DEP 3053- Final Exam

Your page rank:

Total word count: 6395
Pages: 23

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant

The scope of Life-span Developmental field: 4 areas in life-span development

physical development, cognitive development, social development, personality development

4 areas in life-span development: physical development

emphasizes how the brain, nervous system, muscles, sensory capabilities, & needs for food, drink, & sleep affect behavior

4 areas in life-span development: personality development

development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate 1 person from another change over the life span

4 areas in life-span development: social development

the way in which individuals’ interactions w/ others and their social relationships grow, change, & remain stable over the course of life

4 areas in life-span development: cognitive development

development involving the ways that growth & change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior; emphasizes intellectual abilities, including learning, memory, problem solving, & intelligence

Influences on lifespan development:

culture, age-graded, sociocultural-graded, non-normative life events, history-graded

Influences on lifespan development: history-graded

biological & environmental influences associated w/ a particular history moment; example: cohort effect

Influences on lifespan development: non-normative life events

specific, atypical events that occur in a person’s life at a time when such events don’t happen to most people; example: a child whose parent dies when the child is 6

Influences on lifespan development: sociocultural-graded

the social & cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual, depending on such variables as ethnicity, social class, & subcultural membership; example: these influences will be different for children who are white & affluent than those who are members of a minority group

Influences on lifespan development: culture

broad, narrow, cohort

Influences on lifespan development: age-graded

biological & environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they are raised; example: puberty & menopause


When people who live during the same time & place experience the same events, usually of historical significance; Example: people who had experienced 9/11 are considered to be of the same cohort

cohort effect

a group of people w/ similar age that live in a similar area; history-graded influences where certain events impact everyone who experienced it in similar ways

Continuous developmental change

refers to the gradual process; change is a matter of degree not kind; QUANTITATIVE; Example: changes in height prior to adulthood

discontinuous developmental change

changes occur in more distinct and visible stages; QUALITATIVE CHANGE; Example: metamorphosis of a butterfly

Critical periods

A specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences; Occur when the presence of a stimuli is necessary for development to proceed normally; Permanent, irreversible consequences

sensitive periods

Time when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment; Recognizes the plasticity of developing humans ; Consequences are reversible

Theories of developmental change: Psychoanalytic Theory

Freud; suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior; the unconscious = part of the personality about which a person is unaware (contains infantile wishes, desires, demands, needs); 3 aspects of personality = id, ego, superego

Theories of developmental change: Psychoanalytic Theory: 3 aspects of personality – ID

raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality that’s present at birth; represents primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, & irrational impulses; pleasure principle: its goal = to maximize satisfaction & reduce tension

Theories of developmental change: Psychoanalytic Theory: 3 aspects of personality – EGO

part that’s rational & reasonable; acts as a buffer b/w real world outside us & the primitive id; reality principle – instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual & help integrate the person into society

Theories of developmental change: Psychoanalytic Theory: 3 aspects of personality – SUPEREGO

person’s conscience incorporating distinctions b/w right & wrong; begins to develop around age 5 or 6; learned from an individual’s parents, teachers, etc.

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development: stage = Trust v. Mistrust

age: birth to 12-18 months neg. outcomes: fear & concern about others positive outcomes: feelings of trust from environmental support

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development: stage = Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt

age: 12-18 months to 3 yrs neg. outcomes: doubts about self, lack of independence positive outcomes: self-sufficiency if exploration is encourage

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development: stage = initiative v. guilt

age: 3 to 5-6 yrs neg. outcomes: guilt from actions & thoughts positive outcomes: discovery of ways to initiate actions

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development: stage = industry v. inferiority

age: 5-6 yrs to adolescence neg. outcomes: feelings of inferiority, no sense of mastery positive outcomes: development of a sense of competence

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development: stage = identity v. role diffusion

age: adolescence neg. outcomes: inability to identify appropriate roles in life positive outcomes: awareness of uniqueness of self, knowledge of role to be followed

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development: stage = intimacy v. isolation

age: early adulthood neg. outcomes: fear of relationships w/ others positive outcomes: development of loving, sexual relationships & close friendships

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development: stage = generativity v. stagnation

age: middle adulthood neg. outcomes: trivialization of one’s activities positive outcomes: a sense of contribution to continuity of life

Erikson’s Psychosocial Development: stage = ego-integrity v. despair

age: late adulthood neg. outcomes: regret over lost opportunities of life positive outcomes: sense of unity in life’s accomplishments

Theories of developmental change: psychosexual development

Freud; Occurs as children pass through a series of stages in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on a particular biological function & body part; 5 stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital; children become fixated if they don’t get enough, or get too much, gratification from a stage

Theories of developmental change: psychosexual development: stage 1

oral; age: birth – 12 to 18 months; Interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating, mouthing, biting

Theories of developmental change: psychosexual development: stage 2

anal; Age: 12 to 18 months – 3 yrs; Gratification from expelling & w/holding feces; Coming to terms w/ society’s controls relating to toilet training

Theories of developmental change: psychosexual development: stage 3

phallic; Age: 3 – 5 to 6 yrs; Interest in genitals; Coming to terms w/ Oedipal conflict, leading to identification w/ same-sex parent

Theories of developmental change: psychosexual development: stage 4

latency; Age: 5 to 6 yrs – adolescence; Sexual concerns largely unimportant

Theories of developmental change: psychosexual development: stage 5

genital; Age: adolescence to adulthood; Reemergence of sexual interest & est. of mature sexual relationships

Theories of developmental change: Psychosocial theory

Erikson; Encompasses changes in our interactions w/ understandings of 1 another as well as our knowledge & understanding of ourselves as members of society; Each stage represents a crisis or conflict that the individual must resolve; Development continues through our life span

Theories of developmental change: social-cognitive learning theory

Bandura; emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, known as a model; proceeds in 4 steps; learning = product of observation; when we see the behavior of a model being rewarded, we’re likely to imitate that behavior

Theories of developmental change: social-cognitive learning theory: proceeds in 4 steps

1. Observer must pay attention & perceive the most critical features of model’s behavior 2. Observer must successfully recall the behavior 3. Observer must reproduce the behavior accurately 4. Observer must be motivated to learn & carry out behavior

Theories of developmental change: Piaget’s theory on cognitive development

all people pass through a fixed sequence of universal stages of cognitive development; quantity of info increases in each stage; quality of knowledge & understanding changes; human thinking = arranged in schemes (organized mental patterns that represent behaviors & actions); 2 principles explain the growth in children’s understanding of the world: assimilation & accommodation


refers to changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters w/ new stimuli or events


process by which people understand a new experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development & existing ways of thinking

Theories of developmental change: cognitive neuroscience approach

look at cognitive development at the level of brain processes; seeks to find locations & functions w/in brain that are related to types of cognitive activity

Theories of developmental change: humanistic perspective

people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives & to control their behavior; central focus = unique qualities of humans; emphasizes free will

Theories of developmental change: contextual perspective

considers the relationship b/w individuals & their physical, cognitive, personality, & social worlds

Theories of developmental change: biological approach

Bronfenbrenner; 5 levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals; emphasizes the interconnectedness of the influences on development; changes in 1 part of the system affects the other parts; stresses importance of broad cultural factors that affect development

Theories of developmental change: biological approach – 5 levels of the environment

The individual: sex, age, health, etc.; Microsystem: family, school, peers, neighborhood play area, church group, health services; Mesosystem; Exosystem: neighbors, legal services, social welfare services, mass media, friends of family; Macrosystem: attitudes & ideologies of the culture; Chronosystem: time

Theories of developmental change: behavior perspective

Keys to understanding development are observable behavior & outside stimuli in the environment; Know the stimuli, know the behavior; Reflects the view of nurture over nature; Reject the passing through series of stages; Developmental patterns: personal and reflect a particular set of environmental stimuli; Classical conditioning; operant conditioning; reinforcement; punishment

Theories of developmental change: evolutionary perspective

Seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors

Theories of developmental change: sociocultural theory

Vygotsky; Emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions b/w members of a culture; Development = a reciprocal transaction b/w the people in a child’s environment & the child


Process by which a behavior is followed by a stimulus that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated


Introduction of an unpleasant or painful stimulus or removal of a desirable stimulus, will decrease the probability that the behavior will be repeated

classical conditioning

Occurs when an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimuli; Behavior = the result of conditioning – Response associated w/ 1 stimulus comes to be connected to another

operant conditioning

A voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association w/ positive or negative consequences; Individuals learn to operate on their environments to bring about desired consequences; Learning = a matter of trial and error

Correlational Research

Seeks to identify whether an association or relationship b/w 2 factors exist; Correlational, case study, survey

Experimental research

Designed to discover causal relationships b/w various factors; Single case design, factorial design

correlational studies – correlational coefficient

The strength & direction of a relationship b/w 2 factors; Ranges from 1 to -1; -1 = negative correlation: as the value of 1 factor increase, the value of the other decreases; 1 = both increase; 0 = unrelated

types of correlational studies

case studies, naturalistic observation, survey

case studies

involve extensive, in-depth interviews w/ a particular individual or small group of individuals

naturalistic observation

observation of naturally occurring behavior w/o intervention in the situation; advantages: identifying the behavior in someone’s "natural habitat"; disadvantages: researchers can’t exert control over factors of interest


group of people chosen to represent some larger population & asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic


electroencephalogram; reports electrical activity w/in brain recorded by electrodes placed on outside of skull; shows brain wave patterns & diagnosis of disorders

CAT scan

computerized axial tomography; makes image of the brain from a combo of thousands of X-rays taken at different angles; illuminates structure of the brain

fMRI scan

functional magnetic resonance imaging; creates a 3D image of brain activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the brain; best way to learn about the operation of the brain


devises 2 different conditions (or treatments) & then studies & compares the outcomes of the participant exposed in order to see how behavior is affected; 2 groups: experimental & control; independent & dependent variable

experimental group

exposed to the treatment variable

control group

not exposed to the treatment variable

independent variable

variable that researchers manipulate in the experiment

dependent variable

variable that researchers measure to see if it changes as a result of the manipulation

How many substages are there in Piaget’s Sensorimotor stage?


Sensorimotor Stage: substage 1

Simple Reflexes -Age: first month of life – the various reflexes that determine the infant’s interactions w/ the world are at the center of the infant’s cognitive life

Sensorimotor Stage: substage 2

1st Habits & Primary Circular Rxns -Age: 1-4 months – infants begin to coordinate what were separate actions into single, integrated activities

Sensorimotor Stage: substage 3

Secondary Circular Rxns -Age: 4-8 months – infants take major strides in shifting their cognitive horizons beyond themselves & begin to act on the outside world

Sensorimotor Stage: substage 4

Coordination of Secondary Circular Rxns -Age: 8-12 months – achieve object permanence; begin to use goal-directed behavior

Object Permanence

the realization that people & objects exist even when they can’t be seen

Goal-Directed Behavior

behavior in which several schemas are combined & coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem

Sensorimotor Stage: substage 5

Tertiary Circular Rxns -Age: 12-18 months – infants develop the deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences; infants appear to carry out mini experiments to observe the consequences

Sensorimotor Stage: substage 6

Beginnings of Thought -Age: 18 months – 2 years – achieve the capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought; only at this stage can infants imagine where objects they can’t see might be

Piaget’s approach to cognitive development

based on a stage approach

sensorimotor stage

1st stage in Piaget’s approach to cognitive development; 6 stages of this stage

preoperational stage

Age: 2-7; children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, & the use of concepts increases; symbolic function; egocentric thought; intuitive thought; concentration

intuitive thought

thinking that reflects preschoolers’ use of primitive reasoning & their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world

egocentric thought

the thinking that doesn’t take into account the viewpoints of others


the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement & physical appearance of objects; accomplished during the concrete operational though stage


the process of concentrating on 1 limited aspect of a stimulus & ignoring other aspects

concentration – example

a cat w/ a dog mask out to bark like a dog, wag its tail like a dog, & eat dog food

symbolic function

the ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present

Concrete operational thought

Age: 7-12; characterized by the action use of logic; applies logical operations to concrete problems; can consider multiple aspects of a situation (decentering); remain tied to concrete, physical reality

formal operational thought

Age: 12-15; people develop the ability to think abstractly; use propositional thought (reasoning that uses abstract logic in the absence of concrete examples)

The role of environment on the expression of genes

behavior = the product of a combo of genetic & environmental factors; multifactorial transmission

Multifactorial Transmission

the determination of traits by a combination of both genetic & environmental factors in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed; it’s the environment that determines the way in which a particular genotype will be expressed as a phenotype; Genotypes are relatively unaffected by environmental factors

Genetic influences on intelligence

do play a role; intelligence is the combo of genetics & environmental factors; The impact of genetics on intelligence increases w/ age; The closer the genetic link b/w 2 individuals the greater the correspondence b/w their IQ scores

according to Jensen how much of intelligence is due to genetics

up to 80% of intelligence is a result of heredity

genetic influences on personality

Neuroticism & extroversion have been linked to genetic factors; Novelty-seeking gene affects personality; genetics do play a role, however, so does the environment

Stages of Stress

Step 1: Primary Approval – Step 2: Secondary Approval

Stages of Stress: Step 1

Primary Approval – the individual’s assessment of an event to determine whether its implications are positive, negative, or neutral

Stages of Stress: Step 2

Secondary Approval – person’s answer to "Can I handle it?" – an assessment of whether the coping abilities & resources on hand are adequate

origins of stress in childhood

Cause: No Child Left Behind Act – Led to many electives, which help limit & relieve stress, being excluded from schools – Increased the frequency of testing – Children experience failure earlier – Pressure to be at the top is felt earlier – Increase in the time spent at school

origins of stress in adolescence

Increase in academic & social stress which leads to children going to be later & getting up earlier, which leads to sleep-deprivation

origins of stress in adulthood: young adult

stress is caused by education, job, establishing long-term relationships

origins of stress in adulthood: middle adulthood

marriage, ongoing career goals, parenthood; Parents at 1st worry about if it’s time for toddler to stop using pacifier; Parents later worry about their child’s potential drug use

origins of stress in adulthood: late adulthood

retirement, health issues, decrease in strength & energy, loss of memory, fear of a decrease in intelligence/sexual passion

What are the 3 main consequences of stress?

direct physiological effects, harmful behaviors, indirect health-related behaviors

consequences of stress: direct physiological effects

Increase blood pressure & hormonal activity; decrease in immune system functioning; Psychophysiological conditions

consequences of stress: harmful behaviors

Increase use of nicotine & alcohol & drug use; Decrease nutrition & sleep

consequences of stress: indirect health-related behaviors

Decrease compliance w/ medical advice & in likelihood of seeking medical advice; Increase in delays in seeking medical care; Less likely to exercise

During childhood, what is the most common health problem?

A runny nose from a common cold

CHILDHOOD: Benefits of minor illnesses

Help build up immunity to more severe illnesses; provide some emotional benefits (children can better understand their bodies); empathize with others who are sick

Threats to Wellness & Health: CHILDHOOD

Behavioral problems, accidents, SIDS

Threats to Wellness & Health: CHILDHOOD – accidents

US children have a 1 in 3 chance every year of receiving an injury that requires medical attention; result of high levels of physical activity; some are more likely to take risks & therefore, to be injured; boys have a higher rate of injuries; economic factors

Threats to Wellness & Health: CHILDHOOD – SIDS

affects about 1 in 2,500 infants in the US per year; leading cause of death in children under 1 year


SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME: a disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep

SIDS: prevention

babies sleep on their backs & use pacifier during naps & bedtime

Threats to wellness & health: ADOLESCENTS

drugs, alcohol, tobacco, sexually transmitted infections

Threats to wellness & health: ADOLESCENTS – drugs – reasons for using drugs

pleasurable experience; as an escape from pressures of everyday life; thrill of doing something illegal; to enhance academic performance; drug-use by well-known celebrities

Threats to wellness & health: ADOLESCENTS – drugs – addictive drugs

drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them

Threats to wellness & health: ADOLESCENTS – alcohol

binge drinking & alcoholics

Threats to wellness & health: ADOLESCENTS – alcohol – binge drinking

men: drinking 5 or more drinks in 1 sitting; women: drinking 4 drinks in 1 sitting

Threats to wellness & health: ADOLESCENTS – alcohol – alcoholics

those w/ alcohol problems who have learned to depend on alcohol & are unable to control their drinking; problem that runs in families

Threats to wellness & health: ADOLESCENTS – sexually transmitted infections

AIDS; HPV; Trichomoniasis; Chlamydia; Genital herpes; Gonorrhea; syphilis

threats to wellness & health: ADULTHOOD

height, strength, body fat all decline; osteoporosis; cancer; arthritis; coronary heart disease


a condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile, & thin, often brought about by a lack of calcium in the diet

threats to wellness & health: LATE ADULTHOOD

heart disease, cancer, stroke, arthritis, hypertension, major depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease

Zone of Proximal Development

Vygotsky; the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently but can do so w/ the assistance of someone more competent; for cognitive development, new info must be presented WITHIN this zone

Information Processing Approaches

approaches to cognitive development that seek to identify the ways that individuals take in, use, & store info; the process by which info is encoded, stored, & retrieved; cognitive growth is characterized by increasing sophistication in info processing; focus on the types of "mental programs" that people use when they seek to solve problems; hallmarks of cognitive development are represented by: the quantitative changes in infants’ abilities to organize & manipulate info


the process by which info is initially recorded in a form usable to memory


the maintenance of material saved in memory


the process by which material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, & used

cognitive architecture

refers to the basic, enduring structures & features of info processing that are relatively constant over the course of development

An Information Processing Model: Three-System Approach

consists of a sensory store, short-term memory, & long-term memory; permit the encoding, storage, & retention of info

sensory store

the initial momentary store of info, lasting only an instant; the memories that are retained in here are preserved only b/c they are transferred to the next info way station: short-term memory

short-term memory

the short-duration, limited-capacity memory component in which selected input from the memory store is worked on; lasts 15-25 seconds; capacity increases w/ age

long-term memory

the memory component in which info is stored on a relatively permanent basis

Differences between information processing approach and Piaget’s/Vygotsky’s theories of cognitive development:

– Piaget’s theory: ties cognitive development to particular stages; developmental changes = qualitative – Information Processing Approaches: ties cognitive development to gradual, continuous improvements in the ways children perceive, understand, and remember info; developmental changes = quantitative

approaches/theories of lang. acquisition

learning theory approach; nativist approaches; the interactionist perspective on lang. development

approaches/theories of lang. acquisition: LEARNING THEORY APPROACH

lang. as a learned skill; lang. acquisition follows the fundamental laws of reinforcement & conditioning of Skinner’s theory; suggests that children learn to speak by being rewarded for making sounds that approximate speech; through the process of shaping, lang. becomes more & more similar to adult speech

approaches/theories of lang. acquisition: NATIVIST APPROACHES

developed by Noam Chomsky; argues that there is a genetically determined, innate mechanism that directs the development of lang.; people are born w/ an innate capacity to use lang, which emerges, more or less automatically, thru maturation; universal grammar; lang. acquisition device

lang. acquisition device (LAD)

a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of lang. structure & provide strategies for learning the particular characteristics of a lang.; lang. is uniquely human, made possible by a genetic predisposition to both comprehend & produce words & sentences

universal grammar

a similar underlying structure shared by all the world’s languages

approaches/theories of lang. acquisition: THE INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE ON LANG. DEVELOPMENT

combines schools of thought; suggests that lang. development is produced through a combo of genetically determined predispositions & environmental circumstances that help teach lang.; accepts that innate factors shape the board outlines of lang. development; argue that the specific course of lang. development is determined by the lang. to which children are exposed & the reinforcement they receive for using lang. in particular ways; social factors = key to lang. development

measures of intelligence:

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 5th edition (SB5), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – IV (WISC-IV), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – IV (WAIS – IV), Kaufamn Assessment Battery for Children (KABC – II)

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 5th edition (SB5)

a test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the PERSON being tested; began as an American revision of Binet’s original test; administered orally; test-takers are given progressively harder problems until they’re unable to proceed

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – IV (WISC-IV)

a test for children that provides separate measures of verbal & performance (nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – IV (WAIS – IV)

a test for adults that provides separate measures of verbal & performance (nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score

Kaufamn Assessment Battery for Children (KABC – II)

children are tested on their ability to integrate different kinds of stimuli simultaneously & to use step-by-step thinking; FLEXIBLE; the person giving the test can use alternative working or gestures, or pose questions in a different lang., in order to maximize a test-taker’s performance

theories on intelligence

Gardner’s 8 Intelligences, Vygotsky, Sternberg’s triarchic theory

Sternberg’s triarchic theory on intelligence

suggests that intelligence is made up of 3 major components: componential, experiential, & contextual; practical v. emotional intelligence

practical intelligence

learned primarily by observing others & modeling their behavior; Have good "social radar"

emotional intelligence

the set of skills that underlies the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, & regulation of emotions; What enables people to get along well w/ others, to understand what they are feeling & experiencing, & to respond appropriately to their needs

Sternberg’s triarchic theory on intelligence: componential aspect

Involves the mental components used to solve problems

Sternberg’s triarchic theory on intelligence: experiential component

Refers to the relationship b/w intelligence, prior experience, & the ability to cope w/ new situations; The insightful aspect of intelligence, which allows people to relate what they already know to a new situation

Sternberg’s triarchic theory on intelligence: contextual component

Takes account of the demands of everyday, real-world environments; Come to be known as practical intelligence

Vygotsky’s theory on intelligence

Suggested that we should assess intelligence by looking at fully developed cognitive processes as well as processes in development

Gardner’s 8 Intelligences:

suggests that we have at least 8 distinct intelligences, each of them relatively independent of the other; intelligences: musical, bodily kinesthetic, logical mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic

The difference between developmental psychology and other areas of psychology is the following:

developmental psychology studies patterns of change & stability rather than just a static phenomenon

The difference between a continuous and a discontinuous view of development is the following:

the former views development as an increase in size while the latter treats it as a change in quality

A professor wants to examine the effectiveness of a new teaching approach. Her 9:00 a.m. class will be exposed to the new method of viewing teaching tapes, while her 10:00 a.m. class will be exposed to traditional lectures. Students will be able to choose which tapes they want to view. What method is the professor using to conduct her experiment?


As Warren looks back over his long life, he feels a sense of unity in his life’s accomplishments. He can be said to be in Erikson’s ________ stage of psychosocial development.

ego integrity vs. despair

A researcher is interested in conducting a study to determine whether (and why) people who experienced a devastating event, such as a house fire where the family lost everything, suffer lasting effects (e.g., in relationships) over time. This researcher is interested in the ________ development of the subject(s).


Roger likes to buy lottery tickets regularly, and he occasionally wins. This is an example of ________

positive reinforcement

A policy analyst was asked to evaluate current policy approach for subsidizing (i.e., providing financial assistance) child care for low-income families. The purpose of the evaluation is to find out if current government assistance is high enough that it allows eligible families to use high quality child cares, and whether using these high quality child cares lead to better child developmental outcomes. This is an example of ____________________________ – MODULE 1 QUIZ

Susan learned at a young age that developing good study habits, such as doing her homework, brought about good grades, and made her want to work harder in school. This is called


Alice used to do her math homework regularly and studied hard for tests although she continued to have difficulty getting passing grades; disheartened, Alice began to put less effort into her math homework, and eventually she failed math. This is an example of what type of behavior?


What do Freud’s psychoanalytic and Erikson’s psychosocial theories have in common? – MODULE 1 QUIZ

What perspective has been particularly successful at empirically studying and explaining human mating behavior ? – MODULE 1 QUIZ

Lifespan developmentalists typically look at

a particular age range

The way people’s appearance change over life-span is an example of _______________________ and it is a result of mostly_________________________ – MODULE 1 QUIZ

A historical event, such as the terrorist attacks in New York in September of 2001, would be considered by Bronfenbrenner to fall within which system?


Due to neglect when she was a child, Dana had a lack of certain early social experiences. Recent research suggests that

she can use later experiences to overcome this deficit

Freud proposed a theory that suggests that unconscious forces act to influence personality and behavior. This is called the ______ theory.


_______ development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan.


If a developmental researcher is studying what the earliest memories that can be recalled from infancy are, or what the intellectual consequences of watching television are, in what developmental area is the researcher interested?


Within Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological approach, which system underlies each of his system levels and involves the way the passage of time, including historical events, affects children’s development?


The concept of "reciprocal transaction" is attributed to what developmentalist and theory?

Vygotsky; sociocultural

Influences on intelligence:


the positive emotional bond that develops b/w a child & a particular, special individual; it’s the most important aspect of social development that takes place during infancy; accompanied by feelings of pleasure for that person & comfort in times of distress

secure form of attachment:
1. Seeking proximity w/ caregiver:
2. maintaining contact w/ caregiver:
3. avoiding proximity w/ caregiver:
4. resisting contact w/ caregiver:

1. high; 2. high (if distressed); 3. low; 4. low; children: use the mother as a type of home ease, are at ease when mom’s present, aren’t explicitly upset when mom leaves but immediately go to her when she returns & seeks contact; 2/3 of North American children

Avoidant form of attachment:
1. seeking proximity w/ caregiver:
2. maintaining contact w/ caregiver:
3. avoiding proximity w/ caregiver:
4. resisting contact w/ caregiver:

1. low; 2. low; 3. high; 4. low; 20% of 1 year old children

ambivalent form of attachment:
1. seeking proximity w/ caregiver:
2. maintaining contact w/ caregiver:
3. avoiding proximity w/ caregiver:
4. resisting contact w/ caregiver:

1. high; 2. high (often as pre-separation); 3. low; 4. low; combo of positive & negative rxns to moms – close contact, distress after mom leaves, when mom returns they want to be close to her but are also angry; 10%-15%

disorganized-disoriented form of attachment:
1. seeking proximity w/ caregiver:
2. maintaining contact w/ caregiver:
3. avoiding proximity w/ caregiver:
4. resisting contact w/ caregiver:

1 -4. inconsistent; show inconsistent, contradictory, & confused behavior; 5%-10%

Susan learned at a young age that developing good study habits, such as doing her homework, brought about good grades, and made her want to work harder in school. This is called


Alice used to do her math homework regularly and studied hard for tests although she continued to have difficulty getting passing grades; disheartened, Alice began to put less effort into her math homework, and eventually she failed math. This is an example of what type of behavior?


What do Freud’s psychoanalytic and Erikson’s psychosocial theories have in common? – MODULE 1 QUIZ

What perspective has been particularly successful at empirically studying and explaining human mating behavior ? – MODULE 1 QUIZ

Lifespan developmentalists typically look at which of the area?

a particular age range

The way people’s appearance change over life-span is an example of _______________________ and it is a result of mostly_________________________. – MODULE 1 QUIZ


encompasses patterns of arousal & emotionality that are consistent & enduring characteristics of an individual; refers to HOW children behave; can be modified by childrearing practices; reflected in several dimensions of behavior

temperament: dimensions of behavior in which it is reflected

activity level, approach-withdrawal, quality of mood, distractibility, rhythmicity, threshold of responsiveness, irritability


the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate 1 person from another; traits; determined by both genetics & environment


enduring dimensions of personality characteristics along which people differ

the roots of self-awareness: self-awareness

knowledge of oneself; begins on avg. around 17-24 months (begin to show awareness of their own capabilities); development of it is influenced by cultural upbringing

example of an infant w/o self-awareness

very young infants don’t have a sense of themselves – they don’t recognize themselves in photos or mirrors

the roots of self-awareness: theory of mind

their knowledge & beliefs about how the mind works & how it influences behavior; explanations that children use to explain how others think; learn to see other people as compliant agents

compliant agents

beings similar to themselves who behave under their won power, & fulfill the infants’ requests

the roots of self-awareness: self-concept

a person’s identity, or set of beliefs about what one’s like as an individual; during preschool age, they typically overestimate their skills & knowledge; reflects beliefs & cognitions about the self

the roots of self-awareness: culture & self-concept

during preschool, their view of themselves reflects the way their particular culture considers the self; collective orientation; individualistic orientation

collective orientation

promotes the notion of interdependence; group > individual

individualistic orientation

emphasizes personal identity & the uniqueness of the individual; individual > group

the roots of self-awareness: self concept & attitudes toward gender, race, & ethnicity

by 3-4 yrs: they notice differences among people based on skin color & begin to identify as a particular group

The link between parental disciplinary styles & moral development/aggression:

contributors to gender differences

4 approaches: biological, psychoanalytic, social learning, cognitive

contributors to gender differences: Biological Approach

biological characteristics associated w/ sex lead to gender differences; biological differences exist in the structure of male & female brains – Corpus Callosum; some suggest that our male ancestors who showed more stereotypically masculine qualities may have been able to attract females who were able to provide them w/ hardy offspring

contributors to gender differences: Biological Approach – CORPUS CALLOSUM

the bundle of nerves that connects the hemispheres of the brain; proportionally larger in women than in men; some say this suggests the gender differences may be produced by biological factors; some say this is b/c of certain kinds of experiences that influence brain growth in particular ways

contributors to gender differences: Biological Approach – ANDROGEN

male hormones; girls exposed to high levels prenatally are more likely to display behaviors associated w/ male stereotypes; boys exposed to high levels of female hormones are more apt to display more behaviors associated w/ female stereotypes

contributors to gender differences: Cognitive Approach

1 aspect of the desire to form a clear sense of identity is the desire to est. a gender identity; gender identity; gender schema; gender constancy

gender identity

a perception of oneself as male of female; we do this by developing a gender schema

gender schema

a cognitive framework that organizes info relevant to gender; developed early in life; serve as a lens through which preschoolers view the world; rigid gender schemas are influenced by the preschooler’s erroneous beliefs about sex differences; rigidity is in part a reflection of preschoolers’ understanding of gender; young preschoolers believe that sex differences are based on differences in appearance or behavior

gender constancy

the awareness that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors; children develop this understanding around 4 & 5

contributors to gender differences: Social Learning Approach

see children as learning gender-related behavior & expectations by observing them; can occur through the observation of models or through direct messages; the observation of the rewards that these others attain for acting in a gender-appropriate manner leads children to conform to such behavior themselves; books, the media, TV shows, video games: play a role in perpetuating traditional views of gender-related behavior

contributors to gender differences: Psychoanalytic Approach

prek years encompass the PHALLIC STAGE – oedipal Conflict marks the end of this stage (occurs around 5 when the anatomical differences b/w males & females become particularly evident); identification: process in which children attempt to be similar to their same-sex parent, incorporating the parent’s values & attitudes

contributors to gender identity

gender is well est. by the time children reach the preschool years; gender shows up in play: preschool boys – spend more time in rough-&-tumble play; begin to play more w/ boys: preschool girls – spend more time in organized games & role-playing & begin to play more w/ girls

importance of social networks: preschool

helps them develop socially, cognitively, & physically

importance of social networks: middle childhood

provide children w/ info about the world & themselves; provide emotional support; teach children how to communicate & interact w/ others; foster intellectual growth

importance of social networks: adolescence

peers; can help satisfy personal interests; provide info that they feel they need for their own purposes; provide prestige; provide a means for social comparison; fill the need to belong


individuals who’re about the same age or level of maturity

importance of social networks: social support

provide: emotional support, degree of understanding & helpful suggestions, material support, help in solving problems

consequences of poverty

about 15% of adolescents in US live in poverty; children & adolescents go to school & to bed hungry; lack health insurance; unable to afford good medical care; minor illnesses left untreated become major ones; impedes the ability to learn & can slow their cognitive development, making academic success less likely; associated w/ behavioral & emotional difficulties; less well adjusted & have more conduct problems

importance of early childhood education:

how culture defines us:

cultural background plays a central role in determining who they are, how they view themselves, & how others treat them; acculturation


the changes & adjustments that occur when groups of different people come into sustained firsthand contact; rxns of people when they encounter sustained periods of time individuals from cultures other than their own & how that might change them

4 outcomes of acculturation

integration, separation, assimilation, marginalization


identification w/ 1s own culture: strong; identification w/ majority culture: strong


identification w/ 1s own culture: strong; identification w/ majority culture: weak

assimilation (outcome of acculturation)

identification w/ 1s own culture: weak; identification w/ majority culture: strong


identification w/ 1s own culture: weak; identification w/ majority culture: weak

Can poverty affect the body growth?

Yes, for example children who come from poverty are likely to be shorter

life-span development

the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, & stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan

Share This

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more


A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

Unfinished tasks keep piling up?

Let us complete them for you. Quickly and professionally.

Check Price

Successful message