Decolonization and independence, Government

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South Africa became a democracy when a new constitution took effect in.


The Sharpeville demonstration of 1960 resulted in

the deaths of sixty-nine people.

The pie chart shows the racial breakdown of South Africa’s population.
Based on the chart, apartheid restricted the rights of about

80 percent of the population.

The 1960 demonstration led Nelson Mandela and others to call for armed rebellion.


How did the Holocaust affect support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine?

is not It decreased support slightly. or greatly (not b or d )

Which countries attacked Israel during the Yom Kippur War in 1973?

Egypt and Syria

Which best explains how the change by Palestinians from violence to negotiation affected their case for independence?

is not It made the case weaker by showing that Palestinians were unwilling to live peacefully alongside the Israelis.

Following the birth of Israel, why was it important that Jerusalem was placed under UN supervision?

Both Jews and Arabs considered it to be a holy city.

How did the Balfour Declaration contribute to tension between Jews and Arabs?

is not It created the state of Israel.

A result of the Arab-Israeli War during 1948-1949 was that

is not Israel cut off Egyptian access to the Red Sea.

Which led to increased turmoil between Jews and Arabs? Check all that apply.

1st 3rd and last

A subject many nations agree on regarding the Palestinians is that

they have a right to independence.

Which directly led to the first armed conflict between Arabs and Israelis?

the declaration of statehood by Israel in 1948

The world’s most powerful nations agree that Palestinians and Israelis both have the right to .

is a

What challenges does South Africa face today as a democracy? Check all that apply.

high poverty and high unemployment rates unequal access to transportation and technology

Which list correctly orders events in the rise and fall of apartheid in South Africa?

i. The Population Registration Act was signed. ii. The Soweto Uprising sparked more protests. iii. Frederik W. de Klerk brought about reforms. iv. Nelson Mandela became the nation’s president.

After returning to South Africa from Algeria in 1964, Nelson Mandela was

arrested and imprisoned.

What type of government did European settlers create in South Africa in 1909?

a parliamentary government that excluded many citizens

The African National Congress was founded to

unite non-white South Africans and further their cause.

During the colonial era, South African society became divided based on


How did the international community respond to South Africa’s policies in the 1980s?

by refusing to buy South African goods

In the early 1900s, European settlers in South Africa created

a system of segregation that split society.

The movement against apartheid in South Africa

was non-violent at first but became militant.

A junta is defined as

a small group that controls the government.

How did Nelson Mandela expand his anti-government activities in the 1960s?


Which statement best describes Nelson Mandela?


As a result of the 1960 Sharpeville demonstration, began to believe that only armed rebellion would bring an end to apartheid.

nelson mandela

Which explains how the end of the Dirty War affected military rule in Argentina? 3


The political affiliation of Chile’s president in 1970, Salvador Allende, is best described as


The conflict in Argentina known as the Dirty War occurred in the 10


How did military leaders prevent democracy in Brazil? Check all that apply.


Why were the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo upset with Argentina’s military government?


Which describes Getulio Vargas, who ruled Brazil during the Great Depression?


Which best describes what military leaders in Argentina did to people who disagreed with their policies?


Which did the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo do? Check all that apply.

campaign for human rights challenge government power fight for truth and democracy

Which best summarizes the role the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo played in ending the Dirty War?

The Mothers played a major role in confronting the government and ending the war.

In what year did Chile become a democracy again?


Which explains how the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo affected Argentina?

They forced the government to hold free elections.

A result of Salvador Allende’s presidency in Chile was

an economic crisis.

In what year were the first free elections held in Argentina?


Following its independence, Brazil first became a


Following the end of military rule, Brazil created

a new constitution.

was the transfer of land and industry in Cuba from private owners to the government under Fidel Castro.


Which actions did Fidel Castro take in Cuba after creating a communist system in 1959? Check all that apply.

He repressed the civil liberties of all citizens. He nationalized the Cuban economy. He forbade the selling of private property. He prohibited free press in the country.

Which best describes how Mexican
leaders sought to protect democratic rule after the country’s revolution?

They approved a new constitution.

The Mexican Constitution of 1917 sought to protect democratic rule by

breaking up large estates, providing free education, and establishing minimum-wage laws.

The main reason Cárdenas nationalized Mexico’s oil industry was to

enable the country to get direct benefit from its vast supplies.

Mexico experienced a series of liberal reforms in the 1860s instituted by

Benito Juarez.

Mexican dictator Porfirio Diaz inspired a revolution in 1910 by using his power to

limit democracy and freedoms.

Many Latin American countries in the twentieth century turned to

communism and socialism.

The Venezuelan people gave Hugo Chavez a referendum to rewrite their constitution and implement


The transfer of land and industry from private owners to government, which occurred in Cuba under Fidel Castro, is called


The main reason Cárdenas nationalized Mexico’s oil industry was to

enable the country to get direct benefit from its vast supplies.

After Cuba lost economic aid from the Soviet Union, Fidel Castro

allowed some economic reforms to occur.

Which best describes how Mexican leaders sought to protect democratic rule after the country’s revolution?

They approved a new constitution.

What type of ideology has gained popularity throughout Latin America?


Mexico’s Constitution of 1917 helped the working class by

restricting employment of foreigners.

The dominant political party in Mexico for most of the twentieth century was the .

Institutional Revolutionary Party

Which best explains how Hugo Chavez damaged democracy in Venezuela?

He increased authoritarianism in government.

Indian Independence

boycott- abstain from using or purchasing goods or services civil disobedience- the refusal to follow certain laws, usually those viewed as unjust, as a form of protest nonviolent protests:refusing violence in favor of peaceful methods to gain political goals partition- the act of dividing something passive- not active, dominant, or forceful refugee- someone who goes to another country to escape danger Amritsar Massacre in 1919, ten thousand Indians marched to protest British policies in India -British soldiers fired on the crowd without warning -400 Indians were killed and 1200 were wounded -Nationalism began to grow How did the independence movement create conflict in India? ~Mohanda K. Ghandi (1869-1948) was called "Mahatma" which means "great soul" trained in Britain as a lawyer worked in S. Africa where he fought against racial discrimination organized nonviolent protests to achieve Indian independence spent 7 years in jail for his protests ~Civil Disobedience Satyagraha: -form of civil disobedience -deliberate and public reftusal to follow the law in order to protest the actions of the government Nonviolent Protest: -rejecting violence and choosing peace methods to gain political objectives ~The India National Congress In 1920, the India National Congress adopted Ghandi’s strategy: -boycott British-made goods -refuse to pay taxes or vote in elections ~The Salt March In 1930, Ghandi led hundreds of followers on a march to the sea -They protested the British salt tax -Non-marching supporters were also attacked by troops for attempting to close the British salt works ~India after WW2 India participated in the war on the side of the Allies -More Indian leaders demanded self-government -Britain’s population was reconsidering the cost of maintaining colonies ~Disagreement between Hindus and Muslims Muslims and Hindus could not agree on how to set up the new government -Ghandi wanted Hindus and Muslims to live together peacefully -Muslims like Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted to partition India into two states ~The problems of partition Hindus lived in spread out area Muslims lived in the North mostly but still the religions overlapped so there was no clear dividing line ~The Partition of India (1947) The Indian Independence Act of 1947 divided India The Republic of India: Majority Hindu Pakistan: Majority Muslim ~The Partition India: Hindu Pakistan: Muslim Burma: Buddhist Kashmir: Muslim and Hindu There was no clear break between both religions. ~The Aftermath of Partition After the partition, Hindus and Muslims fled in an effort to relocate -10 million became refugees -500 died in Hindu-Muslim riots -Ghandi pleaded for peace but was assassinated ~Indira Ghandi(1917-1984) became first woman to be elected prime minister of India was assassinated by members of her own bodygaurds becasue of religious conflict ~India’s Challenges India face many challenges since gaining its independence -Religious conflict and acts of terrorism -Corruption in government -Legacy of the caste system -Explosive population growth

One of Jawaharlal Nehru’s first duties as India’s Prime Minister was to

improve living standards for Indians.

Why did Gandhi encourage Indians to weave their own cloth?

Textiles were a major source of income for Britain.

Gandhi was trained to be a


Which of the following ended the post-partition fighting between Hindus and Muslims?

Gandhi’s protest hunger strike

If the United States was to be partitioned in the same way India was, the partition would be based on

religious groupings.

Gandhi’s nickname, Mahatma, means

great soul.

The refugee crisis that occurred in India after its partition was a result of

too many people trying to relocate at one time.

Which of the following illustrates the concept of Satyagraha?

camping out by a "no loitering" sign to protest the law

Why was the Salt March a turning point in India’s struggle for independence?

A foreign journalist gave the story an international audience.

Which of the following is the best example of civil disobedience?

refusing to pay taxes because you disapprove of how the money is being used by the government

Challenges of Independence in Asia

decolonization- process of moving from colonial to independent status insurgency- rebellion against the government junta- a military group that rules a country by force regime- government in power secession- formally withdrawing from a group or organization seperatist- one who supports secession from a larger state, often based on ethnicity or religion Decolonization the process by which a colony becomes an independent nation India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Vietnam, Malaysia granted or gained through armed struggle How were the former colonies of Southeast Asia affected by independence? ~Seeking Independence The US won the Philippines from Spain in the Spanish-American War -The people of the Philippines opposed US rule -The Philippines gained independence after the end of WW2 ~Challenges since Independence Independence has led to political and economic challenges in the Philippines Dictatorship: two decades of rule by Ferdinand Marcos who known for marshal law, violence, and rigged elections Insurgency: Muslim seperatists and Communist rebels Poverty: struggles to raise the standard of living ~Successes since Independence The Philippines has had a steadily growing economy -Filipinos have successfully battled corrupt and abusive governments ~The US-Philippines Relationship Following Philippines’ independence, ties to the US have remained close -The US had several military bases in the Philippine until the 19902 -The US is one of the Philippines’ top trade partner and a major investor ~Indochina Colonies in Indochina were controlled by Britain and France Each would gain independence following WW2 Burma’s Change to Myanmar Burma, which is now know as Myanmar, was granted independence from Great Britain in 1948 -The nation has been under military control since the 1960s -A military junta controlled the government until 2011, repressing citizens and limiting rights -Recent political reforms have been slow, bringing limited change ~Aung San Suu Kyi (b.1945) was elected Prime Minister of Myanmar in 1990 was prevented from taking office and placed under house arrest for 21 years was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 while under house arrest was freed in 2010 and now works for political reform ~Independence for Malaysia and Singapore Malaysia gained its independence from Britain in 1962 Successes: -has experienced continued economic growth -is known for the strength of its manufacturing industry Challenges: -has experienced tensions between the Malay majority and other groups -experienced the secession of Singapore which became an independent state ~Independence in Cambodia, Laos,and Vietnam The nations of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam were part of French Indochina -Rebels led successful wars of independence -Vietnam was divided into two, with a communist north and a pro-Western south ~After Independence Vietnam: -The US-led war in Vietnam failed to stop the spread of communism into the south -Economic reforms brought Vietnam into the world trade community Cambodia: -The Khmer Rouge regime killed more than 1.5 million Cambodians -Rapid economic growth occurred after the monarchy was restored in 1993 ~Indonesia Indonesia is made up of many islands that spread southeast of the Asian mainland. -The group of islands was colonized by the Dutch ~Indonesian Nationalism and Independence Various groups fueled a nationalist movement int he early 1900s -Indonesia declared its independence in 1950 -Indonesians rebelled against the Dutch, fighting off attempts to regain control until 1949 ~The Challenges of Independence Political challenges:Army-led coup d’etat and corrupt dictatorships Ethnic conflict: East Timor’s independence in 2002 Natural disaster: 2004 earthquake and tsunami killed more than 200,000 people

Which world event sped up independence movements by European colonies in southeast Asia?

the occupation of southeast Asia by Japan

Why did the United States become involved in the Philippines’ affairs?

to fight the Spanish-American War

Before gaining independence, the colonies in Indochina were controlled by

France and Britain

Which Indochinese country was under control of a junta for decades?


How did the Dutch set themselves up for an uprising by the people of Indonesia?

They provided too many opportunities for the Indonesians, who used their new skills to demand independence.

After the Philippines became independent, its relationship with the United States


Which of the following best summarizes the character of Aung San Suu Kyi?

fearless activist who would risk imprisonment for principles

Which of the following countries were part of French Indochina? Check all that apply.

Cambodia Laos Vietnam

This chart shows the gross domestic product of the Philippines after independence.

Which of the following nations achieved independence through armed rebellion? Check all that apply.

Cambodia Indonesia Vietnam

Vietnam’s war for independence and division into two countries in 1954 led the United States to send military forces to the region. Why did this take place?

The United States feared the spread of Communism throughout Southeast Asia.

After World War II, the Philippines was granted its independence by which nation?

the United States

After independence, the Philippines struggled under the dictatorship of

Ferdinand Marcos

he Philippines gained full independence from the US in


Since independence, Malaysia has been highly successful in


In the Philippines, attempted takeovers by Communist rebels

are still an ongoing problem today.

Decolonization in Africa

corruption- a lack of morals demand- call for something urgently incite- encourage or provoke pan-Africanism- a movement that sought to unify people of African descent and establish independence for African nations Colonialism in Africa European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s -Imposed their economic and political systems on the colonies -Exploited African labor and resources for European profit How did decolonization affect African nations? ~The Effects of Colonial Practice Causes: -Economies created to benefit colonial powers -Little Investment in education -Colonial boundaries ignored cultural division ~Economic Effects of Colonialism Cause: Economies created to benefit colonial powers Effects: -Economies dependent on a single cash crop -Little industrialization -Little investment in infrastructure -Very small middle class ~Little Focus on Education Cause: Little investment in education Effects: -Lack of a skilled, literate workforce -lack of leaders with government experience ~Problems with Colonial Boundaries Cause: Colonial boundaries ignored cultural divisions Effects: -Widespread ethnic conflict -Lack of national identity ~Challenges of Independence Overwhelming challenges made it harder for democracies to stay in power Democracies fell to military rule and authoritarian dictatorships ~The Pan-Africanism Movement Pan-Africanism was a movement whose purpose was to unify people of African descendants around the world -An imp early goal was to free Africa from colonial rule -African leaders formed the Organization of African Unity, also know as the African Union ~Ghana African independence began in Gold Coast, now called Ghana -Africans gained a majority in colony’s Parliament in 1946 -Kwama Nkrumah became prime minister in 1952 -In 1957, Ghana became independent ~Problems Lead to Military Rule Nkrumah increase his own power: -Opposition political parties banned -Corruption increased Economic problems increased: -Rising debt -falling cacao crop prices Military coup overthrew government: -Government instability increased ~Ghana today Democratic reforms in 1992 allowed for multiparty elections -Advances in education and human services continue ~Kenyan Independence Kenya African Union(KAU): led by Jomo Kenyatta Mau Mau Uprising: Rebel group used guerrilla warfare Forced the British to negotiate Kenyan Independence granted in 1963 ~Jomo Kenyatte (c.1894-1978) Served as a prime minister and then president of Keny Led the Kenyan Africa Nationalist Union(KANU), the dominant political party Was a member of the pan-African movement who sought rights for Africans Was accused of showing favortism towards Kikuyu people, causing discontent ~Kenya Today In 1990s, new opposition parties began to gain influence Charges of election fraud led to the creation of a new constituiton It created a system of checks and balances and reduced the power of the presidency Ethnic favortism continues to be a problem ~Nigeria Nigeria was home to many ethnicities and religions -ethnic minorities in the west rebelled against Yoruba rule in 1967 -Soon, civil war broke out across the nation -More than 1 million people were killed ~Shift from Military to Democratic Rule From 1970 to 1999, a series of military leader and dictators ruled Nigeria -Some prohibited all political activity and criticism of the government In 1999, a civilian president was elected -The growth of the oil industry helped the development of the Nigerian economy -Ethnic tensions remain ~Rwanda Rwanda won its independence from Belgium in 1962 -The nation is home to two rival ethnic groups: the majority Hutu and the minority Tutsi -Unrest, conflict and civil war were common -A peace agreement was signed in 1994 in which the two groups agreed to share power in a democratic government ~The Rwandan Genocide In 1994, a plane crash killed the Hutu president of Rwanda -Extremist Hutus used the event in incite genocide against the Tutsis -800,000 people were murdered

What was the first step in Ghana’s independence?

Africans gained a majority in the parliament.

The economies of most African colonies were dependent on

one or two crops.

What was the purpose of pan-Africanism?

to unite people of African descent around the world

The large number of casualties in the Nigerian civil war can be attributed to

the many different factions at war with one another.

Why did corruption increase when opposition political parties were banned in Ghana?

Nkrumah’s government held too much power, and officials could do whatever they wanted.

European nations benefited from African colonies’

labor and resources.

Because there was very little investment in education, African colonies

had few leaders with government experience.

Another name for the Organization of African Unity is the

Africa Union

The majority ethnic group in Rwanda is the


When military leaders and dictators ruled Nigeria, they sometimes tried to prevent unrest by

prohibiting all criticism of the government.

What was a major contributor to unrest in Nigeria?

its many ethnicities and religions

Jomo Kenyatta caused discontent during his rule in Kenya by

exhibiting favoritism toward the Kikuyu people.

Europeans ignored cultural divisions when setting colonial boundaries because

Europeans had no interest in or concern for African cultural divisions.

What can one conclude about the link between falling cacao crop prices and rising economic problems in Ghana?

The country was too dependent on exports of its cacao crop.

Latin American Reform

implement- to put into effect intermittently- every once in a while liberal- a philosophy that believes it is the government’s role to correct social inequalities nationalize- to transfer control of land or industry from private owners to the government opposition party- a political party not in power that works to oppose the government’s policies referendum- a political decision given to the voters to decide during a general election Latin America South of the US Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba Many of these countries struggled after independence The Problems of Independence Latin American nations faced a broad range of challenges following independence -competing government ideologies -widespread poverty -unequal distribution of wealth -growing foreign economic influence How did countries in Latin America approach government reform? ~Mexican Independence Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821 -The country was intermittently ruled by dictator Santa Anna until 1855 -Benito Juarez set up a republic, and began to institute liberal reforms in the 1860s -This led to conflict between liberals and conservatives ~The Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz seized power and established a dictatorship -He used his power to limit democracy and freedoms -In 1910, the people rose up in revolution Revolutionary leaders: Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa ~The Mexican Constitution of 1917 After the revolution, Mexico passed a new constitution that protected democratic rule Land Reform: -Restricted foreign ownership of land -Broke up large estates -Seized remaining church lands Social Reforms: -Prohibited discrimination -Prohibited censorship -Prohibited for free education Economic Reform: -Established minimum-wage laws -Protected unions and the right to strike ~Lazaro Cardenas(1895-1970) Became Mexico’s president in 1934 Redistributed land to peasants Implemented new welfare programs Improved education in rural areas Nationalized oil and railroad industries ~Institutional Revolutionary Party(PRI) The PRI became the dominant party in Mexican politics -Controlled the congress, and won every presidential election -Allowed opposition parties, but used election fraud to stay in power -Became controlling and corrupt ~Modern-Day Mexico Challenges: -High levels of corruption among police and public officers -Drug cartel-related violence -Continuing poverty, especially in rural areas Successes: -Growing middle class -Expanded role of women, and increased rights -Economic growth, and increased global trade ~Socialism and Communism During the 20th century, some Latin American countries turned to socialism and communism Socialism: -Government-controlled means of production -Government-provided services -Multiple political parties Communism: -Totalitarian government -Single-party state -Government-controlled economy ~Communism Cuba Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba, and created a communist dictatorship -Nationalized the Cuban economy -Repressed civil liberties, imprisoned political opponets, and prohibited a free press -Became economically dependent on the Soviet Union ~Cuba after the Fall of Communism The collapse of the USSE led to significant changes -Cuba lost Soviet-provided economic support -Shortages of food and medicine were common -Some economic reforms were made ~Venezuela After gaining independence in 1831, Venezuela experienced political instability -17 constitutions -Series of dictators and military leaders until 1958 ~The Chavez Presidency(1988-2013) Hugo Chavez was elected president in 1988 -won a referendum to rewrite the constitution -Implemented socialism in Venezuela -Established stronger ties with Cuba -Accused of damaging some democratic institutions

Porfirio Diaz and Santa Anna each led Mexico after independence as


What type of ideology has gained popularity throughout Latin America?


Which best describes the difference between socialism and communism?

The government controls people’s lives under communism, while it provides certain services for citizens under socialism.

After being elected president of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez

strengthened ties with socialist countries like Cuba.

Who were two leaders of the rebel army during the Mexican Revolution?

Zapata and Villa.

After Cuba lost economic aid from the Soviet Union, Fidel Castro

allowed some economic reforms to occur.

Which best describes how Mexican leaders sought to protect democratic rule after the country’s revolution?

They approved a new constitution.

Mexico’s Constitution of 1917 helped the working class by

protecting the right to strike.

The main reason Cárdenas nationalized Mexico’s oil industry was to

enable the country to get direct benefit from its vast supplies.

Which actions did Fidel Castro take in Cuba after creating term-82a communist system in 1959? Check all that apply.

He nationalized the Cuban economy. He repressed the civil liberties of all citizens. He prohibited free press in the country. He forbade the selling of private property. He banned all travel to and from the country.

The Venezuelan people gave Hugo Chavez a referendum to rewrite their constitution and implement


Which best describes the successes and challenges of modern-day Mexico?

It has experienced economic growth and a growing middle class, but poverty continues to linger and government corruption remains

Mexico experienced a series of liberal reforms in the 1860s instituted by

Benito Juarez.

Which best describes what occurred in Mexico following the institution of liberal reforms by Benito Juarez?

The government action caused conflict between liberals and conservatives.

Conflict in the Middle East

coalition- a political alliance formed to accomplish a mutually beneficial goal controversial: giving rise to public disagreement terrorism- the practice of committing violent or destructive acts to achieve political goals weapons of mass destruction- weapons that can kill or injure a large number of people at one time, or cause massive damage to structures. The 9/11 Attacks Terrorist hijacked various airplanes and flew them into buildings Greatly change the US can trace events back to the Persian Gulf War How did issues in the Persian Gulf region lead to conflict with the US? ~Saddam Hussein (1937-2006) was president of Iraq from 1979 to 2003 ruled as a dictator invaded Iran in 1980, starting an 8 year war known for human rights abuses such as torture and genocide used a secret police and terrorism to stay in power overthrown, convicted of war crimes, and executed ~Iraq invades Kuwait In 1990, Hussein’s army invaded Kuwait -Iraqi troops stationed themselves near border of Saudi Arabia -Saudi Arabia feared an Iraqi Invasion ~Ultimatum from the UN The UN Security Council demanded that Hussein leave Kuwait August 3, 1990: The UN tells Hussein to withdraw January 15, 1991: The UN deadline for withdrawal passes January 16,1991:Allied forces launch invasion -The coalition was led by the US -It included NATO and Arab forces from many countires ~Operation Desert Storm In January 1991, the US led a bombing campaign in Iraq -A ground invasion was launched six weeks later -Retreating Iraqi soldiers set fire to old wells in Kuwait -Iraq was forced to accept the UN’s cease fire terms ~The Persian Gulf War Ends Hussein agreed to the terms of cease-fire: Recognition of Kuwait’s right to exist independently -Elimination of long-range missiles and weapons of mass destruction in its possession -Cooperation with UN weapons inspectors, including allowing them to visit Iraq -Establishment of a US-led UN force in Saudi Arabia to protect Kuwait from further attack ~Hussein Remains in Power Kurds and Shiite Muslims rebelled against Hussein’s rule Hussein used chemical weapons against the rebels Hussein refused to admit UN weapons inspectors as required by the cease-fire The UN imposed sanctions against Iraq for Hussein’s unwillingness to cooperate ~The Taliban The Taliban rose to power by restoring order in Afghanistan after country’s 9 year war with the Soviet Union -The strict Islamic regime governed Afghanistan from 1996-2001 -The Taliban allowed terrorist organization to operate out of Afghanistan ~Al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda is a militant Islamist group founded in the late 1980s -It began as a force to fight the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan -It later demanded that US troops withdraw from Saudi Arabia -It has designed a terrorist organization by the UN Security Council, the European Union, NATO, and the US government ~Osama Bin Laden(1957-2011) United Islamic fighters he met in Afghanistan to create al-Qaeda Viewed the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as an attack on Islam Saw the US-led UN forces in Saudi Arabia as another attack on Isla, -Supported and bankrolled the 9/11 attacks ~Early al-Qaeda Attacks In 198, bin Laden told al-Qaeda members they should target Americans -In 1998, US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania were bombed In 2000, the USS Cole was attacked in Yemen ~September 11, 2001 On the morning of September 11,2001, a group of hijackers -boarded four planes leaving airports on the East Coast -attacked the flight crews and took over the planes’ controls after takeoff -flew planes toward targets in NY and DC -The hijackers piloted two planes into the World Trade Center’s twin towers, which soon collapsed -One plane was flown into the Pentagon -One plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania -Almost 3,000 people died ~The War on Terror After Sept 11 attacks: -the FBI identified the 19 hijackers and linked them to al-Qaeda -The US demanded that Afghanistan’s Taliban government turn over Osama bin Laden Afghanistan: -In Oct 2001, the US began bombing Taliban defenses -The Taliban were driven from power and a new government was established -Many countries contributed to the war effort, including Britain, Australia, Germany, and Pakistan Iraq: -in 2003, US forces invaded Iraq -The invasion was controversial -Saddam Hussein was captured, tried, and eventually executed for war crimes by the new Iraqi government -Free elections were held in 2005 ~US government Reaction to 9/11 Established the Department of Homeland Security Increased security at airports and on airplanes passed the USA Patriot Act Launched invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq

After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States demanded that

Afghanistan’s Taliban government turn over Osama bin Laden.

How did al-Qaeda get its start?

as a force against Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

What is a coalition?

a political alliance

What was the most likely motivation for Iraqis to set fire to oil wells in Kuwait?

They wanted revenge when they were forced to retreat from Kuwait.

What was the source of al-Qaeda’s hostility toward the United States?

Al-Qaeda wanted the United States to withdraw troops from Saudi Arabia.

As part of the war on terror, what action did the United States take in Afghanistan?

It drove the Taliban out of power.

Al-Qaeda’s main targets on September 11, 2001, were

New York City and Washington, DC.

Operation Desert Storm was the name of

the ground invasion in Kuwait.

Why did Saudi Arabia fear an Iraqi invasion?

Iraq invaded nearby Kuwait for its oil.

Why was the US invasion of Iraq controversial?

Many did not agree that Iraq presented a terrorist threat.

Why did Saddam Hussein use weapons of mass destruction against Kurdish people and Shiite Muslims?

They rebelled against Saddam Hussein’s rule.

The Department of Homeland Security was created to

protect the United States from terrorist attacks.

Arab forces most likely fought with the United States in the Gulf War because

they wanted to protect their own resources.

How would al-Qaeda have been affected if the Taliban had not supported it?

It would not have developed a strong base in Afghanistan.

Why did Singapore secede from Malaysia?

Its primarily Chinese population was facing threats and conflict from the Malay majority of the country.

In addition to Spain and the United States, which nation controlled the Philippines for a time?


In ____, Osama bin Laden first told al-Qaeda to target Americans.


How did Osama bin Laden form Al-Qaeda?

He united Islamic fighters he met in Afghanistan.

Read the passage from a speech by President Harry Truman.
It has been the repeated declaration of the legislative and executive branches of the Government of the United States of America that full independence would be granted the Philippines as soon as the people of the Philippines were prepared to assume this obligation…the people of the Philippines have clearly demonstrated their capacity for self-government…
-Proclamation of Philippines Independence, July 4, 1946

What did the Philippines need to do before assuming independence?

show they would be able to govern themselves

Approximately ____ people died in the attacks of September 11, 2001.


Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba in 1959 and created a government based on

a communist dictatorship.

What of the following characterized Ghana after 1992?

advances in education and human services

Which of the following groups attempted insurgency against the newly independent Philippine government?


In chronological order, Mexico’s leaders after its independence in 1821 and before its revolution in 1910 were

Santa Anna, Benito Juarez, and Porfirio Diaz.

Why did India’s desire for independence increase following World War II?

It felt that its service in the war effort should grant it independence.

In 1967, ethnic minorities rebelled against Yoruba rule in


Which event sparked extremist Hutus to incite genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda?

the death of the Rwandan president

What resulted when Europeans created colonial boundaries that ignored Africa’s cultural divisions? Check all that apply.

widespread ethnic conflict lack of national identity

A military group that rules another country by force is

a junta.

After the Philippines became independent, its relationship with the United States


The Philippines gained full independence from the US in


Which Indochinese country was under control of a junta for decades?


Since independence, Malaysia has been highly successful in


Why did the United States become involved in the Philippines’ affairs?

to fight the Spanish-American War

In the Philippines, attempted takeovers by Communist rebels

are still an ongoing problem today.

Which of the following nations achieved independence through armed rebellion? Check all that apply.

Cambodia Vietnam

Why did the Philippines help the United States fight the Spanish during the Spanish-American War?

It believed that helping would make the United States grant it independence.

Which of the following countries were part of French Indochina? Check all that apply.

Cambodia Laos Vietnam

How did the Dutch set themselves up for an uprising by the people of Indonesia?

They provided too many opportunities for the Indonesians, who used their new skills to demand independence.

After winning independence, both Vietnam and Cambodia

achieved global economic success.

____ faced horrific reign of repression and terror after gaining independence.


Which of the following best summarizes the character of Aung San Suu Kyi?

fearless activist who would risk imprisonment for principles

What was the original purpose of the SS?

to intimidate the German population

The Third Reich based its power primarily on


Hitler most likely forced Jews to wear a yellow star so that Jews could

be identified and arrested more easily.

When Hitler assumed control of the Nazi party, he immediately

began enforcing his personal nationalistic and racist views.

Appeasement was a popular policy because European leaders

wanted to avoid another war.

Hitler can be described as a fanatical despot because he

worshiped force and despised persuasion.

Under Nazi rule, the university curriculum was changed to place the most emphasis on


Why were idealistic supporters of the Nazi party willing to endorse Hitler’s annexation of Austria?

They wanted a quick return to the former power and glory of Germany.

Six months after the Munich Conference, Hitler annexed


In a parliamentary system of representative democracy, the prime minister

is the leader of the party that won the most seats.

Why did Hitler most likely believe Germany had a right to invade other countries? 6


Why did the Weimar Republic collapse?


The Third Reich based its power primarily on


Why were idealistic supporters of the Nazi party willing to endorse Hitler’s annexation of Austria?


When Hitler assumed control of the Nazi party, he immediately


Based upon an understanding of Nazi Germany and Hitler’s tactics, what is most likely to happen under totalitarian rule?


The Nazi party most strongly appealed to the German people because it


What did Hitler promise in order to gain the support of German youth?


Read this quotation from Winston Churchill.

"You were given the choice between war and dishonor. You chose dishonor and you will have war."

What does Churchill mean by his use of the word "dishonor"?


What was one aspect of Racial Purity laws?


Appeasement was a popular policy because European leaders


In the United States, who elects the legislature?


Central and state governments influence each other in a

federal system.

Which statement about communism is the most accurate?

Communism gives control to party leaders.

The two forms of democracy are

direct and representative.

In a democracy, government gets its power from

what the majority of the citizens want.

In a unitary system of government, local offices

must follow decisions made by the central government.

In which system of government would states function independently of each other?


What is the main difference between federal and confederal systems of government?

In a federal system there is centralized authority, while in a confederal system power is distributed equally among the states.

Which statement best defines a communist government?

A communist government is led by one political party.

What was Benito Mussolini’s attitude toward personal liberties?

The state should decide which personal liberties were needed.

How were the governments of Japan and Italy similar in the 1930s? Check all that apply.

Both used extreme nationalism to win support. Both began programs of aggressive expansion.

What actions characterize authoritarian governments? Check all that apply.

Leaders often seize power by illegitimate means All citizens prosper under the government. Citizens support the government’s official ideology. A single leader or a very powerful group rules. Leaders refuse to tolerate dissenting views.

Who fought on the side of the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War?

international volunteers

When did military rulers take control in Japan?

during the Great Depression

How does a totalitarian government differ from most authoritarian governments?

It is more extreme and rigid.

Why did Japanese soldiers kill so many civilians in Nanking, China?

Commanders encouraged their soldiers to be as brutal as possible.

When Benito Mussolini came into power, he promised to

solve Italy’s economic problems.

How did Benito Mussolini attempt to increase Italy’s power?

by seizing control of new land

Who was Francisco Franco?

the fascist dictator of Spain

law enforcement

The government provides a number of public safety services, including


State governments must follow which type of laws

Government creates laws and provides leadership

Which best describes the two main functions of US government

to represent their interests in government

Which best describes why voters choose political candidates

guarantee rights for citizens

A purpose of government in the United States is to


Which form of government serves the interests of royal family members

In some countries, citizens do not have the right to vote

Which best states a difference between voting in the US and in other countries


A country governed by a central party is best characterized as

police officers

A public safety service the US government provides is

separation of powers

The division of the US government into three branches is called

building bridges and roads

One responsibility of the government is to provide public works, which includes

the economy

What does the US government help regulate

judicial branch

The part of the US government that interprets laws is the

public education

The government provides a number of public welfare services, including

theocracy and communism

What are two types of oligarchies

A communist government is led by one political party

Which statement best defines a communist government

he holds all of the power

In an autocracy, what kind of power does the leader hold

from the time of taking the throne to their death

How long is an individual monarch’s term of rule

federal system

Central and state governments influence each other in

large groups of voters would be difficult to manage

The best reason why direct democracy would not work well in the United States is that

direct and representative

The two forms of democracy are

Athens had a small population

Why did direct democracy work for the ancient Greek city of Athens

The leader maintains power through force

Which statement best characterizes a dictatorship

is the leader of the party that won the most seats

In a parliamentary system of representative democracy, the prime minister

all citizens

In a direct democracy, who votes on government policy


In the United States, who elects the legislature

Citizens elect leaders who vote on the issues in a representative democracy, and citizens vote on the issues in a direct democracy

What is the main way a representative democracy differs from a direct democracy

a government ruled by a small, elite group

An oligarchy is best defined as

separates powers, keeping one body from gaining too much power

A benefit of a bicameral legislature is that it


How many of the Ten Commandments can be found in the laws of the United States

general assembly

All citizens in ancient Athens took part in government by voting in the

citizens to participate in government

The most important way in which the Greeks influenced American democracy was by allowing

Women can vote and serve in government

What would most surprise an ancient Athenian about government in the United States today

treated all its people fairly regardless of class

Pericles claimed that the Athenian government, unlike other Greek city-states

vote on important decisions

A direct democracy is one in which all citizens

The legislative branch in Athens had two main bodies

In what way did ancient Athens influence the framers of the United States Constitution

Greek-city states

Where did democracy begin

equality of all citizens

You shall not render an unjust judgment; you shall not be partial to the poor or defer to the great: with justice you shall judge your neighbor. Which principle of American government is reflected in this passage

living and worshiping

The Ten Commandments are a list of rules for

Christians and Jews

Judeo-Christian principles refer to the religious beliefs and values held in common by


In addition to Judeo-Christian principles, American government was influenced by principles first used in ancient Greece and in


A bicameral legislature is made up of how many bodies

allow for a diversity of opinions

state which becomes progressively more and more a unity will cease to be a state at all. Plurality of numbers is natural in a state; and the further it moves away from plurality towards unity, the less of a state it becomes. Aristotle believed that the citizens of a successful state must

Commentaries on the Laws of England

The English document that laid the groundwork for judges in the US to rule based on precedent is known as the

gave more power to the people and protected their rights

An important effect of the Magna Carta on English government was that it

common laws became more accessible

What was an important effect of Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England

speak freely

The English Bill of Rights declared that each member of Parliament had the right to


According to the English Bill of Rights, who makes laws regarding taxation

legislative branch

The Magna Carta led to the creation of Parliament, England’s

were tired of his tyrannical rule

The Magna Carta was presented to King John in 1215 because people

the monarchy

The English Bill of Rights put limits on the power of

common law

Which of these best completes the empty box to the right with limited government and rights for citizens

created a record of common law

William Blackstone was important because he


The Magna Carta placed clear limits on the power of the

due process

No freeman is to be taken or imprisoned or disseised of his free tenement or of his liberties or free customs. . . . To no-one will we sell or deny of delay right or justice. This part of the document granted people the right to

protection against unusual punishment and the right to trial by jury

Key privileges included in both the English Bill of Rights and the US Bill of Rights include

right to trial by jury, bear arms, and protection from cruel and unusual punishment.

Which rights for citizens appear in the English Bill of Rights? Check all that apply

communicate opinions and ideas

That the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament. According to this excerpt, members of Parliament are allowed to


Common law refers to laws determined through

power over the English monarchy3+

The Glorious Revolution of 1688 demonstrated that Parliament had


When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner. According to the quote, what is lost if one person has too much power.

the natural rights governing human behavior and society

What did the philosophers of the Enlightenment seek to understand

naturally reasonable

John Locke believed humans are


Have the bravery to use your own reason! – that sums up the meaning of enlightenment. According to the quote, the Enlightenment encourages people to do what for themselves.


The key idea of John Locke’s Enlightenment theory was to protect and enhance the freedoms and rights of

Thomas Hobbes

Who supported the Enlightenment idea that people are naturally selfish

life, liberty, and property

Locke argued that all humans are born with what natural rights

to reduce liberty

Law was brought into the world for nothing else but to limit the natural liberty of particular men in such manner as they might not hurt but assist one another and join together against a common enemy. According to Hobbes, what is the primary purpose of the social contract?

human reason

What did philosophers of the Enlightenment have faith in, believing it could answer questions and solve problems


According to John Locke, who must respect the rights of the citizens

universal rights

Which term is synonymous with "natural rights," according to Enlightenment philosophers


John Locke helped develop the idea of a social contract between citizens and the

to limit the power of any single group or person

Why did Montesquieu advocate the separation of powers

innately violent

John Locke thought that people were neither good nor bad innately. How did Hobbes’s views differ from those of Locke’s

as useful

How did the Enlightenment’s theories of government view the role of government


The Enlightenment was an age of inquiry based on what, not religion

do not come from the government

John Locke believed that natural rights

government violated social contract, it is okay

Under what circumstances did John Locke think it would be acceptable for the people to overthrow the government

driving on the highway

Which could be considered an act indicating acceptance of the social contract

Government has the power to protect natural rights, but people can change their government if it fails to do so

Which best summarizes the social contract outlined in the Preamble to the Declaration of Independence

the rights that cannot, or should not, be taken away

Which statement describes a natural right

cannot be surrendered

The Declaration of Independence refers to rights as being unalienable. What does "unalienable" mean

the body

Which part of the Declaration of Independence acts as an implied plan of action, in that it lists laws and practices to be changed

They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

John Locke, an Enlightenment-era philosopher, influenced the American movement for independence. Locke believed that all people were entitled to natural rights. Which quotation from the preamble to the Declaration of Independence enshrines natural rights

They were taxed without having representation in Parliament.

Why were taxes an ongoing source of conflict for the American colonists

Yes. It outlines when it is appropriate to remove a government.

Does the preamble to the Declaration of Independence indicate reasons why the new independent government might be similarly removed or overthrown? Why or why not?

He believed the king would only approve laws that benefited Britain.

Why did Thomas Paine question British authority to rule the colonies in Common Sense

Thomas Paine published Common Sense

As the result of a conflict between British troops and a colonial militia in Massachusetts

It was the first major act of defiance by the colonists

Which best describes why the Boston Tea Party is considered such a significant event in US history

the Preamble

In which section of the Declaration of Independence is the purpose of government described


As the colonies moved toward independence, the First Continental Congress was created in


Which type of rights did the colonists who drafted the Declaration of Independence most want to protect

a government based on a social contract

The preamble to the Declaration of Independence outlines the principles upon which the new government would be based. Which of these best describes one of those principles

the right to self-govern

The Declaration of Independence intended to end British rule in the colonies, and grant citizens

No. The war started a year before the Declaration of Independence was written.

Was the Declaration of Independence intended to be a formal declaration of war? Why or why not

increased open public support for independence

Which had the greatest influence in prompting the Second Continental Congress to declare independence

In order for the Articles of Confederation to be more successful, all states must work together.

If the cartoon is interpreted with the Articles of Confederation in mind, what would it most likely be saying?

drawing up treaties

Which responsibilities were assigned to the federal government under the Articles of Confederation

the states

If a power was not specified under the Articles of Confederation, who would be responsible for it


The fact that there was no national military was a weakness in which area of government

to have a unified nation for times of war

Which was a main reason for creating the Articles of Confederation

Nine of the states had to agree before a law was passed

Why was it very difficult to get laws passed under the Articles of Confederation


Which word best describes the federal government that was created under the Articles of Confederation

The Declaration of Independence outlined a relationship between individuals and the government but did not detail the power and control of that government

Why did colonists feel the Articles of Confederation were necessary even though the Declaration of Independence was already written

The national government didn’t hold enough power.

What was the main failure of the Articles of Confederation that eventually led to the US Constitution

The federal government had no national army

What would be the federal government’s biggest problem if a war was imminent

There was no national court system

Which reason most closely illustrates why the federal government was unable to maintain order in the new nation

all of them

A state legislator wants to amend the Articles of Confederation. How many states would have to agree in order for the amendment to pass

Both regions recognized that how enslaved people were counted would significantly affect representation

Why was the issue of slavery so important to the delegates of the Constitutional Convention

a government made up of two parts or houses

What is the best definition of bicameral

to discuss a better system of government

Why did the state delegates meet in 1787


The issue of slavery at the Constitutional Convention was actually an issue about

They generally had less enslaved labor than the southern states

Which statement about the northern states in the 1780s is accurate

the House of Representatives

In what part of the Great Compromise are the ideas of the Virginia Plan represented

in every single state

According to the 1790 census, where did enslaved people live within the United States

The farms of the South raised agricultural products

What was the primary way the farms in the South differed from those in the North

It created balance by blending the Virginia and New Jersey plans

How did the Great Compromise resolve the dispute about representation


What were the men who came to the Constitutional Convention referred to as

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