Cumulative Exam Questions

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The graph shows British cotton imports throughout the eighteenth century.

This graph could help a writer draft a document-based essay about the British Empire because it shows how the British textile industry

increased as the empire expanded (increased as the empire collapsed)

Why was Maximilien de Robespierre executed?

He eventually became a tyrant.

Which is a characteristic of the Jacobins?

They were extremely radical

What ended the Boxer Rebellion?

Allied forces came in and crushed the rebellion notes: A multinational European force crushed the rebellion

Which statement most accurately answers why the Europeans in the Caribbean felt the need to bring in enslaved Africans as laborers?

Europeans grew crops like coffee and sugar that could yield a high profit, but required many laborers.

The formation of the National Assembly had what long-term effect on the Estates-General?

It caused the Estates-General to cease to exist.

An important philosophical idea during the Enlightenment was that

ordinary people should be able to pursue greater opportunities.

The Treaty of Tordesillas established a territorial dividing line between

Spain and Portugal

During the Renaissance, applying humanist ideas to government meant that people began to

debate about government.

The Third Estate included approximately ninety-eight percent of the French population under the Old Regime. Which group was exclusively part of this estate?

impoverished nobility

Why, after having dissolved Parliament, did Charles I call it back into session?

to force it to sign the Petition of Right

The Spanish class system placed people in the top class primarily based upon

how much Spanish blood a person had

Following the Enlightenment, many Europeans began to

believe people could improve their government.

Which best explains why Britain restricted trade with the colonies?

to restrict access to Britain’s goods as punishment (to ensure that trade generated taxes for the Crown) to make sure that Britain received the colonies’ best exports to inhibit the distribution of colonial goods—and colonial income

What forced Europeans to look for other routes east?

(Land routes were closed off by Ottoman Turks.) Europeans were conquered by Ottoman Turks. Europeans lost interest in Eastern products. Land routes no longer led to needed goods. notes: 2. Europe and the Ottoman Empire As the Ottoman Empire weakened, European countries took advantage of the situation. -They began to annex Ottoman land -This expansion led to the Crimean War between the Ottomans and the Russians 2. The End of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire continued to weaken and broke apart following World War I. -European influence continued to grow in the region

Which event marked the end of fighting during World War I?

the armistice

During the era of reform studied, which was the last group to win the rights they fought for?


In what way did industrialization affect the working class?

They improved their standard of living

Which were provisions of the Open Door policy? Check all that apply.

-All foreign countries had to pay taxes equally -Only the Chinese government could collect tariffs on trade. -Countries with a sphere of influence should maintain free access to their ports notes: Each country with a sphere of influence should maintain free access to ports Only the Chinese government could collect tariffs on trade All foreign countries had to pay taxes equally

What slowed the spread of the Italian Renaissance across Europe?


What became of most of the Central powers’ colonies after World War I?

They became League of Nations mandates notes: The League of Nations created mandates out of territories formerly held by the Central Powers.

What was the main cause of the Sino-Japanese War?

Japan and China competed for influence in Korea.

Italy during the Renaissance is best described as

an important center of trade

A religious heretic was known as

a person who held beliefs going against the teachings of a church

In the 1500s, the Council of Trent was led by a group of

(Lutheran ministers who wanted to spread their ideas.) Catholic cardinals who wanted to reform the Church. German princes who wanted to end a peasants’ rebellion. Calvinists who wanted to make laws that followed their beliefs.

What did John Winthrop do in the Americas?

founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony

The term that best describes factory work during the 1800s is


Which best describes the location of the famous ceiling that Michelangelo painted?

inside the Sistine Chapel

After the American Revolution, why did other nations look to the United States as a model nation?

The United States was able to maintain its independence.

This is an image of the conquistadors.

The image gives the impression that

the conquistadors were men doing God’s work. or (they were praying to the false god of gold.)

Read the passage below from Olaudah Equiano’s autobiography:

I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation [greeting] in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: so that, with the loathsomeness [horribleness] of the stench and crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat. I now wished for the last friend, death, to relieve me; but soon, to my grief, two of the white men offered me eatables [food]; and on my refusing to eat, one of them held me fast by the hands, and laid me across I think the windlass [a part of the ship], and tied my feet, while the other flogged [beaten or whipped] me severely.

What most accurately describes the narrator’s circumstance?

He is an enslaved person on a ship who wishes to die rather than endure the inhumane conditions he faces.

Why did the partition of Africa create artificial boundaries?

Europeans ignored traditional boundaries when they carved out their colonies notes: Traditional tribal and ethnic boundaries were ignored 12. Political Effects of Imperialism The partition of Africa created artificial boundaries. This increased conflict between tribal groups Independent nations were unstable to accommodate for ethnic, religious, and cultural diversity

What was the main reason imperial nations built large naval forces?

to protect their economic interests notes: Imperial countries built large navies to protect their economies interests.

What was one economic factor that helped support industrialization in England?

(Many workers were eager for jobs.) Wealthy landowners increased crop production. notes: 8. Britain’s Economic Advantages England had the economic ability to support industrialization -Large supply of workers -Bankers and entrepreneurs willing to invest in manufacturing -Innovative thinkers and inventors

What was one of Dadabhai Naoroji’s major accomplishments?

He was the first Indian to serve in the British Parliament. notes: 15. Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917) confounded the Indian National Congress was the first Indian elected to the British Parliament

Passage of the Habeas Corpus Act (1679) meant that people could no longer be

held without trial

In Don Quixote, Miguel de Cervantes uses the story of a man who dresses as a knight to explore

human nature

The main goal of the Berlin Conference of 1885 was to

partition Africa notes: In 1885, the Berlin Conference was held to divide the continent. Africa was partitioned by the European leaders

In addition to patronage, merchant families during the Renaissance began to

educate their sons

One reason Renaissance art looks more lifelike than Medieval art is that it uses


After the defeat of Russia, Japan focused on the expansion of its empire, beginning with

seizing the Korean peninsula and eventually annexing it. notes: 11. Expansion of the Japanese Empire After defeating Russia, Japan seized the Korean peninsula. Japan made Korea a protectorate in 1905 Japan forced Korea to accept annexation in 1910

In the 1800s, Britain and the United States had laws against unionizing mainly because they believed unions

would be bad for the economy from notes: Viewd unions as an economic threat Believed unions were illegal Used force to end union activities

During new imperialism, the number of settlers ____ compared to old imperialism.

increased a little (increased greatly) notes: Political factors Growth of natives

How did France’s colonial influence on North America begin?

Samuel de Champlain established the first successful French settlement.

What is one way the East India Company asserted its authority in India?

The company collected taxes from Indian citizens. notes: 4. The Rise of the East India Company As Mughal influence declined, the East India Company grew more powerful; it: expanded its trading operations across the region created regional governments, with company governors in charge used its private army to force Mughal rulers to accept company demands collected taxes from Indians The East India Company: bribed local leaders, or used its army, to enforce its decisions reported to investors was concerned with making profit

An increased demand for books during the 1500s meant that

more books were written in the vernacular

Why was the 1848 revolt in Prussia successful only in the short term?

The new elected assembly was dissolved a year later notes: Prussia -Liberals forced the king to accept a new constitution and elected assembly -The assembly was dissolved a year later

Following the Congress of Vienna, French liberals mainly belonged to which group?

middle-class business owners

How did improved transportation affect farming?

More people farmed because they could reach distant farmlands. Fewer people farmed because they could travel to other jobs. (More people farmed because they could transport crops easily.) Fewer people farmed because railways destroyed farmlands.

To paraphrase a document for an informative essay, students should

restate ideas from the text in their own words.

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