Cultural Anthropology Final Exam Ch. 6-10

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One of the main reasons localization interests anthropologists is that

Global integration creates opportunity for local cultures to express themselves

Eric Wolf encouraged anthropologists to consider what in their field studies?


Franz Boas and his students were ________, emphasizing that cultural characteristics result from a spread of cultural attributes from one society to another.


A key difference between development anthropologists and anthroplogists of development is

The first are analysts of development; the second seek ways to influence it from within

Often, anthropologists use the term "__________" rather than "globalization" to refer to the "global" circulation of goods and people.


A world systems theory is important for all of the following reasons except

It lends itself readily to ethnographic methodology

__________ are people who are expelled by the authorities of their home countries.


James Ferguson, who is an anthropologist of development, argues that development exists

To expand state power

Which of the following best describes the methodology of multisited ethnography?


People participate in globalization by

All of the above (consuming coca cola, watching tv, migrating to distant cities for work)

Financial globalization has allowed for

Corporations to move factories from one country to another

Which of the following are areas of social activity that globalization affects?

All of the above (finances, communication, migration)

A central feature of cultural convergence theories that

They explain the apparent decline of cultural diversity

When people consume the same clothes, food, and goods they eventually think and behave the same.


Cultural differences are often caused by

Interconnections between societies

People in the periphery responded passively to capitalist expansion.


___________ are people who leave their homes to work for a time in other regions or countries


There are four major modes of ________ that anthropologists understand as the social relationships and practices necessary for procuring, producing, and distributing food.


Food security refers to

Access to sufficient nutritious food to be healthy and active

Anthropologists are interested in the nutrition transition because

It explains widespread changes in bodily form, eating patterns, and everyday life in urban settings

Eating practices mark

All of the above (gender, age, ethnic group)

Long-term damage to soil quality is typical of


Anthropologist Sidney Mintz observes that most people around the world usually

Eat a common patterned diet of core-legume-fringe foods

Slash-and-burn agriculture, also called _________ agriculture, is the most effective farming technique in tropical areas when population densities are low


The human diet is


Changes in diet toward energy-dense foods and declines in physical activity are producing what scholars call the ____________.

Nutrition transition

Which of the following is not true of how food preferences relate to gender?

Men always love meat, no matter which culture they are from

The ability to digest milk into adulthood is called lactase __________.


Which mode of subsistence includes the search for edible things?


A cultural relativist would be most likely to emphasize that pastoralists

Have developed effective social institutions and knowledge that ensure long-term sustainability of the landscape

Taste refers to both a physical sensation and social distinction and prestige.


"Foodways" describes a perspective that approaches food as

All of the above

Anthropologists study food holistically, which means that they focus on

All of the above

What pivotal evolutionary shift happened around 1.8 to 2 million years ago that is closely related to human foodways?

Meat consumption increased

Why was meat eating important for human evolution?

It provides high-quality protein for human brain development

What is fortress conservation?

An approach to conservation that assumes that people are threatening to nature

_________ development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs


Which of the following reasons best explains why a collaborative approach to conservation can be so challenging?


What relationship between nature and human does Western thought emphasize?


Why do environmental anthropologists study formal nature protection?

It often generates social conflicts

The view that nature and environmental conditions shape the characteristics and lifeways of a group of people is known as environmental ________.


Interest within environmental anthropology concerned with how non-western societies classify natural phenomena is called _______.


British settles of the North American continent mistook a(n) __________ an unpeopled wilderness.

Artifactual landscape

"Mother nature" and "natural resources" are a good example of

Metaphors of human-nature interaction

According to Itzaj beliefs

Humans and nature exist in the same realm

How did Americans aim to showcase their "civilization" after the Civil War?

Establishing formally protected areas

The concept that people have images, knowledge, and concepts of the physical landscape that affect how they will actually interact with it is called

A cultural landscape

Consumer capitalism contributes to increasing ecological footprints in industrialized nations because

All of the above

What do environmental anthropologists study?

All of the above

Traditional ecological knowledge is not well known in the West because

All of the above

One of the primary reasons indigenous leaders criticize the dominant model for administering protected environmental areas is

They assume nature must be uninhabited by people

Sustainable development for indigenous people involves which of the following elements?

All of the above

The British "enclosure movement" is important to understanding Western conservation approaches because

All of the above

A good illustration of the Marxist concept of surplus value is

A worker makes one $30 sweater every hour in a factory but gets paid only $15

The exchange of brass rods for the purchase of cattle or the payment of bride price is an example of the use of

Limited-purpose money

Exchange is human universal


People who live through objects and images not of their own making are ________.


The main reason men of the Malaysian Langkawi fishing community hand over their money to women is that

Women decontaminate money by using it to sustain the household

The themes of reciprocity and gift exchange are critical to anthropologists because

All of the above

Which of the following is a theoretical approach to how economies create value used in society?

All of the above

From an anthropological point of view, people take the price tag off of gifts and wrap birthday presents because

People have mixed feelings about expressing their connections with others using impersonal goods

The cooperative organization of work into specialized tasks and roles in industry is__________.

Division of labor

The collection of goods in a community and the subsequent redivision of those goods among members of a society is called


Economies in which people seek high social rank, prestige, and power instead of money and material wealth are known as

Prestige Economies

Which economic theory studies how people make decisions to allocate resources like time, labor, and money in order to maximize their personal satisfaction?

Neoclassical Economics

When a parent pays for a child’s piano lessons, he or she is engaged in

Balanced Reciprocity

A substantivist would be most likely to explain the Kula cycle as

Closely tied to important social institutions, such as kin networks, trading ties, and political structure

When you are consuming an object, the process of taking possession of it is called


The use of money is a human universal.


According to anthropologists, economies are shaped by which factors?

All of the above

Which word is most closely linked to the Marxist perspective?


The importance of a phenomenon like "revenge suicide" in Papua New Guinea is that it

demonstrates that the nonpowerful have ways of exercising political power

All forms of political power require


Which of the following social structures was identified as a way that African societies maintained order?

associations (such as age-grades), religious practices and beliefs, kinship systems

A society’s separate legal and constitutional domain that is the source of law, order, and legitimate force is the


For anthropologists, political power refers to

how power is used to attain goals for the good of the community

You and your sibling are fighting over who gets to use the family car. When your parent intervenes and seeks a solution that is agreeable to both of you, it is an example of


Which of the following is a political act?

running for election, gossiping about a neighbor to shame them for not fulfilling their obligations, protesting against police brutality

A society with no governmental head or hierarchical structure is a(n)


A key feature of political anthropologist Maxwell Owusu’s perspective on democracy in Ghana is that the state will work better if village chiefs play a role in decision-making


The !Kung people of southern Africa are an example of what kind of society?


When people describe violence as meaningless they

interpret violence as something without reason

Which English philosophers were concerned with the problem of a disorder and argued that chaos is avoidable by creating strong government?

Hobbes and Locke

In most of the world’s cultures, when people have disputes, they are most concerned with sinning and losing.


An important dimension of political power is

control over material resources, control over human resources, control over symbolic resources

For a big man in a nonstate society, what is the most powerful and valuable tool?


The legal process by which an individual or council with socially recognized authority intervenes in a dispute and unilaterally makes a decision is


Why is the description of conflict as "ethnic violence" misleading?

it implies age-old conflict that are not affected by historical or political events, it suggests that violence is biological and certain "ethnic" groups are more violent than others, it ignores the peaceful interactions of groups over time

People living in noncentralized political systems have generally welcomed their integration into centralized (nation-state) political systems because it provides greater security and prosperity for them


The importance of structural functionalism is that it

showed colonial governments that non-Western societies have order without formal government

The practice in which a third party intervenes in a dispute to aid the parties in reaching an agreement is called


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