.

Alice’s symptoms of menopause include hot flashes and cessation of her monthly menstrual cycle. Alice’s doctor tells her she is experiencing a(n)

age-graded influence.

A child spent the first 5 years of his life isolated from the outside world and as a result never learned to speak. This is an example of _________________________________.

a critical period concept

Piaget’s view assumes that thinking undergoes ________ advances, but the information-processing approach assumes that development is marked by ________ advantages.

qualitative; quantitative

A professor wants to examine the effectiveness of a new teaching approach. Her 9:00 a.m. class will be exposed to the new method of viewing teaching tapes, while her 10:00 a.m. class will be exposed to traditional lectures. Students will be able to choose which tapes they want to view. What method is the professor using to conduct her experiment?


Alice used to do her math homework regularly and studied hard for tests although she continued to have difficulty getting passing grades; disheartened, Alice began to put less effort into her math homework, and eventually she failed math. This is an example of what type of behavior?


What do Freud’s psychoanalytic and Erikson’s psychosocial theories have in common?

They imply that development is marked by certain sensitive periods.

Due to neglect when she was a child, Dana had a lack of certain early social experiences. Recent research suggests that

she can use later experiences to overcome this deficit.

The evolutionary perspective draws from the field of ethology, which examines the ways in which our biological makeup influences our behavior. Who is/was a primary proponent of ethology?


Kimberly is a young woman who has a fear of relationships with others. She can be said to have had a negative outcome in Erikson’s ________ stage of psychosocial development.

intimacy vs. isolation

Roger likes to buy lottery tickets regularly, and he occasionally wins. This is an example of ________

positive reinforcement.

Choose one best answer: Prenatal, infancy, toddlerhood, preschool age, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood ________________________________

are acceptable markers of developmental changes; However, their timing and even the existence of some of the life stages can still be questionable. For example, people mature at different rate and some periods don’t have clear biological markers.

_______ research is designed to discover causal relationships between various factors.


In an experiment where researchers manipulate the ______, the variable that the researchers measure to see if it changes is the ______.

independent variable; dependent variable

Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of where they are raised, are called ______influences.


Which type of approach grew out of the development of computers, where even complex behavior such as learning, remembering, categorizing, and thinking can be broken down into a series of individual, specific steps?

information processing

People who lived in New York City during the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center experienced shared challenges due to the attack that are called ________ effects.


The attending nurse tells the expectant mother that her contractions are approximately 5 minutes apart. What hormones are high enough in the mother to cause the uterus to begin periodic contractions?


During the final part of the first stage of labor, the contractions increase to their greatest intensity; this is known as


Which of the following best describes the "age of viability"?

the point at which an infant can survive prematurely, about 22 weeks

Keeping a neonate in the hospital to gain weight is important to help the baby

build fat layers to prevent chilling and help the baby regulate body temperature.

Research indicates that the following types of care, with the exception of one, appear to be effective in helping preterm infants develop. Identify the exception.

almost constant use of an incubator

Jason and Justin are twins and are genetically identical. They are ________ twins.


A trait within an organism that is present but not expressed is called


When a child receives different forms of a certain gene from his/her parents, he or she is said to be


Which procedure can identify a variety of genetic defects with nearly 100 % accuracy?


What is the term when the mother voluntarily terminates a pregnancy?


Many of the reflexes that infants are born with have ________ value.


Knowing what we know about the link between genetics, environment and intelligence, what is the best answer for the following question:" If you had a pair of dizygotic twins in your classroom, would you teach them any differently than if they were two siblings students?"

Genetically, they are as similar as other siblings. So, no, I would assume that their intellectual abilities are somewhat different.

Knowing what we know about the link between genetics, environment and intelligence, what would be your expectations if you were a teacher and you had a pair of monozygotic twins in your classroom?"
a. I would not be surprised if at least one of them received an A in my class.
b. I would be surprised if they both failed my class.
c. I would expect them to perform similar.
d. I would not have any expectations about how similar or different their performance in the class might be.

? its not d.

Choose the best answer: A pregnant mother eats high fat foods, which then influences her child’s behavior for life time is an example of ________________.


An article in the Global Post gives advice to parents on how to make their child a dancer: "To become a professional dancer, dance instructor or choreographer, your child will need your time, nurturing and support from an early age. " (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (retrieved on 8/12/15). From a multifactorial transmission perspective, is this a good advice?

It’s misleading. All mentioned environmental influences are important but will not be enough if the child’s genotype isn’t what it needs to be to become a dancer/instructor/choreographer.

Epigenetics refers to a mechanism

by which our environment affects our genetics

The purpose of cross-fostering the pups in the study by Meaney (so that mothers of high maternal care fostered pups of low maternal care mothers and vice versa) was _____________________________________________.

to control for mothers’ genetic contribution to pups’ temperament (e.g., fearfulness or anxiety)

In the study by Meaney (2001) where the effect of early maternal care was investigated using rodents as participants, the results were the following: ____________________________________

the rodents raised by a sensitive mothers developed to be sensitive mothers as well.

Choose the correct statement.
-epigenetics continues throughout life-span
-epigenetics occures in early infancy only
-maternal care is the only known way by which environment can affect genetics
-epigenetics refers to genetic spontaneous mutation

epigenetics continues throughout life-span

A temperamentally highly impulsive child evokes negative attention from his parents is an example of

a biology-environment interaction

What do we know so far about brain development over life span. Choose ALL correct answers.
-there are certain critical periods during which the damage to the brain due to severe environmental deprivations cannot be reversed.
-the damage to the brain during a critical period can be reversed.
-Learning can continue to contribute to synaptic pruning throughout the life span.
-Myelination occurs during late fetal and early postnatal development only.

-there are certain critical periods during which the damage to the brain due to severe environmental deprivations cannot be reversed. -Learning can continue to contribute to synaptic pruning throughout the life span.

Choose the best statement. Brain development refers to the _______________________.

increase in weight and neuron connectivity

An increase in the gray matter after practicing juggling for an extended period of time is an indication of ____________.

brain plasticity

Myelination is important because ______________________________.

it speeds up neuron impulse transmission

Choose one correct statement.
-brain plasticity refers to any structural, positive or negative, changes in the brain caused by some environmental influence(s)
-brain plasticity refers to only positive structural changes in the brain caused by some environmental influence(s).
-brain plasticity refers to only negative structural changes in the brain caused by some environmental influence(s).
-brain plasticity is only possible during prenatal and early infancy.

brain plasticity refers to any structural, positive or negative, changes in the brain caused by some environmental influence(s)

Neurons have a distinct ability to communicate with other cells using a cluster of fibers called


The left hemisphere of the brain becomes more specialized during the preschool years in all of the following areas EXCEPT

spatial relationships.

By the age of ____ months, babies can move themselves in different directions.

six (6)

The basic nerve cell of the nervous system is called a


What is a specific, but limited, time usually early in an organism’s life, during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relating to some particular facet of development?

sensitive period

What is the fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses?


The left hemisphere of the brain processes information _________; while the right hemisphere of the brain processes information _________.

sequentially; globally, reflecting on it as a whole.

What is the term for the ability to detect sound and pinpoint the direction from which it is emanating?

sound localization

It is time for Margaret to give her baby his bath. The water is warm and she adds bubble bath to the water. When she puts her baby in the water, the baby splashes around and plays with the bubbles, and genuinely appears to enjoy himself because his _________ is/are being stimulated.

sense organs

One of the most important ways that behavior becomes integrated is through the development of


In the visual cliff simulation, the baby stopped short of the cliff. What does it mean?

the baby has developed depth perception.

Can poverty affect the body growth?

Yes, for example children who come from poverty are likely to be shorter.

Stages 3 and 4 of sleep stages are associated with ___________________________.

low-frequency and high-amplitude waves

Choose ALL correct answers: The language of high pitched speaking, used by caregivers, _____________________________
-is not universal
-is universal
-serves an important function, such as to get infant attention or to quiet him/her down.
-observed only in Western cultures

-is universal -serves an important function, such as to get infant attention or to quiet him/her down.

What influences one’s satisfaction with his/her body image during middle adulthood?


What aspect of Vygotsky’s perspective has gained particularly more attention in recent years?

It is an idea that children construct knowledge within social interactions.

Someone who have developed a post-formal thinking would be more likely ______________________.

to agree with an opinion that sometimes what is right and wrong differs based on the context.

Vygotsky’s research is best applied in ___________________________.

in educational settings by allowing a child to collaborative with a more knowledgeable adult or a peer.

Baby Luke is playing with a bouncing ball in his playpen, and accidentally the ball bounces out of the playpen and rolls under a nearby chair. Luke tries to get his mother to retrieve his ball by pointing in the direction of where the ball went under the chair. Piaget would say this is an example of a

mental representation.

Choose ALL correct answers: Beth normally breast-feeds her baby; however, during the workday Beth’s mother watches her baby, and the baby must be fed with a bottle. Beth has noticed that her baby’s approach to being bottle-fed is somewhat different than when the baby is being breast-fed. Piaget would say that this is an example of
– Substage 1: Simple reflexes of the sensorimotor stage.

-Substage 1: Simple reflexes of the sensorimotor stage. -accommodation.

3-year-old Randy occasionally talks to himself in front of others, and ignores his mother’s instructions to come to the table and eat with his family. In this example, Randy is demonstrating

egocentric thought

Baby Lucy is 8-months-old. She picks up a toy in her crib and accidentally hits her crib with the toy, making an interesting noise. She begins to drag the toy back and forth against the sides of the crib’s railing, which produces another different and interesting sound. This prompts Lucy to continue repeating the action over and over again. Piaget would say that this is an example of

substage 3: Secondary circular reactions.

3-year-old Wendy is playing hide-and-seek with some older children. However, instead of running to find a hiding place away from the other children, Wendy simply covers her eyes. In this example, Wendy is demonstrating

egocentric thought.

At dinnertime, Baby Michael is seated in his high chair as his parents try to feed him; however, Michael repeatedly drops or throws his cup, spoon, and much of his dinner onto the floor while he watches the consequences of his actions. Which of Piaget’s substages might explain Michael’s behaviors?

substage 5: Tertiary circular reactions

Five-year-old Alex and his mother visited the zoo. While they were there, Alex’s mother took him to see the squirrel exhibit. Alex saw many different types of squirrels, but when he saw a flying squirrel glide from one branch to the next he pointed and said, "A bird with a tail." Considering Piaget’s work, Alex is demonstrating an example of


According to Piaget, what do adolescents employ during the formal operational stage of development that helps them reason differently than children in the concrete development stage?

propositional thought

7-year-old Alice is working with clay in art class, and she rolls a round ball of clay between her hands until it becomes a long rope of clay. However, she decides that she doesn’t want the rope of clay, but would prefer that the clay is in the shape of a ball again. Alice knows that this is possible. Piaget would say that Alice is demonstrating the knowledge of


On Christmas morning, 3-year-old Billy opens one of his gifts from his mother and finds a new sweater. Disappointed that it is not a toy, Billy frowns and throws the sweater aside in front of his mother with no regard for her feelings. In this example, Billy is demonstrating

egocentric thought.

By the end of the preoperational stage, children are able to understand the idea that actions, events, and outcomes are related to one another in fixed patterns, and this is called


Piaget’s theory of development assumed that all children pass through a series of ____ universal stages in a fixed order from birth to adolescence. These are

4; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

Piaget believed that the earliest schemes are limited to ________ that we have when we are born.


Piaget calls an internal image of a past event or object a(n)

mental representation.

What is the term that Piaget used to explain the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking?


Each of the following demonstrates the characteristics of Piaget’s Substage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions EXCEPT

an infant’s independence from his/her parent.

Piaget argued that infants acquire knowledge through

direct motor behavior.

Which theory of language acquisition combines several schools of thought to hypothesize that language development is produced through a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language?

interactionist perspective

Almost every time Baby Will articulates the word "da," his father picks him up with joy, smiles, and praises his son for trying to say "dad." The father’s behavior reinforces Will’s behavior, and this is an example of

learning theory approach.

When a young child begins to learn how to take turns in conversation, stay on topic, and give appropriate responses such as "please" and "thank you," the child is demonstrating knowledge of


Evidence comparing American English, German, and Mandarin Chinese speakers shows that in each language, a mother’s pitch _________ when a mother is attempting to get an infant’s attention and ________ when she is try to calm an infant.

rises; falls

The __________________ states that language shapes and may even determine the way people of a particular culture perceive the world.

linguistic-relativity hypothesis

What do studies on infant speech perception show about infant language skills?

Infants are able to discriminate sounds of all languages during the first 6 to 8 months of life. And they begin to lose that sensitivity gradually, and by the age of 12 months they show similar to adults inability to discriminate sounds that are not part of their native language.

Choose ALL that apply: Bonobos have shown that they can communicate ___________________________.

-through gestures -using sounds -by writing symbols

Read the following scenario and determine what perspective does this anecdotal evidence support most strongly?

Myles is only 12 months old but his dad spends a lot of time talking to him, reading books, and repeating the sounds and words he makes or says. Myles is above average in his verbal skills.


Research on bonobos supports what perspective most strongly?


Read the following scenario and determine which perspective does this anecdotal evidence support most strongly?

Although Angela does not speak French, she was able to translate an English sentence (that’s her native language) into French. She used a French dictionary to translate the English words into French and then arranged them in the same order as she would arrange them in English. To her surprise, her French friend was able to understand the sentence, even though it did have some grammatical errors.


Pedro is born in America but is exposed to English and Spanish from birth because his parents speak both languages at home fluently. Given what we know from research on infant perception we can predict that____________________.

Pedro will maintain sensitivity and ability to discriminate sounds of English and Spanish languages even after 9 months.

Complete the sentence: According to Dr. Savage-Rumbaugh, bonobos have acquired geometric language __________________________

by interacting naturally with humans.

What is the term for the overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning?


Which researcher developed the "nativist approach" and "universal grammar" to explain how children learn their language skills?


The systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, which provides the basis for communication, is called


When middle-school-age children understand the rules of language that indicate how words and phrases can be combined to form sentences, this is called understanding


From the later months of age 2 and into the mid-3s, the number of ways children combine words and phrases to form sentences _______ each month.


Before the age of 3, most children are unable to demonstrate __________ speech.


The outdated term for infant-directed speech is


What term refers to the basic sounds of language that can be combined to produce words and sentences?


Developmental researcher John Bowlby proposed that all of the following are true EXCEPT:

-the infant bonds with the father as its protector.
-the infant’s views are based on primary needs for safety and security.
-the infant is genetically predetermined and motivated to avoid predators.
-the infant comes to learn that his/her safety is best provided by one person, who is typically the mother.

the infant bonds with the father as its protector.

Children who show the _____________ attachment pattern show inconsistent, contradictory, and confused behavior, such as approaching the mother when she returns but not looking at her.


To test a theory of mind, an experimenter showed the child a box of crayons and asked what was in the box, the child answered ‘crayons’. The experimenter showed that the box had candles instead. Then the experimenter showed a teddy bear and said that he (the teddy bear) "has not seen the box". Then the experimenter asked the child " what does the teddy bear think is in the box"? The child who hasn’t developed a theory of mind should answer__________________.


To test a theory of mind, an experimenter showed the child a box of crayons and asked what was in the box, the child answered ‘crayons’. The experimenter showed that the box had candles instead. Then the experimenter showed a teddy bear and said that he (the teddy bear) "has not seen the box". Then the experimenter asked the child " what does the teddy bear think is in the box"? The child who developed a theory of mind should answer__________________.


Alex is playing in a room where his mother is sitting nearby. Alex becomes distressed when a stranger enters the room and hardly leaves his mother’s side. Later, when his mother and the stranger leave the room for a moment, Alex begins to wail and cry. However, when his mother returns he runs up to her, instead of giving her a hug/kiss he begins to punch her in the arm. This would be a description of what type of attachment pattern?

ambivalent attachment pattern

According to Kochanska (1997), the best way for caregivers to promote conscientiousness in children of difficult temperament is ______________________.

for the caregiver and the child to have a close bond (i.e., secure attachment).

Choose ALL that apply: What event(s) had influenced Bowlby’s and Ainsworth’s theory of attachment?

-witnessing consequences of children growing up without parents
-Wold War II
-World War I
– Vietnam war

-witnessing consequences of children growing up without parents -Wold War II

Choose ALL that apply: What theories influenced Bowlby and Ainsworth and helped shape the attachment theory?
-Classical conditioning
-Dominance theory
-Darwin’s theory of evolution

-Ethological -Darwin’s theory of evolution

How does attachment theory explain the notion that every child develops attachment to a caregiver ?

it is a biologically rooted mechanism that ensures human survival.

What idea do Harlow’s research and attachment theory share and support?

the idea that emotional security is as important for survival as meeting physical needs.

Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development considers

how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others’, and their own, behavior(s).

What is considered the hallmark of children who are securely attached to their mothers?

the mother is sensitive to the child’s needs, is aware of the child’s moods, can discriminate the infant’s signals, and is responsive, warm, and affectionate

According to Thomas and Chess, who carried out a large-scale study of infants in the New York Longitudinal Study, what percentage of children were found to be "slow-to-warm babies"?


The propensity of 10-month-old Russell to tug at the Velcro straps on his hat, remove his hat, and get the other children at the day-care center to repeat the same actions themselves is an example of a(n)

"expert" baby who is able to teach skills and information to other infants.

Erik Erikson characterized midlife as a period of


Mary is planning to take a year-and-a-half leave from her job because she wants to stay home and care for the needs of her newborn child. Mary believes that during the first 18 months of a child’s life, it is critical that she make herself available to her child to meet his needs and give him the attention he deserves. Erikson would say that Mary’s decision comes at a good time to address what stage of her child’s development?

Erikson’s trust-versus-mistrust stage

All of the following are examples of temperament in babies EXCEPT

how well attached the baby is to its mother.

____________ encompasses patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual.


Baby Sally’s mother is dropping her off at day care for the first time, and Sally’s behavior changes from a calm, happy baby, to a crying, cranky youngster who will not let go of her mother. Baby Sally is likely to be demonstrating

separation anxiety.

Erikson believed that everyone enters the autonomy-versus-shame-and-doubt stage at what time in our lives?

at the end of infancy, around 18 months to 3 years

According to Tomasello, ___________________can be viewed as the early marker of infant recognition of one’s social and separate self.

interpreting others’ behavior as purposeful and intentional

Research on physical sense of self has led to advancements in what particular area of applied science and technology?

advanced prosthetic limbs

If the failure on the mirror (self-concept) test by children of some non-western cultures is not indicative of not having a self-concept, why does the test produce false negatives?

children of other cultures are socialized differently and may simply respond differently.

The self-recognition mirror test relies on _____________________________________for the results to be meaningful and applicable across species.

species caring about when something strange is on their bodies

When Bobby was 8 years old, he was sure he wanted to grow up to be a fireman. But just a year later, Bobby told everybody that when he grew up he wanted to be an astronaut. Still, a few years passed and when he was around 11 years old, he changed his mind again and wanted to be a professional basketball player. According to Ginzberg, Bobby is in the

fantasy period.

Bernice is a go-getter on her sales job because she likes the finer things of life like a sports car, jewelry, and expensive vacations. Bernice is most likely driven by

extrinsic motivation.

Sima is a child of recent immigrants to the U.S. Sima is likely to demonstrate all of the following EXCEPT

a high level of popularity among peers.

Five-year-old Wendel is new to his kindergarten classroom, and his teacher tries to use open and friendly questions to build rapport with him. His teacher asks him what he is good at and what he likes. Wendel responds "I can run fast" and "I like to eat pizza." Wendel’s responses are examples of his


Choose the earliest developmental milestone that is indicative of children’s awareness of one’s own and other mental states (e.g., others have feelings).


Eight-month-old Elisha’s crib is located near a large mirror on her dresser, yet Elisha barely ever stops to look at herself in the mirror. On the other hand, her 18-month-old sister, Amanda, stops regularly to gaze at herself as she crawls around on the floor near the full-length bathroom mirror. What is the likely reason that Amanda looks at the mirror but Elisha does not?

Amanda has developed self-awareness or knowledge of herself.

Societal messages suggest that which of the following is a roadblock to a female’s social success?

academic achievement

Adrienne is a 16-year-old girl who is searching for her identity. Which of the following would NOT be an example of the search for her self-concept?

She would describe herself solely in terms of physical characteristics.

Four-year-old Sheila, an African American, is asked to choose between pictures of white children and black children. According to research regarding racial dissonance, Shelia is most likely to have negative feelings toward

pictures of black children.

Brenda owns a small book store that also serves as an art gallery for her artwork and that of some of her friends. While this business may never make Brenda wealthy, she admits that it has been her dream since she was an art student in college. Brenda appears to be driven by

intrinsic motivation.

Around the age of ____, most children have self-esteem that reflects a(n) ____________________.

7; global, fairly simple view of themselves.

Sheila went to college to study accounting, and got her first entry-level job right after graduating. However, as she gained more experience at the law firm where she worked, she became more knowledgeable about tax law and decided to make a commitment to go to law school and become a tax lawyer. According to Ginzberg, Sheila is in the

realistic period

According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are risk-takers and take-charge types with good leadership skills are described as


What is a major obstacle that the elderly continue to face with regard to working?

The elderly continue to face age discrimination.

Older adults may choose to work for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

age discrimination is no longer a problem.

Which of the following terms relates to an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation?


Is there a link between attachment and moral development?

Yes, securely attached children are better at balancing their own and others’ needs.

Choose All that apply: The Bobo doll experiment provides empirical support to ___________________.

-gender aggression theory

-attachment theory

– the view that violence on TV can increase aggression in young children.

– the Social Learning theory

– the view that violence on TV can increase aggression in young children. – the Social Learning theory

Choose All that apply: According to Social learning theory, ________________________

-children have to be explicitly taught to act a certain way.

-children can learn to act aggressively simply by watching other people act aggressively.

-children will only learn if they are being personally reinforced to behave a certain way.

-parents teach children directly and indirectly about what is "good" and "bad".

-children can learn to act aggressively simply by watching other people act aggressively. -parents teach children directly and indirectly about what is "good" and "bad".

What parenting strategy works best for fearful children in promoting higher moral development, according to some recent studies?

gentle discipline style

What do we know from empirical evidence about the long-term effectiveness of physical punishment by spanking as a strategy to teach children about how to be compliant?

No good empirical evidence exists to support long-term effectiveness and usefulness of physical punishment by spanking.

Finish the statement: Inductive-reasoning ______________________________________.

promotes guilt and "self-conscious" emotions, which helps to promote moral development in children.

Randy and Mandy are the children of authoritarian parents. They are likely to grow up exhibiting all of the following characteristics EXCEPT

friendly and cooperative behavior.

Maurice is a child of authoritative parents. He is likely to grow up exhibiting all of the following characteristics EXCEPT

withdrawn behavior and low sociability skills.

Five-year-old Benjamin and his younger sister were playing together in the living room, and his sister grabbed at the toy that Benjamin was playing with. He lashed out at his sister and punched her in the arm and took back the toy, making her cry. Benjamin’s mother immediately took Benjamin aside and, rather than punishing him, tried to explain how his choice of behavior made his sister cry, and that he needs to learn to share his toys. This is an example of what type of parenting style?


Meredith’s 5-year-old friends at the playground ran around from the rides to the slides, but Meredith’s mother told her she had to stay on the swings and not move to another place in the playground. When Meredith complained that the other children were allowed to play where they wanted, Meredith’s mother told her to stay on the swings "because I said so." This is an example of

authoritarian parenting.

Isabelle lives in a household where her parents are gone most of the time, and even when they are home, Isabelle goes to school with dirty clothes and no breakfast. What type of parents is Isabelle likely to have?


The physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals is called

elder abuse.

Some form of domestic violence occurs in _____% of all marriages in the U.S.


In its most extreme form, _________ parenting results in neglect.


What is the term for parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose word is law?


Two boys, ages 3 and 4, are playing with cars, and both boys want the bigger red car. As one boy reaches for the red car, the other strikes him, knocking it out of his hand, and taking the red car for himself. This is an example of

instrumental aggression.

When discussing marital aggression, all of the following are stages that the couple go through EXCEPT

the fight-or-flight stage.

What is the term that describes helping behavior that benefits others?

prosocial behavior

The Chinese concept of chiao shun suggests that parents should

be strict, firm, and in control of their children’s behavior.

__________ behavior is done to help others and requires clear self-sacrifice.


What predicted children’s initial interest in studying sciences, according to a survey study by Dabney et al. (2013)?

parental behavior (encouragement, occupation, family hobbies).

Select research methods that can be applied to learn about the causal mechanisms underlying the association between parental and children’s education.

-case studies

-natural experiments (e.g., examining effect of an educational reform on children’s educational outcomes).

-using adult twins and their children

-using parents and their adopted children

-natural experiments (e.g., examining effect of an educational reform on children’s educational outcomes). -using adult twins and their children -using parents and their adopted children

What do correlational studies tell us about the causal direction of the link between parental education and children’s education?

only that the association is positive–parents of higher education tend to have children who also obtain higher education.

What is one methodological problem with research using adopted children and their adopted parents to study the link between parental and children’s education?

on average, adopted parents tend to be more educated and older.

What is/are some methodological problems that confound results of the studies that use twin children to address the causal connection between parental education and their children’s education? Select all.

-On average, twin children obtain lower than their parents’ educational level.

-twin children are more likely to have the same environmental experiences, in addition to sharing 100 % DNA.

-twin children tend to have difficult temperament which makes them difficult to study

-twin children tend to differ from the general population of children in birth weight (i.e., lower than non-twin babies).

-twin children are more likely to have the same environmental experiences, in addition to sharing 100 % DNA. -twin children tend to differ from the general population of children in birth weight (i.e., lower than non-twin babies).

Groups of 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another are called


People who negotiate retirement most successfully are those who see it as a(n)

opportunity for development and exploration.

What is the term for play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something?


What is a major drawback of some continuing-care facilities?

requiring a substantial initial payment

Melissa is sitting at her preschool table playing with a toy car, while Alex is sitting next to her playing with a toy car and making quiet engine sounds. These two children never interact together. What type of play are these two children engaged in?


_________ is assistance and comfort supplied by a network of caring, interested people.

Social support

A divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and worldviews is known as

generation gap.

Functional play is typical of


A young man who sees his father as a powerful figure who maintains discipline, and who is taught that it is his responsibility to care for his parents throughout his lifetime, is likely to be

Asian American.

Which of the following is considered to be the centerpiece of friendship during middle childhood?

mutual trust

"Involved" grandparents usually are all of the following EXCEPT

they act as supporters and buddies to their grandchildren.

Constructive play is typical of


According to Damon, the third stage of building friendship for middle-school-age children is

basing friendship on psychological closeness.

Children and adolescents who are uniformly disliked are called


Juanita is feeling stressed today because her children need help with their homework while her elderly parents need someone to take them grocery shopping. Juanita is a member of the

sandwich generation.

What known moderator further precipitates the negative effect of poverty on people’s well-being?


Choose All that apply: What are some known personal characteristics that can reduce the negative effect of poverty?

-personal control


-being an extrovert

-being an introvert

-personal control -humour

Which of the following is most likely an example of the Pygmalion effect?

A researcher predicts that playing violent video games can improve players’ spatial cognition. He conducts an experiment and unconsciously treats players in the violent group condition differently, which inadvertently increases their spatial cognition scores.

What are some of the cultural factors that, according to Jennifer Senior (Ted Talk), has had a significant impact on US parents ? Choose All that apply.
-women entering the workforce
-absence of Federal paid maternity leave policy
-spending twice as much time online and/or watching TV compared to 10 years ago.
-kids became "economically worthless but emotionally priceless"

-women entering the workforce -absence of Federal paid maternity leave policy -kids became "economically worthless but emotionally priceless"

What do we know about enrolling children in preschools before they begin formal schooling (which usually takes place at around 5 or 6 years of age)?

Children who attended preschool before they began formal schooling were better off cognitively and socially compared to children who stayed at home.

What do we know from research about whether or not it is a good idea to hold back younger children in kindergarten to make sure that they are more mature (older) when they go to first grade?

There may be just a negligible difference between younger and older first graders in their initial academic progress, however, this difference is very small and it typically goes away. Some studies even showed that some (more than would be expected) children whose entrance to kindergarten was delayed by one year had emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence.

When considering the multi-tasking brain, no one’s brain is designed to allow for the simultaneous processing of information in multiple channels. According to functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, what part of the brain is responsible for switching attention from one task to another?

anterior prefrontal cortex

Because independent measures of achievement, such as SAT scores, have not risen in the past decade, but overall grades in school have risen over the past decade, the most likely explanation for this is

instructors have become more lenient, awarding higher grades for the same performance, which is known as "grade inflation."

What is the term for maintaining one’s original culture identity while integrating oneself into the dominant culture?

bicultural identity

The guidance counselor at Elm Street Elementary has been asked to present a discussion to the school’s PTA regarding creating an atmosphere that promotes school success. One of her topics should include:

Promoting a "Literacy Environment."

Certain people not only may adopt the values and beliefs of the majority, but are only relatively weakly identified with their own culture and may reject the values and beliefs of their own culture. Which of the following terms best describes this position?


What percent of white high school graduates enters college?


Approximately how many hours per week does a middle-aged person watch television?


Which country in the world has the fastest pace of living?


Developmental psychologists have found that children can benefit from involvement in some form of ___________ before they enroll in formal schooling, which takes place at age 5 or 6 in the U.S.

educational activity

Kevin and Kathleen, first-year college students, take a survey on whether they are above or below average on a variety of traits and abilities. Kevin is more likely to think of himself as

above average in overall mathematical ability and emotional health.

Which of the following is not considered a benefit of child care?

increased disruptiveness

Which of the following is a reason why older, nontraditional students attend college?


It is not easy to know precisely what adolescents do with their leisure time. Which of the following methodologies are social scientists using to discover what adolescents do with their spare time?

Experience Sampling Method

The national dropout rate for African American college students is approximately


What is the link between pubertal maturation (the onset and tempo) and environment? Choose the best answer.

Harsh and abusing parenting can speed up the onset of puberty.

Choose All that apply. Recent studies investigating factors that contribute to risky behaviors during adolescence reveal______________.
-no differences in the logical reasoning of adolescents and older individuals.
-that educating adolescents about how to make better choices to avoid consequences of risky behaviors does not reduce the number of risky behaviors committed by adolescents.
-that educating adolescents about how to make better choices to avoid consequences of risky behaviors dramatically reduces the number of risky behaviors committed by adolescents.
-that targeting the psychosocial factors, such as practicing better impulse control, emotion regulation, and delay of gratification, can be an effective approach to reduce risky behaviors in adolescents.

-no differences in the logical reasoning of adolescents and older individuals. -that educating adolescents about how to make better choices to avoid consequences of risky behaviors does not reduce the number of risky behaviors committed by adolescents.

What do recent brain studies show about the reason why adolescents involve in more risky behaviors compared to any other developmental periods?

Adults recruit a wider range of brain regions than adolescents when asked to inhibit behaviors.

What do we know about the early on-set of puberty?

stress and instability can trigger a biological response to become self-sufficient, and thus activates an early onset of puberty.

By what age have most people lost, on average, 10% of their maximum strength?


On average, senior citizens spend almost ____% of their total expenditures on health care, which is more than twice the amount spent by younger individuals.


Research indicates that stress can produce harmful behaviors such as all of the following EXCEPT

increased addictive behavior for sex, gambling, and shopping.

If a student notices conspicuous examples of drunkenness around campus, which causes him/her to assume that everybody is drinking heavily, and therefore, begins to engage in binge drinking, this is known as

false consensus effect.

The American Academy of Pediatrics now suggests that babies sleep on their backs rather than on their sides or stomachs to prevent


Behavior that is categorized by competitiveness, impatience, and a tendency toward frustration and hostility is called

Type A behavior pattern.

Which of the following adolescents is NOT likely to develop an eating disorder?

a female adolescent who matured later than her peers

Members of lower-income families are more likely to experience a disabling illness for all of these reasons EXCEPT

they are more likely to live in a multigenerational home.

Men and women can reduce the risk of osteoporosis by having a diet high in calcium and


Which of the following people is more likely to die as a result of an accident than an illness?

25 year old man

Bart and Muriel put their infant to bed for her regular afternoon nap. When they go to check on her several hours later, the baby is unresponsive and never wakes up. What is the term for this?


The most common nutritional concern during adolescence is


Why does binge drinking require a smaller amount of alcohol for women than men?

Women tend to weigh less than men, and therefore, their bodies cannot absorb alcohol as efficiently as men.

___________ is a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness.


Ashley and her brother Tim react to stressful family situations entirely differently. Ashley is easily frustrated and tends to look at the negative side when things go wrong, while Tim has always been a person who enjoys challenges and feels capable of responding effectively no matter what the situation. Tim is demonstrating


According to researchers Arnold Lazarus and Susan Folkman, the assessment of whether one’s coping abilities and resources are adequate to overcome the harm, threat, or challenge posed by the potential stressor is called

secondary appraisal.

Can gender-related behavior be affected by biology?

Yes, some studies have shown that hormonal level can affect gender-related behavior.

Can sexual orientation be studied experimentally?

Developmentalists can use animals and manipulate the levels of prenatal hormonal exposure;

Gender identity refers to ____________________________

a sense of maleness or femaleness

When a preschool-age child is developing a gender schema, he/she is

using his/her own cognitive abilities to develop "rules" about what is right and wrong for males and females.

The ____________ approach believes children learn gender-related behaviors and expectations by observing others and how they are rewarded for acting in gender-appropriate ways.

social learning

According to Robert Sternberg, empty love develops when only _________ is present.


Which group of teenagers in the U.S. has shown the steepest decline in the number of teenage births in the past decade?

Non-Hispanic Black Americans

Girls who mature early tend to experience

more popularity, which can enhance their self-concept.

All of the following are reasons why young adults choose to marry EXCEPT:
-it is seen as the appropriate culmination of a loving relationship and the right thing to do.
-having a spouse can fill an economic and sexual role with legal benefits and protections.
-having a spouse offers a means of having children that is accepted by society.
-marriage offers a guaranteed commitment to both parties.

marriage offers a guaranteed commitment to both parties.

According to Robert Sternberg, when two people are happily dating one another but not making future plans, this is called

romantic love

Which of the following people is most likely to experience feelings of loneliness and increased physical and mental health problems?

divorced men in general

Psychologist Robert Sternberg suggests that love requires a more complex explanation and is made up of

three components.

While dating is a part of a pattern of courtship that can potentially lead to marriage, it can also do all of the following EXCEPT

establish sexual or gender identity/preference.

According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, the components of love include all of the following EXCEPT a(n)
-passion component that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance.
-intimacy component that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness.
-companionate love in which strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.
-decision/commitment component that embodies both the initial cognition that one loves another, as well as the long-term determination to maintain that love.

-companionate love in which strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.

Although the overall divorce rate has declined in the past two decades, divorce among _________ couples is rising.

middle aged

The component of love that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness is called

intimacy component.

According to Erikson, the period of post-adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others is called the

intimacy-versus-isolation stage

According to the chart of phases of marital satisfaction in the text, at which point in the marriage is the level of satisfaction at its peak?

when the couple is retired

In order to develop a(n) ___________, a child must develop a(n) ________.

gender identity; gender schema

All of the following are considered reasons why marriages unravel in Western society EXCEPT
-people are more concerned for their own personal happiness.
-there are fewer legal and financial impediments to getting a divorce now.
-women have more economic opportunities available to them, and therefore, may be able to be more independent.
– the benefits of marriage such as economic, sexual, health, social support, and financial no longer exist.

the benefits of marriage such as economic, sexual, health, social support, and financial no longer exist.

What is the term for an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood?


With age, children become better at ignoring ________________ stimuli.


When discussing the reliability of memories, which of the following is considered to be the most vulnerable to suggestion, and therefore, perhaps the least reliable?

the memory of a preschool-age child

When information in memory is held for 15 to 25 seconds, it is called

short-term memory.

Processes that require relatively little attention are ___________; however, processes that require relatively large amounts of attention are

automatic; controlled.

According to encoding specificity phenomenon, people are most likely to recall information

in environments similar to where they learned it.

The initial, momentary storage of information that lasts only an instant, and is raw and meaningless, is called

sensory store

The choices people make are determined by ______________, information processing involving the ability to strategically choose among and sort out different stimuli in the environment.


When a person initially records information in a form usable to memory, this is called


Memories of personal experience do not seem to become accurate before age

18 – 24 months.

What term refers to the degree to which an activity requires attention?


Using memory skill such as getting better organized, paying attention, using visualization strategies, and rehearsing information for later retrieval are all considered

mnemonic strategies.

The paradigm that was used to measure infants’ cognitive control was to (1) condition them to anticipate a visual stimulus to appear on the left side of the screen, and then (2) to switch the appearance of the anticipated visual stimulus to appear on the opposite, right side of the screen. What is the measure of cognitive control in this paradigm?

The length of time it takes an infant to anticipate the appearance of the stimulus on the right side.

What brain region supports cognitive control?


A researcher measures brain activity in younger and older children to find out if one group demonstrates a more efficient executive function. What should the researcher observe if the executive functioning skills of the older children are more advanced that that of the younger group?

The younger children’s brain will have more brain activities in the brain regions supporting executive function.

What does the experiment with the bilingual infants, described in this week’s lecture, demonstrate?

Environment can enhance the executive function

Cognitive control can be observed as early as____________________


According to the current empirical literature, what factor(s) can influence the development of the executive function? Choose ALL correct answers.



parenting style

maternal prenatal nutrition

bilingualism poverty parenting style maternal prenatal nutrition (all answers)

What developmental biological changes lead to improvement in inhibitory control and working memory ? Choose ALL correct answers.
– increased strength in brain regions’ connectivity
– increased number of brain neurons in prefrontal cortext
-increased number of brain neurons in a parietal lobe
-increased long range brain regions’ connections

-increased long range brain regions’ connections – increased strength in brain regions’ connectivity

What brain area supports cognitive control?

prefrontal cortex

in Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the experiential aspect of intelligence deals with

how prior experiences are used in problem solving, which involves the ability to cope with new situations.

The process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas is called

selective optimization.

When a person exhibits success facing everyday, real-world demands such as those found in on-the-job professional demands, Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence would suggest that person was demonstrating

contextual intelligence.

Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations?

crystallized intelligence

If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range below 20 or 25, this is known as

profound intellectual disability.

Alice is a 52-year-old typist working in the same law firm as 28-year-old Juliet. Both are considered excellent at their job, even though Alice is older and has some delay in her reaction time. What is it that permits Alice to perform her job the same as Juliet?

Alice has developed selective optimization, whereby she can look further into the material to compensate for her typing time.

Traditional intelligence tests, such as those used in psychoeducational evaluations in schools, usually focus on which of Sternberg’s aspects of intelligence?

componential intelligence

Who is the psychologist that linked intelligence and school success in constructing an intelligence test that continues to provide reasonable indicators of a student’s ability to be successful in school?


Combining responses or ideas in novel ways defines


Children who show evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership, or specific academic fields are referred to as


When a person uses information he/she has been taught (e.g., choose formulas and problem-solving strategies) to solve problems in a rational way, Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence would suggest that person was demonstrating

componential intelligence.

If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of around 20 or 25 to 35 or 40, this is known as

severe intellectual disability.

Research shows that ________ declines with age, while ________ remains steady and sometimes improves.

fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence

For most children, ________ is(are) reasonable predictors of school performance.

IQ scores

Who is the psychologist that used a pragmatic, trial-and-error approach to psychological measurement that continues to serve as the predominant approach to test construction today?


Although no test is completely without bias, which of the following tests is designed to be equally valid regardless of the cultural background of the test-taker?

System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)

What is the term that Binet developed for the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age?

mental age

According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, which type of intellectual assessment measure would be useful when trying to predict adult success?

contextual intelligence

What factor complicates the studies on genetic inheritance of intelligence using identical twins?

identical twins’ shared environment

The analogy of intelligence as an empty attic, that was brought up in this week’s lecture, speaks to what idea about intelligence?

intelligence is about carefully choosing what to learn and how to use it rather than learning everything there is to know.

After the birth of a child, parents interact differently in which ways based on the gender of the child?

Mothers interact more with daughters, fathers interact more with sons

A three-year-old child is shown a box of crayons. Then she looks inside and sees candies instead. When the child is asked what she believed was in the box before she was able to look inside, the most typical response is ____________________________?


In Ainsworth’s strange situation, if a child is indifferent to a mother’s behavior, is not distressed when she leaves, and does not seek proximity to her, this child has which type of attachment?


Racial dissonance is experienced by

minority children who prefer majority customs or people

Susan, 6, is playing with a truck. Her brother Michael, 4, is playing with dolls. In general, society and parents would be:

more concerned with Michael’s choice of toy.

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