Dep 2000 chapter 1-6

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_______ development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur from conception through death.


Lifespan developmentalists typically look at which of the following areas?

A particular age range

A group of people who are born around the same time in the same place is called a(n)


Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of where they are raised, are called ______influences.


In ___________, development is ________, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels.

Continuous change; gradual

In ____________, each stage is _______________.

discontinuous change; distinct.

A specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli is necessary for development to proceed normally is called

Critical period

In a ______, organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences.

Sensitive period

"Nature" refers to

traits, abilities, and capacities inherited from parents.

Environmental influences that shape behavior are referred to as


Freud proposed a theory that suggests that unconscious forces act to influence personality and behavior. This is called the ______ theory.


Freud believed that the _________ contains infantile wishes, desires, demands, and needs that are hidden from conscious awareness because they are disturbing.


According to Freud, which part of everyone’s personality operates according to the "pleasure principle?"


Freud believed that the _____ is the part of the personality that is rational and reasonable.


The ________ is Freud’s representation of incorporating the distinction between right and wrong


Freud believed that the ______ begins to develop around age five or six and is learned from significant authority figures.


Adults demonstrating excessive activities such as eating, talking, or chewing gum may be experiencing a(n) __________ fixation.


Erikson proposed a ____________ theory, which emphasized that society and culture influence and shape us.


Erikson argued that each of his stages presents a(n) ________ that the individual must resolve.


Who was one of the first American psychologists to advocate a behavioral approach to development?

John Watson

A type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response is called

classical conditioning

A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences is called

Operant conditioning

Behavior modification depends upon what principle?

Operant conditioning

In the language of operant conditioning, behavior that receives no reinforcement or is punished is likely to be


Which developmental psychologist developed an approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model?

Albert Bandura

Which form of the behavioral perspective learning styles has come to a predominant position in recent decades and is based on learning through imitation?

Social-cognitive theory

Cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget speculated about how human thinking is organized into mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions, patterns that he referred to as ________.


What did Piaget call the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking?


What did Piaget call the process in which changes occur in the existing way a child thinks in response to encounters with new stimuli or events?


According to the humanistic perspective, people’s ability to make choices and come to decisions about their lives is called

Free will

What term refers to the notion that the well-being of the group is more important than that of the individual?


2-7. The blueprints for creating a person are stored and communicated in our


2-8. Name the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of each cell in the body and how it will function.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

2-14. The process of _______ accounts for the replication of most types of cells, so nearly all the cells of the body will contain the same 46 chromosomes as the zygote.


2-18. Twins who are genetically identical are called ________ twins.


2-21. Twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time are called ________ twins.


2-26. The 23rd pair of chromosomes in males contains the ___- shaped chromosome.


2-27. If the child has an XX pairing on the 23rd chromosome, the child will be


2-29. The one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present is called


2-30. A trait within an organism that is present but not expressed is called


2-35. When a child receives different forms of a certain gene from his/her parents, he or she is said to be


2-40. What is the term for the inherited blood-clotting disorder that has been a problem throughout the royal families of Europe?


2-42. Sometimes genes, for no known reason, change their form in a process called spontaneous ________.


2-50. What is the process in which high-frequency sound waves scan the mother’s womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can then be assessed?

Ultrasound sonography

2-71. Patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual are called


2-90. During the germinal stage, the fertilized egg is now called a(n) ___________, and travels toward the uterus, where it becomes implanted in the uterus’s wall.


2-91. A conduit between the mother and fetus, this organ provides nourishment and oxygen via the umbilical cord.


2-97. What is the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth?

Fetal stage

High levels of the hormone __________ are produced in ________, which some scientists speculate may lead to differences in male and female brain structure and later variations in gender-related behavior(s).

Androgen; males

2-111. What is the term for the process of fertilization in which a man’s sperm is placed directly into a woman’s reproductive tract by a physician?

Artificial insemination

2-112. What is the term for the procedure in which a woman’s ova are removed from her ovaries and a man’s sperm are used to fertilize the ova in a laboratory?

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

2-152. When the critical hormone ___________ is released in high enough concentration by the mother’s pituitary gland, the mother’s uterus begins periodic contractions.


2-163. An incision that is sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass is called


2-166. Which of the following is NOT measured using the Apgar scale?

Pupil dilation

2-189. What type of medication(s) produces numbness from the waist down?

Traditional epidural

2-216. All are characteristics of very-low-birthweight infants EXCEPT which of the following?

webs are apparent between the infant’s fingers and toes

2-217. What is the major reason why very-low-birthweight babies are in grave danger from the moment they are born?

There is an immaturity of their organ systems

2-224. All of the following may cause preterm births EXCEPT

A mother working during pregnancy

2-236. If a baby is being born feet first, this is called

Breech position

2-238. When the baby lies crosswise in the uterus during delivery, this is called

Transverse position

2-252. What is the term for a period of deep sadness and related symptoms following the birth of a child that affects approximately 10% of all new mothers for months or even years?

Postpartum depression

2-258. Because a neonate’s liver does not work effectively at first, almost half of all newborns develop a yellowish tinge to their bodies and eyes called

Neonatal jaundice

3-1. When does the greatest increase in height and weight occur?

During the first year of life

3-3. What is the principle that states that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body?


3-4. Which principle states that development proceeds from the center of the body outward.


3-13. The basic nerve cell of the nervous system is called


3-14. The gap at the connection between neurons through which neurons chemically communicate with one another, is called


3-16. Neurons have a distinct ability to communicate with other cells using a cluster of fibers called


3-21. The elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation is called

synaptic pruning

3-22. What is the fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses?


3-26. What is the term for repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior?


3-28. What term refers to an infant’s various levels of wakeful behaviors, such as alertness, fussing, and crying, and different levels of sleep?


3-30. What is the term for the period of sleep that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming?

rapid eye movement (REM)

3-31. As we age, the proportion of REM sleep _________ as the proportion of non-REM sleep________.

decrease; increases

3-36. What does the American Academy of Pediatrics suggest to prevent SIDS?

babies sleeping on their backs

3-41. What is the term for unlearned, unorganized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli?


3-42. Many of the reflexes that infants are born with have ________ value.


3-43. What is the term for the reflex that makes a baby, who is lying face down in a body of water, paddle and kick?


3-45. What is the term for the reflex in which the neonate tends to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek?


3-46. What is the term for the reflex that disappears around 8-12 months, and occurs when an infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke on the outside of its foot?


3-47. What is the term for the reflex that does not disappear, and is demonstrated by the infant’s tendency to suck at things that touch its lips?


3-48. What is the term for the reflex that does not disappear, and is demonstrated when an infant tries to clear his or her throat?


3-58. Babies are typically able to crawl between _______ months of age.

8 and 10 months

3-60. Babies are typically able to walk by supporting themselves at around ______ months of age.

9 months

3-62. At approximately what age is a baby able to prominently open its hand and grasp a rattle?

3 months

A3-67. Babies are able to sit upright without additional support at about _______ months of age.

6 months

3-74. Infants should consume about ___ calories per day for each pound they weigh.


3-75. The condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients is called


3-78. Due to malnutrition, a child’s stomach, limbs, and face may swell with water so that the child actually appears chubby, but in fact the child is suffering from


3-85. At what age does the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians suggest that babies can start eating solid food?

6 months

3-87. The term for the mental process of sorting out, interpreting, analyzing, and integrating stimuli from the sense organs and brain is ______________.


3-92. Which of the following does an infant demonstrate a preference for through facial expressions?


3-97. Piaget argued that infants acquire knowledge through


3-98. Piaget’s theory of development assumed that all children pass through a series of ____ universal stages in a fixed order from birth to adolescence. These are ______.

4; sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

3-103. What is the term that Piaget used to explain the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking?


3-104. Piaget thought that ________ occurs when a stimulus or event is acted upon, perceived, and understood in accordance with existing patterns of thought.


3-105. Four-year-old Alex and his mother visited the zoo. While they were there, Alex’s mother took him to see the squirrel exhibit. Alex saw many different types of squirrels, but when he saw a flying squirrel glide from one branch to the next he pointed and said, "A bird." Considering Piaget’s work, Alex is demonstrating an example of


3-106. Piaget used the term _______ to describe changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.


3-108. Piaget believed that the earliest schemes are limited to ________ that we have when we are born.


3-111. What is the term for Piaget’s initial major stage of cognitive development, which can be broken down into six substages?


3-126. When several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem, this is called

goal- directed behavior

3-127. Piaget believed that _________ appears in Substage 4 and enables the infant to realize that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen.

object permanence

3-136. Piaget calls an internal image of a past event or object a

mental representation

3-141. All of the following are considered basic aspects of information processing EXCEPT


3-151. What is term for the lack of memory for experiences that occurred in infancy?

infantile amnesia

3-153. What kind of memory is conscious and can be recalled intentionally?


3-154. Memories in our unconscious that affect performance and behavior are known as ________ memories.


3-163 What term refers to the basic sounds of language that can be combined to produce words and sentences?


3-164. What is the term for the smallest language unit that has meaning?


3-165. What is the name for the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences?


3-168. A child’s first words usually comes in the form of ___________, which are one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used.


3-169. Baby Allison is in her high chair while her father prepares her dinner. Baby Allison tries to get her father’s attention by saying "eat. "This would be an example of a


3-170. By the age of two, most children can use two-word sentences and __________ speech where non-critical words of a sentence are left out.


3-184. The concept that all of the world’s languages share a similar underlying structure was created by ________ and is called ________

Chomsky; universal grammar

3-214. What is the term for the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual?


3-220. Which attachment pattern describes a style of attachment in which children display a combination of positive and negative reactions to their mothers? They show great distress when the mother leaves, but upon her return they may simultaneously seek close contact but also hit and kick her.

ambivalent attachment pattern

3-222. Children who show the _____________ attachment pattern show inconsistent, contradictory, and confused behavior such as approaching the mother when she returns but not looking at her.


3-232. Erikson’s approach to personality development suggests that an infant’s early experiences (nurturing, feeding, cuddling, etc.) are responsible for shaping whether or not they become ____________ individuals later in life.


3-238. Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual are called


4-3. All of the following may be a factor in how much a preschooler weighs and how tall he/she is EXCEPT

the quality of preschool; children who attend quality preschool programs receive better snacks and lunches.

4-8. Foods which are high in __________ are particularly important for preschool children so that they can avoid developing fatigue-causing anemia.

iron content

4-9. The average preschool child has __________ colds and other respiratory illnesses in each of the years from age 3 to 5.


4-10. Before they are 10 years old, children are _______ as likely to die from a(n) ________ than from a(n) ________

twice; injury; illness

4-17. What does the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services consider to be the most hazardous health threat to children under the age of 6?

lead poisoning

4-19. Which of the following is NOT considered a permanent result of lead poisoning in children?

low weight and inadequate growth/height

4-21. By the end of the preschool period, the brain structure called the ________ has grown significantly because it becomes considerably thicker with individual fibers that help coordinate brain functioning between the two hemispheres.

corpus callosum

4-22. What is the name of the protective insulation that surrounds parts of neurons and speeds the transmission of electrical impulses along brain cells?


4.23. What is the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other?


4-27. Considering the hemispheric differences in lateralization related to gender and culture, boys show a greater lateralization of language in the ____________ hemisphere; while girls develop language in _______

left; both hemispheres

4-44. Piaget believed that the _______ fit entirely in a single stage of cognitive development called the ___________ stage.

preschool years; preoperational

4-49. According to Piaget, _________ is at the heart of __________, which is a major advance for preschool children.

symbolic function; language

4-50. What is the term for the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects?


4-54. _____________is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.


4-58. Thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others is called

egocentric thought

4-62. What is the term for thinking that reflects preschoolers’ use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world?

intuitive thought

4-64. By the end of the preoperational stage, children are able to understand the idea that actions, events, and outcomes are related to one another in fixed patterns. This is called


4-73. According to Vygotsky, what is the level at which a child cannot fully perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent?

zone of proximal development

4-74. According to Vygotsky, if one child receives assistance he/she may improve substantially more than another child who does not receive help. The assistance or structuring provided by others is termed


4-77. What term refers to the way in which an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences?


4-80. What is the term for instances in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter?

fast mapping

4-85. When a young child begins to learn how to take turns in conversation, stay on topic, and give appropriate responses such as "please" and "thank you," the child is demonstrating knowledge of


4-86. What is the term for speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person?

social speech

4-87. Before the age of 3, most children are unable to demonstrate __________ speech.


4-98. According to Erikson, what is the term for development that encompasses changes both in the understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others’ behavior(s)?

psychosocial development

4-104. What is the term for a person’s identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual?

self- concept

4-117. What is the term for the perception of oneself as male or female?

gender identity

4-124. What is the term for a state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes?


4-128. What is the term for play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds?


4-131. What is the term for play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something?


4-134. What type of play involves action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other?


4-138. What is the term for play in which two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing?


4-140. What is the term for play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests?


4-145. Children with autism find it particularly difficult to relate to others, in part, because they find it difficult to

understand what others are thinking

4-146. What is the term for parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, cold, and whose word is law?


4-148. What is the term for parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children?


4-150. What is the term for parents who are firm, set clear and consistent limits, and try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way but at the same time providing love and support?


4-152. What type of parents show almost no interest in their children and demonstrate indifferent, rejecting behavior(s)?


4-164. What is the term for the theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children?

cycle of violence hypothesis

4-168. What two parts of the limbic system in the brain can be permanently altered as a result of childhood abuse?

hippocampus and amygdala

4-170. What is the term for the ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical change?


5-10. Which of the following is a fine motor skill?

typing on a keyboard

5-27. Severe and early loss of hearing is associated with all of the following EXCEPT

reduced intelligence

5-30. What is the term for a substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech and is the most common speech impairment?


5-35. What is the term for a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity?

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

5-44. What is the term for the ability to consider multiple aspects of a situation?


5-47. In the information processing approach, what is the term for the ability to record, store, and retrieve information?


5-49. When a child initially records information in a form usable to memory, this is called


5-52. What is the term for an understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood?


5-80. What is the term for the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges?


5-82. Who is the psychologist that linked intelligence and school success in constructing an intelligence test that continues to provide reasonable indicators of a student’s ability to be successful in school?


5-89. Intelligence tests most frequently used in schools are based on a common idea that intelligence is a single factor or unitary mental ability called

g factor

5-96. What is the term for the educational setting that is most similar to that of children without special needs?

least restrictive environment

5-97. Which of the following is the term for an educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated to the extent possible into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives?


5-99. If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of 50 or 55 to 70, this is known as

mild mental retardation

5-100. If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of around 35 or 40 to 50 or 55, this is known as

moderate mental retardation

5-101. If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range of around 20 or 25 to 35 or 40, this is known as

severe mental retardation

5-102. If a person has an IQ score that falls in the range below 20 or 25, this is known as

profound mental retardation

5-105. According to Erikson, from roughly ages 6 to 12 children go through the period characterized by a focus on efforts to meet the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world. This stage is called


5-110. ______________ is an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation (which is more emotionally oriented); whereas ______________ reflects beliefs and cognitions about the self.

Self-esteem; self-concept

5-118. The term that refers to the complex relationship between self-esteem and minority group status comes from

social identity theory

5-137. Which of the following is considered to be the centerpiece of friendship during middle childhood?

mutual trust

5-142. Status is

the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group.

5-144. What is the term for the collection of social skills that permits individuals to perform successfully in social settings?

social competence

5-149. According to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), _________ school children stay home from school each day because they are afraid of being bullied.


5-154. Which of the following terms means rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group?

dominance hierarchy

5-156. Middle-school-age girls tend to ________; while middle-school-age boys tend to_______

play in pairs; develop a dominance hierarchy

5-160. ____________ is the process by which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior.


5-168. Following a divorce, a child may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT


5-179. The latest research regarding children raised in lesbian and gay households suggests

children develop similarly to children of heterosexual families and are equally well-adjusted.

5-182. What are the major effects of poverty, chronic stress, and susceptibility to disease in children?

Significant hardships, poor academic performance, and cardiovascular disease

6-4. Which of the following terms describes the period during which the sexual organs mature?


6-5. Which gland in the body signals the brain and other glands in children’s bodies to begin producing sex hormones at adult levels?

The pituitary gland

6-6. Male sex hormones are called __________, while female sex hormones are called ________.

androgens; estrogens

6-15. The visible signs of sexual maturity that do not directly involve the sex organs are called

secondary sex characteristics

6-18. The surge in hormone production that triggers the beginning of adolescence may lead to rapid mood swings. Boys may have feelings of ________, while girls may feel ______

anger and annoyance; anger and depression

6-22. During the teenage years, the average girl requires ________ calories a day, and the average boy requires ________.

2,200; 2,800.

6-23. By drinking milk during their teenage years, girls can consume enough required _______ to avoid ________ later in their lives.

calcium; osteoporosis

6-29. Which of the following is the term for a severe eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior and very thin appearance are out of the ordinary?

anorexia nervosa

6-31. Which of the following terms relates to an eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives?


6-35. The part of the brain that allows people to think, evaluate, and make complex judgments in a uniquely human way is called the

prefrontal cortex

6-36. Which of the following is the most likely reason for adolescent impulsivity and risky behavior(s)?

the immaturity of the adolescent prefrontal cortex

6-41. Drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them, are known as ________ drugs.


6-53. Sexually transmitted infection(s) (STIs) include all of the following EXCEPT

yeast infections

6-55. According to Piaget, the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly is called the

formal operational stage

6-62. Which of the following terms relates to the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes, and their ability to monitor their cognition?


6-65. The state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed as focused on oneself is referred to as

adolescent egocentrism

6-70. The view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else is called

personal fable

6-80. What is a basic requirement of the No Child Left Behind Act passed by Congress in 2002?

Every U.S. state must design and administer achievement tests that students must pass in order to graduate from high school.

6-92. According to Erikson, the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves is called

the identity-versus-identity-confusion stage.

6-94. According to Erikson, an adolescent’s reliance on peers to help them define their identities and learn to form relationships is the link between the

identity-versus-identity-confusion and intimacy-versus-isolation stages.

6-113. Which of the following models suggests that U.S. society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their cultural features?

pluralistic society model

6-118. All of the following are likely causes of major depression in adolescent females EXCEPT

hormonal imbalance in females

6-119. The rate of adolescent suicide in the United States has _____ in the last 30 years.


6-121. Even though some adolescent suicide is underreported, suicide is the _____ most common cause of adolescent death in the 15- to 24-year-old group.


6-122. Why do adolescent boys succeed in committing suicide more often than adolescent girls?

Boys tend to use more violent means, like guns, to attempt suicide.

6-130. The desire to have independence and a sense of control over one’s life is called


6-169. If a person is attracted to another person of the same sex, this is


6-171. When a person pursues sexual reassignment surgery because they feel as though they were born with the wrong physical sex (i.e., trapped in the wrong body), this is called being


6-172. Studies indicate that sexual orientation is

produced by a combination of genetic, physiological, and environmental factors.

6-173. In the last 10 years, the number of teenagers giving birth has ________ by nearly ____

dropped; 33%.

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