criminology final exam

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1. ________________ assumes that criminal behavior increases because certain individuals are caught and branded as offenders.

a. consensus theory
b. conflict theory
c. labeling theory
d. left realism theory

c

2. _____________’s theory focused on the process that occurs after an individual has been caught and designated as violating the law.

a. Lemert
b. Tannenbaum
c. Cooley
d. Mead
e. Becker

b

3. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance was written by _______ about the labeling perspective.

a. Lemert
b. Becker
c. Tannenbaum
d. Cooley
e. Mead

b

4. Who is deviance created by?

a. law makers
b. politicians
c. individuals
d. society

d

5. The process by which an individual is identified as a deviant and thereafter viewed in a new light.

a. retrospective interpretation
b. stereotyping
c. status-degradation ceremony
d. negotiation

a

6. Criminologists from the consensus perspective maintain all of the following EXCEPT:

a. where differences between groups exist, law is the neutral mechanism that helps individuals resolve their conflicts
b. law reflects the need for social order
c. law is a product of value consensus
d. law is a partial system that protects private interests

d

7. Group conflict theory focuses only on those situations in which criminal behavior is a result of conflicting group interests, which includes all of the following types of crimes EXCEPT:

a. crimes arising from racial and ethnic clashes
b. crimes arising from labor disputes
c. crimes arising from robbery
d. crimes arising from political protest

c

8. The philosophy and teachings of Karl Marx influenced the development of _______________.

a. labeling theory
b. consensus theory
c. radical conflict theory
d. group conflict theory

c

9. _________ argues that part of human nature is that people’s lives are a part, and a product, of their group associations.

a. labeling theory
b. critical-radical theory
c. consensus theory
d. group conflict theory

d

10. Cooley noted that primary groups are those characterized by intimate and personal interactions. Some of the most important primary groups are all of the following EXCEPT:

a. neighborhood
b. play groups
c. family
d. celebrities

d

11. During the various decision-making stages of police encounters with juveniles, police react to various cues from the juveniles including all of the following EXCEPT:

a. hair color
b. dress
c. age
d. demeanor

a

12. Generally, criminologists have incorporated Marxist ideology in the following three (3) ways. (Choose the answer below that is not one of the three (3) ways Marxist ideology is incorporated.)

a. law is a tool of the ruling class
b. scholars need to address the relationships between mode of production and understanding crime
c. all crime in capitalist countries is a product of class struggle
d. laws are made by the proletariat and followed by the bourgeoisie

d

13. The integrated structural-Marxist theory incorporates all of the following theories EXCEPT:

a. labeling theory
b. biological theory
c. control theory
d. strain theory

b

14. John Hagan emphasized that labeling theory would likely benefit empirically from the recognition of what type of relationship between the actor and reactor?

a. reciprocal
b. dissociated
c. separate
d. independent

a

15. ___________ contends that society should attempt reconciliation through mediation and dispute settlement.

a. left realism
b. peacemaking criminology
c. restorative justice perspective
d. consensus perspective

b

16. Restorative justice emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT:

a. criminal justice system
b. victim
c. offender
d. community

a

17. The four sides of the square of crime include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. the state
b. the offender
c. the proletariat
d. the victim

c

18. Left realists stress the necessity of a _______ strategy in a capitalist society.

a. crime-control
b. problem-oriented
c. community-oriented
d. crime-prevention

a

19. An example of a diversionary program is ___________.

a. prison
b. youth courts
c. parole
d. state-jail facility

b

20. According to Tannenbaum, the process of making the criminal involves all of the following EXCEPT:

a. defining the individual
b. stigmatizing the individual
c. identifying the individual
d. tagging the individual

b

21. Peacemaking criminology incorporates all of the following intellectual traditions EXCEPT:

a. feminist
b. religious
c. critical
d. consensus

d

22. Turk’s ___________ (the process of being labeled a criminal) occurs through the interaction between those who enforce the law and those who violate the law.

a. consensus theory
b. labeling theory
c. theory of criminalization
d. conflict theory

c

23. _________ is usually associated with racial prejudice and discrimination and can also occur in police encounters with juveniles. [

a. retrospective interpretation
b. stereotyping
c. status-degradation ceremony
d. negotiation

b

24. Mead was concerned with the ________, or ascertaining the meaning of the actions or remarks of the other person.

a. interpretation
b. definition
c. label
d. symbol

a

25. _________ made a significant contribution to the labeling perspective by distinguishing between primary and secondary deviance.

a. Lemert
b. Tannenbaum
c. Cooley
d. Mead

a

26. The superordinate class that owns the means of production is called the bourgeoisie.

a. True
b. False

f

27. Lemert provided a concise, working definition of deviance that was lacking from labeling theory in general.

a. True
b. False

f

28. The primary focus of critical-radical theories is power and the use of that power.

a. True
b. False

f

29. Non-symbolic interaction occurs when individuals interpret each other’s gestures and act based on the meaning of those gestures.

a. True
b. False

f

30. Retributive justice refers to the repair of justice through a one-sided approach of imposing punishment.

a. True
b. False

t

31. Left realism contends that previous criminological theories have been incomplete in that they lack one side of the square of crime.

a. True
b. False

f

32. Negotiation is more .noticeable in cases involving adults rather than juveniles.

a. True
b. False

t

33. Labeling theory is not overly concerned with questions of why an individual engages in deviant behavior.

a. True
b. False

t

34. Cultural norms are associated with actual behavior patterns (e.g., the law as enforced).

a. True
b. False

f

35. The dramatization of evil states that when relatively minor laws are broken, the community tends to dramatize it.

a. True
b. False

t

36. A major policy implication of labeling theory relates to incorporating diversion programs, particularly for juveniles.

a. True
b. False

t

37. The Omnibus Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 lessened the disparity between mandatory minimum sentences for crack and powder cocaine offenses.

a. True
b. False

f

38. Working-class parents in an unstable work-place setting tend to enforce an uneven and erratic family control structure that fluctuates between being lax and highly punitive.

a. True
b. False

t

39. Along with the dramatization of evil, Tannenbaum argues that acts are inherently good or bad.

a. True
b. False

f

40. Due to the lack of satisfactory data and empirical research, evaluating the adequacy of labeling theory has been difficult.

a. True
b. False

t

1. Feminists of the second wave of feminism argued that to be fully liberated, women needed to have all of the following EXCEPT:

a. equal access to economic opportunities
b. freedom of conscience
c. sexual freedoms
d. civil liberties

b

2. __________ pertains to behaviors and attitudes toward certain individuals that treat them as though they are on a pedestal.

a. gender
b. patriarchy
c. paternalism
d. chivalry
e. sex

d

3. Classic liberal feminists believe in the following facets EXCEPT:

a. freedom of expression
b. freedom of conscience
c. freedom of religion
d. freedom of assembly

d

4. According to socialist feminist perspective, what may be women’s ultimate worst enemy?

a. liberalism
b. capitalism
c. patriarchy
d. socialism
e. praxis

c

5. The Declaration of Sentiments stressed the need for reforms in all of the following EXCEPT:

a. employment
b. child custody laws
c. divorce
d. property

a

6. A perspective that says women as a group cannot be understood, even by other women, because every person’s experience is unique, therefore there is no need to measure or research such experiences.

a. liberal feminism
b. conservative feminism
c. radical feminism
d. postmodern feminism

d

7. _________ argued that there are basic biological differences between males and females.

a. Cesare Lombroso
b. Otto Pollak
c. W.I. Thomas
d. Sigmund Freud

c

8. The power-control theory attempted to explain gender differences in delinquency rates by including ___________.

a. social constructs
b. family dynamics
c. environmental influences
d. socioeconomic status

b

9. Multiracial feminism is an intersectional framework that includes such defining social characteristics as all of the following EXCEPT:

a. sexuality
b. nationality
c. geographic region
d. class
e. race

c

10. According to power-control theory, an integral aspect to the relationship between family dynamics, gender, and delinquency rates was ________.

a. environmental context
b. social structure
c. cultural acceptance
d. social class

d

11. Socialists feminism attempts to synthesize __________ and ________ feminism.

a. Marxist; liberal
b. radical; Marxist
c. conservative; liberal
d. postmodern; radical
e. conservative; postmodern

b

12. ___________ typically collects data, usually though interviews, at one point in time that provide retrospective inquiry as to an individual’s life and life experiences.

a. qualitative research
b. life course research
c. pathways research
d. quantitative research

c

13. Amanda Burgess-Proctor identified the following key conceptual factors that distinguish multiracial feminism from other feminist perspectives EXCEPT:

a. avoids placing women as either offenders or victims
b. gender relations do not exist in a vacuum
c. founded on concept of relationality
d. stresses importance of recognizing the ways intersecting systems of power and privilege interact on all social-structural levels

a

14. _________ refers not just to consciousness raising but also to the establishment of alternative arrangements that will provide models for change, which then change consciousness.

a. piety
b. praxis
c. patriarchy
d. relationality

b

15. The phrase "the personal is the political" refers to the notion that the "private sphere" is as structured as the "public sphere" by power relations involving all of the following EXCEPT:

a. age
b. ethnicity
c. gender
d. sexuality
e. class

b

16. __________ argued that women are more criminal in nature than has been generally perceived. He also suggested that criminologists should address the unknown criminality of women.

a. Cesare Lombroso
b. Otto Pollak
c. W.I. Thomas
d. Sigmund Freud

b

17. __________ assert than an exclusively feminine gender identity will most often limit a woman’s development as a full human person.

a. radical-libertarian feminists
b. central-liberal feminists
c. classical-liberal feminists
d. radical-cultural feminists

a

18. _________ denotes that women need to be protected for their own good. In a broader social context, this implies independence for men and dependence for women.

a. gender
b. patriarchy
c. paternalism
d. chivalry
e. sex

c

19. What two determinants of female criminality did Cesare Lombroso emphasize in his book?

a. psychological
b. physiological
c. social-structural
d. socializing

ab

20. What Amendment to the Constitution gave women the right to vote?

a. 11th
b. 15th
c. 19th
d. 20th

c

21. The liberal political perspective adopted by some women during the second wave of feminism was influenced by ___________________.

a. civil rights movement
b. student movement
c. Code of Laws
d. Civil Rights Act of 1964
e. Declaration of Sentiments

d

22. All of the following are considered one (1) of the four (4) virtues comprising the attributes of true womanhood EXCEPT:

a. purity
b. domesticity
c. piety
d. assertiveness

d

23. The negative characterization of the black female as domineering, strong, assertive, independent, and masculine is called _________.

a. the mammy
b. the seductress
c. the Amazon
d. the sinister Sapphire

c

24. What is the main cause of patriarchy according to the radical feminist perspective?

a. society
b. male biology
c. female biology
d. government

c

25. Welfare liberal feminists favor government involvement in providing citizens, particularly underprivileged individuals, with all of the following EXCEPT:

a. food and water
b. housing
c. social security
d. health care
e. education

a

26. The characterization of the black female as a matriarch has traditionally been negative.

a. True
b. False

t

27. Some feminists have argued that the life course perspective has provided researchers with a greater understanding of how a woman’s offending is influenced by the social conditions of her life as well as by her being a woman in a patriarchal society.

a. True
b. False

f

28. The blurred boundaries theory assumes that groups of people are socially situated in relation to other groups of people based on their differences.

a. True
b. False

f

29. Gender-specific programs target juvenile girls and give females an increased sense of community that has been associated with developing and integrating a healthy identity.

a. True
b. False

t

30. A major criticism of this convention was that the focus was primarily on white, upper-class women.

a. True
b. False

t

31. According to the radical feminist perspective, the cause of gender inequality is based on men’s need or desire to control women’s sexuality and reproductive potential.

a. True
b. False

t

32. According to Cesare Lombroso, women who committed homicides often had cranial depressions as well as prominent cheekbones.

a. True
b. False

t

33. A number of feminist scholars maintain that examining difference, rather than equality, is a major emphasis of current feminist studies.

a. True
b. False

t

34. Under socialist feminism, class relations are primary with gender relations secondary.

a. True
b. False

f

36. Feminism is a belief that women and men are inherently not of equal worth.

a. True
b. False

f

35. Liberal feminists maintain, in principle, that sexism is the first, most widespread form of human oppression.

a. True
b. False

f

37. Female youths from patriarchal families were encouraged to engage in risk-taking behaviors, just as their brothers were.

a. True
b. False

f

38. The two types of research methods have been politicized, deeming one method more scientific than the other. However, overall not one of these methods has been deemed inherently superior to the other in the scientific community.

a. True
b. False

t

39. The social sciences have often placed women and the issues of concern to women at the center of its research.

a. True
b. False

f

40. When a researcher uses the sex role approach, it may lead to a form of biological determinism.

a. True
b. False

t

1. Sampson and Laub’s developmental model is considered a more specified form of:

a. social learning theory
b. Moffitt’s taxonomy
c. theory of drift
d. social control theory

c

2. ___________ refers to how often the individual offends at certain times.

a. onset
b. duration
c. intensity
d. frequency

d

3. The general theory of crime, proposed by Gottfredson and Hirschi, assumes that self-control must be established by age ______.

a. 18
b. 10
c. 15
d. 5

b

4. Thornberry combined _________ and _________ models when developing interactional model.
Page 324; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

a. social control; social learning
b. routine activities; social learning
c. social control; rational choice
d. routine activities; social control

a

5. Commitment to school and attachments to ________ are some of the most essential predictors of delinquency according to Thornberry’s interactional model.

a. siblings
b. teachers
c. friends
d. parents

d

6. The most significant and effective interventions can occur during what stages of life?

a. prenatal and adolescence
b. prenatal and perinatal
c. perinatal and nanogenarian
d. adolescence and nanogenarian

b

7. Virtually all studies on the life-course/developmental perspective show that most individual who get arrested:

a. continue committing minor-status offenses
b. graduate to higher level petty crimes
c. subsequently commit serious criminal acts
d. are never arrested again

d

8. Assigning special caseworkers for high-risk pregnancies, such as those involving _________, is another possible policy implication related to developmental theories.

a. low birth weight
b. C-section births
c. fibromyalgia
d. breech births

a

9. Thornberry places the level of attachment and commitment to conventional society ahead of the degree of ____________ that individual holds regarding criminal offending.

a. pressures
b. associations
c. moral beliefs
d. corrupt values

c

10. Self-selection refers to:

a. selecting where an individual will live
b. picking friends based on their previous delinquent behavior
c. learning criminality from delinquent associations
d. selecting who the individual will marry

b

11. According to J. C. Barnes, "hundreds of studies have shown support for the notion that ____________ offending is often preceded by deficiencies in pre-, peri-, and postnatal care that result in structural and/or functional brain abnormalities."

a. adolescence-limited
b. developmental limited
c. transitional
d. life-course persistent

d

12. When an individual becomes caught in a vicious cycle of criminality, according to Thornberry, this is called:

a. circle of abuse
b. cycle of violence
c. feedback loop
d. reaction circle

c

13. Research studies refer to offender frequency as _________.

a. delta
b. lambda
c. alpha
d. sigma

b

14. In a study conducted surveying criminologists, life-course/developmental theory was ranked number 2 after what other theory?

a. social bonds theory
b. techniques of neutralization theory
c. social learning theory
d. rational choice theory

c

15. All of the following are considered personality traits within low self-control EXCEPT:

a. quick temper
b. risk taking
c. short-term orientation
d. empathy

d

16. Gottfredson and Hirschi believe that socialization controls are established _________.

a. first years of life
b. during adolescence
c. around puberty
d. at the age 18

a

17. ___________ is the degree of seriousness of the offenses he or she commits at certain times in the offending career.

a. intensity
b. persistence
c. frequency
d. onset

a

18. Before 1970, criminological theories did not attempt to explain the ___________ of individual criminal careers.

a. factors
b. variables
c. stages
d. development

c

19. __________ developed the dual taxonomy theory involving life-persistent and adolescence-limited offenders.

a. Sampson & Laub
b. Thornberry
c. Moffitt
d. Gottfredson & Hirschi

c

20. Once low self-control is set at an early age, there is no way to develop it afterward (according to the general theory of crime). Developmental theory believes that:

a. people can change over time
b. people cannot change over time
c. people will always remain the same in their beliefs
d. actions may change, but beliefs do not

a

21. Studies have shown a link between childhood exposure to domestic violence and violent offending at older ages. This is called:

a. reaction cycle
b. circle of abuse
c. feedback loop
d. cycle of violence

d

22. Children of immigrants reported significantly higher rates/percentages of violence against _________ (according to studies).

a. fathers
b. mothers
c. siblings
d. grandparents

b

23. All of the following committed at an early age can be considered "red-flags" for determining the likelihood of an individual becoming a chronic offender EXCEPT:

a. history of delinquency
b. fire-setting
c. cruelty to animals
d. history of bed wetting

a

24. There is no systematic global data collection regarding child abuse; however, the __________ estimates child abuse for research use.

a. Glueck Harvard study
b. World Health Organization
c. Child Protective Services
d. Federal Bureau of Investigation

b

25. _________ was not seriously considered an Index crime until around 1978 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

a. aggravated assault
b. rape
c. burglary
d. arson

d

26. Asbestos is currently the most prominent of the various toxins that can predispose a young person toward criminality.

a. True
b. False

f

27. Adolescence-limited offenders make up most of the general public.

a. True
b. False

t

28. The general theory of crime (or low self-control theory) postulates that individuals are born being predisposed towards selfishness.

a. True
b. False

t

29. The longitudinal Rochester Youth Development Study tested Thornberry’s model and found no support for the interactional model.

a. True
b. False

f

30. The establishment of legally mandated interventions for pregnant women who are addicted to drugs or alcohol is a highly controversial topic.

a. True
b. False

t

31. Lead has not shown a causal connection to persistent criminality.

a. True
b. False

f

32. Onset refers to when the criminal career of an individual ends and he or she opts out of offending.

a. True
b. False

f

33. Chronic offending often starts with major offenses, such as burglary, robbery, and assault.

a. True
b. False

f

34. Early onset offending is one of the most important predictors of any of the measures for determining who is most at risk for developing serious, violent offending behavior.

a. True
b. False

t

35. The United States is one of the few developed nations that does not guarantee universal healthcare in the form of maternal or infant medical care and supervision.

a. True
b. False

t

36. The text states that there are very few policy implications that can be derived from developmental theories of criminality.

a. True
b. False

f

37. Research studies generally estimate the measure of average frequency of offending by criminals over a year period in the high single digit range.

a. True
b. False

f

38. The text states that the general theory of crimes is accepted as one of the most valid theories of crime probably due to its simplicity.

a. True
b. False

t

39. According to the text, perhaps no other policy implementation would have as much influence in reducing future criminality in children as making sure their mothers do not take toxic substances while pregnant.

a. True
b. False

t

40. The low self-control model assumes propensities for crime change over time.

a. True
b. False

f

1. Who coined the term white-collar crime and is considered the most prominent criminologist of the 20th century?

a. Hirschi
b. Sutherland
c. Clinard & Yeager
d. Lombroso

b

2. All of the following are terms that are typically used synonymously with white-collar crime EXCEPT:

a. suite crime
b. occupational crime
c. upperworld crime
d. industrial crime
e. corporate crime

d

3. Corporate crime causes at least ____ times more deaths than do traditional street crimes.

a. 2
b. 5
c. 7
d. 10

c

4. Deaths and injuries due to corporate crimes _________.

a. have decreased
b. have stayed the same
c. have increased
d. cannot be calculated

c

5. The __________ is generally considered to be one of the most important periods in history in terms of progress, but resulted in an increase in environmental crimes.

a. American revolution
b. industrial revolution
c. World War I
d. World War II

b

6. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with what two (2) things?

a. stopping animal abuse
b. protecting human health
c. safeguarding the natural environment
d. protecting workers rights

bc

7. The EPA estimates that there are about _________ deaths each year in the United States as a direct result of toxic particles emitted from manufacturing plants.

a. 30,000
b. 45,000
c. 60,000
d. 80,000

c

8. Among the individuals that are affected each year by toxic particles emitted from manufacturing plants, the majority are considered __________ and ___________.

a. young children
b. pregnant women
c. low income families
d. elderly

ad

9. All of the following are considered physical costs of white-collar crime EXCEPT:

a. price fixing
b. environmental pollution
c. occupational illnesses
d. falsely prescribed or marketed pharmaceutical drugs

a

10. Labor violations include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. hiring illegal workers
b. exploiting workers
c. dumping pollution in restricted area
d. keeping unsafe work conditions

c

11. At Sutherland’s first presentation of the concept of white-collar crime, he presented all of the following cases as examples EXCEPT:

a. OSHA inspectors finding 83,600 violations in 40,000 inspections
b. Al Capone’s racketeering cases
c. false claims of some of Hearst’s publications (Good Housekeeping)
d. Federal Trade Commission investigations of automobile companies falsely advertising low-interest-rate loans

a

12. White-collar crime and corruption were found to be the highest internationally in what two (2) regions of the world?

a. South Asia
b. Western Europe
c. West/Central Africa
d. East Asia

cd

13. What was the penalty for an individual and his family in ancient Greece that forced up prices of imported grain?

a. fine and closing of business
b. arm chopped off
c. public stoning
d. death

d

14. What is considered one of the oldest prison gangs in the United States?

a. Black Guerilla Family
b. Arian Brotherhood
c. La Nuestra Familia
d. Mexican Mafia

d

15. The ________________ was charged with three (3) responsibilities that focused on whether organized crime used services of interstate commerce to engage in illegal activities and identifying the persons, firms, or corporations involved in such activities.

a. Wickersham Commission
b. Chicago Crime Commission
c. Kefauver Committee
d. President’s Commission on Law Enforcement

c

16. The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice found that _______________ was the largest source of revenue for organized crime.

a. gambling
b. lone sharking
c. narcotics trafficking
d. money laundering

a

17. The growth of prison gangs has been attributed to the Supreme Court decisions of _____________, giving prisoners the right to sue state officials in federal court.

a. Cooper v. Pate
b. United States v. Carey
c. Perez v. Virginia
d. United States v. Stewart

a

18. All of the following are criminal penalties for RICO (Racketeer Influences and Corrupt Organizations) violations EXCEPT:

a. forfeiture of any interest obtained or maintained in the course of state violations
b. fine of no more than $25,000
c. prison term of no more than 20 years
d. restitution payments of no more than $25,000

d

20. The most straightforward definition of the term white-collar crime given by Sutherland was in his publication ____________.

a. White Collar Crime
b. The Consolidation of Gas Companies in Boston
c. Encyclopedia of Criminology
d. The Robber Barons: The Great American Capitalists

a

21. The _______________ was formed in 1929 and found that organized criminal activity flourished around bootlegging operations.

a. Wickersham Commission
b. Chicago Crime Commission
c. Kefauver Committee
d. President’s Commission on Law Enforcement

a

19. The white-collar crime definition provided by Sutherland principally refers to _____________.

a. business executives
b. entry level workers
c. management
d. legal representatives

a

22. __________ are involved in writing programs to protect systems and networks from being illegally and maliciously accessed.

a. black hat hackers
b. script kiddies
c. hactivitsts
d. white hat hackers

d

23. All of the following are considered one of the four (4) common categories of users of Internet child pornography EXCEPT:

a. individuals who are not impulsive or curious
b. individual who encourage prevailing or developing sexual interests in children
c. individuals who are involved in child pornography for nonsexual reasons
d. individuals who communicate with other sexual offenders who use child pornography as a broader pattern of offending

a

24. _________ criminalizes making, distributing, or using tools to evade technological protection measures implemented by copyright owners to prevent access to copyrighted material.

a. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
b. Child Online Protection Act
c. Electronic Communications Privacy Act
d. Digital Millennium Copyright Act

d

25. This refers to stealing a victim’s credit card information and subsequently using the information to purchase items, especially electronics.

a. carding
b. dumpster diving
c. credit card skimming
d. shoulder surfing

a

26. The traditional definition of occupational crime includes offenders at all levels of the business/social structure.

a. True
b. False

t

27. Workplace injuries are generally less serious than the common wounds suffered from assaults on the street.

a. True
b. False

f

28. Organized crime has been described as being "caused" by the efforts of successive immigrant groups to make it in America.

a. True
b. False

t

29. The development of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) made it a felony to cause the death of a worker by willfully violating safety laws.

a. True
b. False

f

30. White-collar crime is a new type of crime that has only recently been created.

a. True
b. False

f

31. Even Sutherland appears to lack confidence in what white-collar crime means as evidenced by his inclusion of the word ‘approximately’ in his loose definition.

a. True
b. False

a

32. Sutherland was the first to introduce the concept of corporate, occupational, and industrial crime.

a. True
b. False

f

33. Today, white-collar criminals are more likely to be investigated, caught, charged, and convicted as compared with traditional street criminals.

a. True
b. False

f

34. Only a small portion of corporations investigated by Sutherland had recidivated after their initial offense.

a. True
b. False

f

35. Laws violated by white-collar offenders are usually in regular penal code, namely in the criminal code section.

a. True
b. False

f

36. Corporate crime is usually not discovered when it occurs.

a. True
b. False

t

37. The general public loses more money from price fixing and monopolistic practices and consumer deception than from all property crime.

a. True
b. False

t

38. The concept of pollution was acknowledged early on and was considered a huge problem for many areas.

a. True
b. False

f

39. Gray hat hackers are deemed the lowest on the hacker ladder due to their limited technical ability.

a. True
b. False

f

40. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970.

a. True
b. False

t

1. Congress defined a hate crime as a criminal offense motivated in whole or in part by all of the following offender biases EXCEPT:

a. race
b. religion
c. sexual orientation
d. political affiliation
e. ethnic origin

d

2. __________ amended the Hate Crime Statistics Act to enhance penalties for offenses that involve a motivation bias.

a. Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996
b. Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997
c. Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994
d. Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009

c

3. All of the following are considered hate crimes motivated by person’s status as homeless according to the model state legislation EXCEPT:

a. acts that result in the death of a person
b. acts that deface, damage, or destroy, or attempt to deface, damage, or destroy the personal property of the person
c. assault, aggravated assault, battery, or aggravated battery on the person
d. any other crime against the person
e. all of the above are considered hate crimes motivated by person’s status as homeless

e

4. ___________ involves terrorist activities against the government that are committed by rebellious groups.

a. dissident terrorism
b. criminal terrorism
c. state-sponsored terrorism
d. religious terrorism

a

5. Byers and Crider used what theory to examine hate crimes against the Amish?

a. labeling theory
b. social learning theory
c. neutralization theory
d. routine activities theory

d

6. ___________ is a communication frame that exposes corrupt or illegal behavior.

a. reportage frames
b. investigative frames
c. contention frames
d. mythic frames
e. cultural recognition frames

b

7. All of the following are considered general goals for achieving homeland security EXCEPT:

a. respond to and recover from incidents that occur
b. prevent and disrupt terrorist attacks
c. protect the American people, critical infrastructure, and key resources
d. maintain the foundation of America

d

8. A criminal activity that has been linked to terrorist financing is fraud involving all of the following EXCEPT:

a. food stamps
b. credit cards
c. white collar
d. welfare
e. coupons

c

9. The majority of bias motivated incidents reported by law enforcement agencies were motivated by a _________ bias.

a. religious
b. ethnicity/national origin
c. sexual-orientation
d. racial

d

10. Homeland security is a concerted national effort to prevent and disrupt terrorist attacks, protect against man-made and natural hazards, and respond to and recover from incidents that do occur.

a. all hazards
b. security uber alles
c. meta hazards
d. jurisdictional hazards
e. terrorism and catastrophes

e

11. All of the following use game theory EXCEPT:

a. businesses
b. military
c. schools
d. politics

c

12. ________ is responsible for administration of immigration and naturalization adjudication functions.

a. U.S. Customs and Border Protection
b. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
c. U.S. Secret Service
d. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

d

13. All of the following are considered fundamental rights granted to citizens in the United States EXCEPT:

a. right to private records
b. right to confront witnesses
c. right of access to the courts
d. presumption of innocence

a

14. All of the following are one of the four significant areas of concern for homeland security according to the USA PATRIOT Act EXCEPT:

a. conducting foreign intelligence investigations
b. issuing city-level search warrants
c. controlling money laundering
d. collection of communications information and data

b

15. Compared with left-wing groups, right-wing terrorist activities _________.

a. are common
b. occur at a greater rate
c. occur at the same rate
d. are rare

d

16. A burglar is caught in the middle of burglarizing a residential home of a well-known area Muslim imam (priest). As the burglar runs from the scene of the crime he yells a racial slur at the home owner. The offender’s identity is unknown. Is this a hate crime?

a. Yes
b. No

b

17. The sheltering group within an umbrella organization does all of the following EXCEPT:

a. develop ideology for the organization
b. manage supplies
c. develop support structures
d. obtain intelligence

a

18. The predominant form of terrorism for the past several decades is __________.

a. dissident terrorism
b. criminal terrorism
c. state-sponsored terrorism
d. religious terrorism

d

19. Homeland security is a symbol used to justify government efforts to curtail civil liberties.

a. all hazards
b. security uber alles
c. meta hazards
d. jurisdictional hazards
e. terrorism and catastrophes

b

20. Which answer below is not one of the key components that must be present for a crime to occur according to routine activities theory?

a. suitable target
b. adequate guardianship
c. willing offender

b

21. _________ is a communication frame that consists of hero stories.

a. reportage frames
b. investigative frames
c. contention frames
d. mythic frames
e. cultural recognition frames

d

22. The term terrorism originated from the French phrase meaning ________ that prevailed during the French Revolution.

a. reign of terror
b. revolution of panic
c. terror organization
d. institution of fear

a

23. __________ includes terrorist acts that transpire due to the guidance of the state or government against perceived enemies.

a. dissident terrorism
b. criminal terrorism
c. state-sponsored terrorism
d. religious terrorism

c

24. ____________ made it unlawful to willfully cause bodily injury, or attempt to do so, with a dangerous weapon when the offense is committed because of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability of any person.

a. Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996
b. Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act of 1997
c. Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994
d. Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009

d

25. Within the religious bias grouping of motivation categories, the majority of crimes were against what religion?

a. Jewish
b. Muslim
c. Christian
d. Buddhist

a

26. Terrorism is easily analyzed because there is an abundance of reliable data on cases of each major form of terrorism to provide a foundation for statistical inference.

a. True
b. False

f

27. Part of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service is now part of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency.

a. True
b. False

t

28. The Department of Homeland Security is a Cabinet department of the U.S. federal government, established in response to the Oklahoma City bombings.

a. True
b. False

f

29. The punishment for arson of a church can vary from one (1) year imprisonment and a fine to death.

a. True
b. False

t

30. The left category of political violence applies to those political trends and movements that stress group rights.

a. True
b. False

t

31. The first known terrorist group was the Sicarii, an extremist group of the religious sect of Zealots.

a. True
b. False

t

32. Most of the terrorist attacks that occurred in 2011 were suicide attacks.

a. True
b. False

f

33. The term terrorism was initially considered a positive action.

a. True
b. False

t

34. There are documented connections between terrorist groups and drug trafficking, particularly in reference to smuggling pseudoephedrine.

a. True
b. False

t

35. Terrorism is often considered a downward crime; these offenses are committed by individuals from a lower social standing.

a. True
b. False

f

36. There is no clear and concise definition of the word terrorism.

a. True
b. False

t

37. Censorship refers to whether media coverage of a terrorist incident inspires more terrorism.

a. True
b. False

f

38. When a hate crime is not exclusively a federal offense, the federal government can, and does, investigate and prosecute hate crimes as civil rights violations.

a. True
b. False

t

39. The drug cartels in Mexico are an example of dissident terrorism.

a. True
b. False

f

40. Terrorism had not existed prior to the September 11 attacks.

a. True
b. False

f

1. Violence acts that vent rage, anger, or frustration are known as:
a. instrumental violence
b. expressive violence
c. rational violence
d. irrational violence

b

2. Violent acts designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal are known as:
a. instrumental violence
b. expressive violence
c. rational violence
d. irrational violence

a

3. According to Freud, the instinctual drive that produces self-destruction expressed externally as violence or internally as suicide or alcoholism, is termed:
a. eros
b. thanatos
c. hostility
d. aggression

b

4. The link between substance abuse and violence occurs in three different formats. Violent behavior that results from the conflict inherent in the drug trade is known as:
a. the subculture of violence
b. psychopharmacological relationship
c. economic compulsive behavior
d. systemic link

d

5. Athens links violence to early experiences with child abuse. Which is the proper ordering of how antisocial careers develop under this link?
a. brutalization process, virulency stage, violent performances
b. violent performances, brutalization process, virulency stage
c. virulency stage, violent performances, brutalization process
d. brutalization process, violent performances, virulency stage

d

6. Much of the difference in rates of violent crime between whites and racial minorities can be explained by minorities being forced to live in high crime neighborhoods, which:
a. provide a poorer quality of schooling
b. increases their risk of exposure to violence
c. contain few social interaction opportunities
d. provide a lack of legitimate economic opportunities

b

7. Within subcultures of violence, it is considered appropriate for an individual who has been offended by a negative outcome in a dispute to seek reparations through violent means. This concept is termed:
a. brutalization process
b. thanatos
c. disputatiousness
d. malefic

c

8. A potent theme of violence that influences lifestyles, the socialization process, and interpersonal relationships is known as:
a. cultural retaliatory homicide
b. subculture of violence
c. disputatiousness
d. brutalization process

b

9. Some nations have relatively high violence rates. Which of the following national characteristics predict violence?
a. economic stress
b. a high level of social disorganization
c. high child abuse rates
d. All of these characteristics predict violence.

d

10. Which is an inaccurate statement pertaining to the violent crime of rape?
a. All but three states have revised their rape statues to make them gender neutral.
b. Rape has been a recognized crime throughout history.
c. Under feudal law, "heiress stealing" equated women with property.
d. Under Babylonian and Hebraic law, the rape of a virgin was lauded and brought prestige to the rapist’s family and tribe.

d

11. When an attacker does not want to harm his/her victim as much as s/he wants to possess him/her sexually, it is known as:
a. anger rape
b. gang rape
c. serial rape
d. power rape

d

12. Which rapist is bound up in ritual: tormenting their victim, binding him/her, or torturing him/her?
a. sadistic rapist
b. anger rapist
c. gang rapist
d. power rapist

a

13. Rape by someone known to the victim, including family members and friends, is known as:
a. acquaintance rape
b. date rape
c. blitz rape
d. association rape

a

14. When is rape most likely to occur?
a. during March and April
b. during May and June
c. during July and August
d. during September and October

c

15. Date rape, statutory rape, and marital rape are subcategories of:
a. familial sexual assault
b. acquaintance rape
c. intrafamilial sexual assault
d. serial rape

b

16. What is known to be true regarding marital rape?
a. Many spousal rapes are accompanied by brutal, sadistic beatings.
b. When marital rapists are convicted, they are sanctioned more harshly than those accused of nonmarital sexual assaults.
c. Today, only three states recognize marital rape as a crime.
d. Instances of marital rape tend to be isolated, one-time events.

a

17. Statutory rape refers to sexual relations between an adult and a/an:
a. elderly woman
b. married woman
c. underage minor
d. nonconsenting adolescent

c

18. The belief that males must separate their sexual feelings from needs for love, respect, and affection is called:
a. hypermasculinity
b. the brutalization process
c. the virility mystique
d. narcissistic personality disorder

c

19. When researching a possible sexual motivation for rape, criminologists have found patterns in the research data indicating:
a. Younger rapists may be seeking sexual gratification.
b. Older rapists may be seeking sexual gratification.
c. Rapists of all ages may be seeking sexual gratification.
d. Sexual gratification was not a motivation for rape.

a

20. Which of the following causal explanations for rape reflects the evolutionary view?
a. The sexual urge corresponds to the unconscious need to preserve the species by spreading one’s genes as widely as possible.
b. Rape is a legitimate response if one’s sexual advances are rebuffed
c. Rape is a function of modern male socialization.
d. Infatuation and fixation with one’s self drives rapists to seek power and control over those deemed inferior to themselves.

a

21. Unlike any other violent crime, what legal aspect is necessary to be disproved when prosecuting rape?
a. injury
b. malice
c. consent
d. intent

c

22. Laws that protect women from being questioned about their sexual history unless it directly bears on the case are called:
a. safeguard laws
b. immunity laws
c. exemption laws
d. shield laws

d

23. Felony murder usually constitutes:
a. negligent homicide
b. nonnegligent manslaughter
c. first-degree murder
d. second-degree murder

c

24. Mass murder involves killing four or more victims by one or a few assailants within a single event. These single, uncontrollable outbursts are also termed:
a. concurrent killings
b. outburst killings
c. spree killings
d. simultaneous killings

d

25. When referring to gender and the crime of murder, what percentage of murderers are male?
a. 30 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 70 percent
d. 90 percent

d

26. While few in number, who is a female murderer most likely to kill?
a. a coworker
b. a family member
c. a stranger
d. a friend of similar social standing

b

27. When referring to serial killers, what is known?
a. Ten to fifteen percent of serial killers are women.
b. Serial killers come from diverse backgrounds.
c. Most experts view serial killers as sociopaths who from early childhood demonstrate bizarre behavior.
d. All these things are known about serial killers.

d

28. The crime that requires offensive touching, such as slapping, hitting, or punching a victim is:
a. battery
b. assault
c. road rage
d. aggravated assault

a

29. Any physical, emotional, or sexual trauma to a child for which no reasonable explanation, such as an accident, can be found is known as:
a. child abuse
b. elder abuse
c. hate crimes
d. cruelty to animals

a

30. Which of the following is not a factor that predicts spousal abuse?
a. flashes of anger
b. military service
c. the presence of alcohol
d. economic stability

d

31. Violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group merely because the targets share a discernible racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristic are known as:
a. forms of instrumental violence
b. felony murders
c. subcultures of violence
d. hate crimes

d

32. Which is an inaccurate statement pertaining to spousal abuse.
a. Police departments report that 10 to 20 percent of evening calls involve domestic disputes.
b. Twenty to forty percent of females experience violence while dating.
c. Some males believe that society approves of spouse abuse.
d. Obsession with a wife’s behavior, however trivial, can result in violent assaults.

a

33. Why do robberies peak during the winter months?
a. because cold weather allows for greater disguise
b. because robbers may be attracted to the large amounts of cash people carry during the Christmas shopping season
c. because winter days are shorter, affording greater concealment in the dark
d. for all these reasons

d

34. Which of the following factors does not precipitate hate crimes?
a. stable economic conditions
b. racial stereotypes in the media
c. hate-filled discourse on talk shows
d. the use of racial "code language"

a

35. Levin notes that some people may not attack minorities but think nothing of telling jokes with racist themes or agreeing with people who despise gays. Levin called such people:
a. spectators
b. sympathizers
c. specialists
d. empathizers

b

36. What is the most common form of hate crime?
a. murder
b. assault
c. arson
d. intimidation

d

37. Who is most likely to engage in workplace violence?
a. a middle-aged white female facing termination
b. a middle-aged white male facing termination
c. a middle-aged minority female facing termination
d. a middle-aged minority male facing termination

b

38. Workplace violence accounts for ___ percent of all violent crime.
a. 18
b. 28
c. 38
d. 48

a

39. Women are most likely to be stalked by:
a. a stranger
b. a casual acquaintance
c. older males
d. an intimate partner

d

1. Unlike lower species, humans lack an inhibition against fatal violence toward their own species and are capable of killing their own kind in war or as a result of interpersonal conflict.

t

2. There is evidence that a subculture of violence may be found in areas that experience concentrated poverty and social disorganization.

t

3. Among the ancient Greeks, rape was socially unacceptable and derided even within the context of warfare.

f

4. As with other violent crimes, the rate of rape has been on a decade-long rise with the highest monthly rates occurring in December and January.

f

5. Watching violent or pornographic films featuring women who are beaten, raped, or tortured has been linked to sexually aggressive behavior in men.

t

6. Feminists suggest that as the nation moves toward gender equality, there may be an immediate increase in rape rates because of increased threats to male virility and dominance.

t

7. Most states and the federal government have developed shield laws that protect women from being questioned about their sexual history unless it directly bears on the case.

t

8. Research indicates that many women are raped each year by their husbands as part of an overall pattern of spousal abuse. Today, almost every state recognizes marital rape as a crime.

t

9. Over the past decade, the number of stranger homicides has increased.

t

10. Second-degree murder requires the killer to have malice aforethought, premeditation, and deliberation.

f

11. Children who are clinically diagnosed as abused later engage in delinquent behaviors, including violence, at a rate significantly greater than that of children who were not abused.

t

12. The typical armed robber is unlikely to be a professional who carefully studies targets while planning a crime.

t

13. The U.S. Supreme Court in upholding a Virginia statute held that the act of cross-burning is a form of free speech that does not constitute a hate crime.

f

14. Some occupations are more dangerous than others. Bartenders are at greatest risk to be victims of workplace violence.

f

15. Most stalking incidents emerge from preexisting relationships and about half emerge specifically from romantic relationships.

t

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