CPR–First Aid

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Welcome to our Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification Course. Here, you’ll learn about Bloodborne Pathogens, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), Automated External Defibrillation (AED) and First-Aid. Whether you’ll need this course as a Healthcare Professional, for your workplace or if you’re just interested in learning—you’ll find everything you’ll need for standard procedures.

Good Samaritan Law

Any persons who assist those who’re injured, ill or in peril are protected by the Good Samaritan Law. As long as you’re acting voluntary, without expectation of reimbursement or compensation while performing such aid, on site—you’ll have legal protection. Remember, when performing the skills you’re about to learn, every second counts. So, unless required otherwise, don’t hesitate to call 911 or perform CPR and/or apply First-Aid.

Understanding CPR

The leading cause of death in the US according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC.gov) is cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease are: smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lack of exercise, stress and obesity. Factors which are unavoidable are: age, sex, hereditary and diabetes. Death is most likely to occur after 10 minutes of a loss of oxygen to the brain. From 6 to 10 minutes brain damage is expected. From 4 to 6 minutes brain damage is very possible and from 0 to 4 minutes brain damage is virtually non-existent. However, CPR should still be performed. It’s important to note: that the latest 2010 AHA guidelines recommends unconfident performers should at least perform chest compressions upon the patient since studies show chest compressions can be as effective as the combination of CPR.

CPR for 2 Rescue Workers

Roles are to be switched every 5 cycles (2 mins) at a ratio of 30:2 Compressions to Breaths.

When to stop CPR

If the patient regains a pulse, if the area becomes unsafe, if cardiac arrest last longer than 30 minutes, if the rescuer(s) is too exhausted or ordered to stop. Or, if these complications arise: Fractures, punctures, lung ruptures or collapses, rib separation, bruises of the heart and/or lungs.

Bloodborne Pathogens to be aware of:

Hepatitis B and C (HBV / HCV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB).

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

C is for Circulation – Compressions Chest Compressions Circulate the blood within the patient. It’s important to place your hands correctly upon the patient’s chest when performing compressions. You administer CPR the same with Children as you would with Adults besides the circumference – accept when calling the EMS before with Adults and after 5 cycles for Children and Infants. To do so, find the point where the patient’s ribs meet (just below both halves) and interlock your fingers with both hands. Make sure you’re kneeling beside the patient’s shoulders. Once in position, lock your elbows and use your body’s weight to compress 2 inches upon the patient’s chest. Make sure to let the patient’s chest rise after each compression. Compressions on an infant are pressed just below the nipples. Remember, CPR should be administered until help arrives. 100 compressions should be performed per minute. The ratio for breaths to compressions is 30:2 or 15:2 with 2 Rescuers. Infant CPR – 2 Rescuers: One Rescuer should use two hands holding the infant facing up while positioning the fingers in the middle of the infant’s chest as the other rescuer uses a one-way valve—placing it over the infant’s mouth and nose. One rescuer will perform compressions while the other uses the rescue valve. You can also apply a ratio of 15:2 compressions to breathing. A is for Airway. Clear the Airway Check for any obstructions, such as: tongue, foreign objects, vomit, swelling or food blocking the patient’s throat or windpipe (finger-swipe, if necessary). Make sure the patient is on a solid/firm surface (on his/her backside). Next, kneel beside the patient’s neck/shoulders. Open the patient’s Airway by tilting the head back with the palm of 1 hand as the other hand gently lifts the chin. For no longer than 10 seconds, check for life: listen for any sounds, put your cheek beside the patient’s mouth to feel for breathing and look for any motions. Chest compressions should be performed on patient’s who are obese or pregnant. B is for Breathing. Mouth-to-Mouth Rescue Breathing is widely known to be performed mouth-to-mouth—it can also be performed mouth-to-nose, mouth-to-mask and mouth-to-stoma, but in rare cases. Breathing tasks: While still performing the Airway technique pinch the patient’s nose shut. With a complete seal over the patient’s mouth, with your mouth, breathe into the patient until you see the chest inflate. If the chest does not inflate repeat the Airway technique. When performing the breathing technique make sure to give 2 breaths for 1 second each. Once the breathing technique is applied you will continue the C-A-B’s.

Infant CPR

• Perform CPR before calling 911 for 2 minutes (5 reps). • Perform CPR – Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s). • Compressions at 1 and a half the infant’s circumference. • 30:2 compressions over breaths (seal the infant’s mouth and nose when breathing). • 2 Rescuers: 2 thumbs compression while the other breaths – 15:2. • Call 911 or have someone else call.

Child CPR

• Perform CPR before calling 911 for 2 minutes (5 reps). • 2 Rescuers: Perform tasks simultaneously. • Perform CPR – Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s). • Compressions between 1/3 and 1/2 the child’s circumference. • 30:2 compressions over breaths. • Call 911 or have someone else call.

Adult CPR

• Check for life • Before performing CPR call 911 or have someone else call. • 2 Rescuers: Perform tasks simultaneously. • Perform CPR – Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s). • Compressions 1 and a half to 2 inches . • 30:2 compressions over breaths.

When to stop CPR

• When you’re too exhausted to continue. • If the patient’s ribs are broken, lung collapses, etc… • If an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is accessible. • If Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrives.

Automated External Defibrillator (AED)

When should an AED be used? CPR is a very important action for saving a patient’s life. However, an AED is crucial towards regaining the natural rhythm of the heartbeat as well as restarting the patient’s heart. CPR should be performed if the patient is non-responsive and not breathing and an AED should be applied after performing CPR. If the AED does not bring the patient back to consciousness CPR should be re-administered. It’s crucial to call 911 or any Emergency Medical Service (EMS) before performing CPR or applying an AED. How to use an AED: Turn on the AED – Usually there will be an "On" button but in some cases there might be a lever. Make sure to remove all clothing from the arms, chest and abdomen whether male or female. Attach pads to bare skin on the chest. Make sure to use the appropriate system for the child or adult (an AED should not be used on an infant). Place the left pad under the left armpit to the left of the nipple. Place the right pad under the collarbone on the right side of the chest. Make sure to place the pads at least one inch away from any implanted devices. Next, connect the wiring: Analyze the patient’s heart rhythm. Make sure you DO NOT touch the patient during the defibrillator process. If the AED does not begin analyzing automatically make sure to press the analyze button. If a shock is advised then push the shock button. Make sure your patient is cleared of any debris such as: metal, large amounts of water, etc… Newer AED’s only shock once; however, some models do shock up to 3 times. If the patient is shocked but doesn’t regain a pulse immediately perform CPR for 2 minutes. Note: Before using an AED physical training is recommended.


Welcome to the First-Aid Section From cuts to burns to fractures and nosebleeds many accidents take place everyday. Understanding First-Aid will not only better equip you in case of an emergency but could perhaps mean the difference between life and death of a patient. In this section we’ll examine basic First-Aid procedures and at the end of the course you’ll be tested on your knowledge. Items you’ll need in a medical kit: 1. Gauze pads (at least 4 x 4 inches). 2. Two large gauze pads (at least 8 x 10 inches). 3. Box adhesive bandages (band-aids). 4. One package gauze roller bandage at least 2 inches wide. 5. Two triangular bandages. 6. Wound cleaning agent such as sealed moistened towelettes. 7. Scissors. 8. At least one blanket. 9. Tweezers. 10. Adhesive tape. 11. Latex gloves. 12. Resuscitation equipment such as resuscitation bag, airway, or pocket mask. 13. Two elastic wraps. 14. Splint. 15. Directions for requesting emergency assistance.

Types of Wounds

Punctured Wounds can be very serious. It’s very dangerous if the wound gets infected. If the wound has excessive bleeding make sure to call 911. Remember, if the patient falls unconscious or is non-responsive without a pulse make sure to call 911 and perform CPR. Treatment: 1. Stop the bleeding. 2. Apply thorough pressure (seek EMS attention if bleeding is excessive. 3. Clean the wound thoroughly with water and soap (stay clear of the wound itself). 4. Apply an ointment such as: Neosporin. 5. Provide a pain reliever such as: Advil. 6. (Re) wrap the wound to keep the wound from infection. 7. Seek medical attention at the nearest hospital if the wound worsens. 8. Have the patient get a Tetanus or Tetanus Booster shot. Amputations. There are several steps to follow when treating amputations. Treatment: 1. Always practice universal precautions. 2. Call 911 immediately. 3. If the patient isn’t breathing perform CPR. 4. Apply direct pressure. Make sure to raise the injured area. Use a tourniquet or tight bandage, if needed. 5. If possible clean the amputated part and make sure to keep it with the patient. 6. Wrap the part in a cloth and put it in a plastic sealed bag inside of ice cold water. 7. If the amputated part is below the heart make sure to raise the legs 12 inches above the heart. 8. Watch for any signs of shock. Cuts & Scrapes. There are several basic steps to follow when aiding Cuts & Scrapes. Treatment: 1. Stop the bleeding. 2. Apply thorough pressure (seek EMS attention if bleeding is excessive or cut is deeper than 1/4 inch). 3. Thoroughly clean the cut/scrape with water and soap (stay clear of the injury itself). 4. Apply an ointment such as: Neosporin. 5. Provide a pain reliever such as: Advil. 6. (Re) wrap the injury to keep it from infection. 7. Seek medical attention at the nearest hospital if the injury worsens. 8. Have the patient get a Tetanus or Tetanus Booster shot. Keeping the wound clean is very important. Make sure the patient gets a tetanus or booster shot.

Cardiopulmonary Arrest (Cardiac Arrest)

is the ineffective contractions of the heart causing a cessation of blood circulation throughout the body. The cessation of circulated blood will result in the patient falling unconscious due to a lack of oxygen. If Cardiac Arrest patients are left untreated brain damage, and even death, is very likely. Immediate response is crucial in saving the life of a Cardiac Arrest patient. CPR should be performed immediately.

Heart Attack

A Heart Attack is when the heart isn’t receiving oxygenated blood. When a patient isn’t receiving oxygenated blood the heart begins to die. The patient might undergo pain in the center of the chest, sweating, nausea, dizziness and faintness. Also, pain throughout the body in areas such as: neck, shoulders, jaw, teeth and arms. Treatment: check universal precautions, call 911 immediately or rush the patient to the nearest hospital, have the patient chew aspirin (unless allergic or told otherwise). If the patient is unconscious or unresponsive perform CPR.

Respiratory Arrest

Respiratory Arrest is the cessation of oxygen throughout the body. Failure of the lungs to deliver oxygen can result in death if untreated. A lack of oxygen to the brain will result in a loss of consciousness and immediate treatment is important for the chances of survival. Artificial ventilation treatment is the necessary act for saving respiratory arrest patients. Make sure to call 911 immediately and then, perform CPR.


A Fracture can be very serious. It’s important to understand Fractures and understand what to do according to the severity of the injury. If there are any signs of a concussion, broken bones at the neck, head or back, deformed joints, no pulse, heavy bleeding, any abnormalities of the broken bone such as: a piercing of the skin or if the bone is irregularly fixed, call 911 immediately and perform CPR, if needed. Treatment: Make sure to stop the bleeding by applying pressure to the Fracture and wrapping it if necessary. Apply a splint to the Fractured area. If the patient isn’t moving do not try and move the patient yourself. If needed, apply a cold cloth or ice to the fracture. Remember, if the patient appears to be light-headed or on the verge of fainting lift the legs slightly higher than the victim’s heart to raise the blood pressure.


Bruises are broken blood vessels that leak under the skin—dark spots caused by a blow, fall, etc… Treatment: Make sure to elevate the injured area which will alleviate the pain. Also, apply an ice-pack or cold cloth. If needed, have the patient take a pain-reliever such as: Tylenol to reduce the pain and swelling. If the Bruise appeared on the head or if the bruise lasts longer than 2 weeks consider taking the patient to the hospital.

Sprains & Strains

Sprains & Strains differ in where the injury takes place on the body. Sprains occur in any ligaments, such as: ankles, wrists, etc… Strains occur when a muscle/tendon is torn. Strains can occur in the back (hamstring) or thigh, etc… Treatment: rest the Sprained/Strained area in a sling, crutch or flint. Make sure to place ice over the area to prevent swelling. Make sure to apply a bandage to the joint or limb or use a brace, if possible. Make sure to raise the patient’s Sprained/Strained part 12 inches above the heart.

Types of Burns

Burns vary on the degree of which layer the burn reaches. Remember, their are 3 common categories— 1st-degree, 2nd-degree and 3rd-degree. 1st-degree Burns have persistent pain, are red, and usually are accompanied by swelling. Treatment: 1. Keep the burn cool (wrap the burn with a cool cloth or soak the burn in a bath. 2. Apply ointment such as: Aloe Vera. 3. Wrap the burn with gauze (keep from infection). Replace, once a day. 4. Administer a pain reliever such as: Advil. 2nd-degree Burns refer to the burn breaching the 1st layer of skin and reaching the 2nd. Usually there will be blisters accompanied by severe pain and swelling. Treatment: if the burn is larger than 3 inches, seek medical attention at your nearest hospital. If the burn is smaller treat it as you would a 1st-degree burn. 3rd-degree Burns are the most serious of all. These burns will be charred and can be deeper than the 3rd layer of the skin. Medical attention is much needed and you should call 911 immediately. 3rd-degree burn patients usually won’t feel much pain due to the charring of nerve-endings. Treatment: 1. Call 911 and/or rush the patient to the nearest hospital. 2. Perform CPR, if needed. 3. Do not remove the patient’s clothing. 4. Raise the burn injury above the patient’s heart (increase blood pressure). 5. Cover the injuries in a cool moist cloth (material). Electroshock’s can cause no harm, mild harm or severe harm. Treatment: 1. Call 911 if the patient undergone any serious injuries. 2. Perform CPR, if needed. 3. Make sure the patient is free of all electrical currents before touching the patient. 4. Move the patient away from the electrical source (use non-conductive materials if possible. 5. If needed, raise the patient’s legs above his/her heart to increase blood pressure.

Bites & Stings

Many Bites & Stings have mild reactions; however, some bites and stings can have serious consequences, if untreated. Most stings aren’t fatal but few insects do carry fatal diseases, such as: West Nile virus or Lyme disease. If severe reactions (anaphylaxis) are present, these are some symptoms you should look for: lowered blood pressure, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, swelling, redness, vomiting and nausea. Mild reactions: use universal precautions, remove the stinger, apply a cold pack, give the patient a pain reliever, and use ointment, such as: Benadryl, or any antihistamine, if necessary. Mild allergic reactions are: diarrhea, swelling, cramps, nausea and vomiting. Severe reactions: difficulty breathing, swelling (lips, throat, etc…), nausea, vomiting, hives, rapid heart beat and faintness and dizziness. Treatment: administer an auto injection into the patient (in butt or thigh and massage injection for faster response). Perform CPR, if needed. Have the patient lay on his/her side to prevent choking, if necessary

Drug Overdose

A Drug Overdose is a dose larger than the recommended assumption. There are many reactions that can occur, such as: sleepiness or unconsciousness, excitement with a rapid heart beat, hallucinations, impaired judgment and decision-making skills. Symptoms: death, unconsciousness, convulsions, delusional behavior, abnormal pupil size, difficulty breathing, nausea, non-reactive pupils, vomiting, sweating, numbness and violent aggressive behavior. Treatment: Check universal precautions. Check if there’s a pulse, if not, perform CPR. Keep the patient calm and reassured of his/her safety. Check for any shock symptoms. For seizures and convulsions apply first-aid. Monitor vital signs. Make sure to document any and all drugs taken and keep the container and/or label.


f a Poisoning is suspected make sure to call the National Capital Poison Center at: 1-800-222-1222. Signs of Poisoning: vomiting, difficulty breathing, sleepiness, confusion, burns (redness) around the mouth, chemical odors out from the mouth and burns on clothing or skin. Treatment: make sure to take the patient outside for fresh air. Have the patient flush out his/her mouth. Make sure to read the label of the chemicals that were induced and read the instructions for poisoning. Flush the patient’s eyes and/or have the skin cleansed. If the patient isn’t breathing perform CPR. If the patient needs medical attention make sure to give the container, label and/or pills to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel.


A Hemorrhage is a loss of blood. There are 4 classes of Hemorrhages. 1. A loss of 15% blood volume. No change in vital signs. 2. A loss of 15-30% blood volume. Blood transfusion isn’t usually necessary, but may need Saline solution (salt water). Rapid heart beat. 3. A loss of 30-40% blood volume. Blood transfusions are necessary. Drop in blood pressure with rapid heart beat. 4. A loss of 40% blood volume. Resuscitation is necessary for death prevention. Treatment: check for universal precautions. Perform CPR, if necessary. Wrap hemorrhage, if possible. Call 911 or bring the patient to the nearest hospital.


Nosebleeds are very common. Whether it’s a hot day or a minor fall nosebleeds are not a serious medical problem. Treatment: If the nosebleed results from a more serious injury such as: a broken nose or a head injury, make sure to call 911. If the patient falls unconscious or is non-responsive without a pulse, perform CPR. If the nosebleed occurs to be a serious injury make sure to apply pressure to the nose for roughly ten minutes—make sure to have the patient breathe through his/her mouth. After applying pressure, make sure to clear the patient’s nose cavity. If the patient is congested, thoroughly wash the cavity or use a decongestant after the patient has tried blowing his/her nose. If the patient undergoes many nosebleeds it can be a more serious injury than it appears so have the patient call his/her doctor to set-up and appointment.


Choking is caused when an object is blocking the throat or windpipe. Adults often choke by large pieces of food, however, children often swallow small toys or other objects. Remember, the universal sign for choking is mimicking choking yourself. Make sure to ask the patient if he/she is choking because, many times, the person is merely coughing. If the patient is unconscious make sure to call 911. Infants 12 months or younger: rest the patient on your forearm, while also resting your forearm, on your thigh. Perform 5 thumps with the heel of your hand upon the infants back. If the patient is still choking turn the infant over, face-up, and with 2 fingers upon the breastplate perform 5 chest compressions. Repeat the process until the object is dis-lodged. Children and Adults: when performing the Heimlich maneuver make sure to stand behind the person. Lean the person slightly forward and wrap your arms around his/her waist. Next, press hard with a closed fist into the abdomen than grab your fist with your other hand. Perform 5 quick thrusts. If the object still hasn’t cleared the patient’s throat/windpipe, repeat the cycle. Unconscious Person: when performing the Heimlich maneuver on an unconscious person lay the patient on his/her back. Make sure to clear the patient’s airway, if needed, finger swipe the patient’s mouth to pick out any foreign objects. If you can’t see or can’t take the object out of the patient’s mouth, make sure to perform CPR. Chest compressions will most likely clear the patient’s airway. If you’re still unable to clear the patient’s airway and/or if the patient falls unconscious, make sure to call 911 and perform CPR and chest compressions.


Hypothermia is when the body temperature is below 95 F. Hypothermia occurs when the body loses heat faster than the body can produce energy. Hypothermia often occurs when the body is immersed in cold water. If the patient is left untreated the nervous system will not be able to work properly which will result in organ damage and possibly death. Treatment: Make sure to remove the patient’s wet clothing and replace it with something warm and dry. Make sure to perform rescue breaths if the patient is unconscious. If rescue breaths aren’t accessible make sure to perform chest compressions. If possible, give the patient a warm beverage and a warm, dry compress (hot water in a bag to hold or cover the patient with). Do NOT apply direct heat.

Eye Injuries

There are several kinds of Eye Injuries, such as: a Black Eye, a Foreign Object caught in the eye and a Chemical Splash in the eye. Black Eye: is caused by broken blood vessels (or, bleeding beneath the skin) around the eye. Sometimes, there can be bleeding inside the eye which is called, Hyphema—blood in the front chamber of the eye or in the cornea. Treatment: make sure to apply a cold pack or ice pack to reduce the swelling of the patient’s injured eye. If blood is visible, in the eye, seek medical attention at the nearest hospital. If the patient has any vision problems and/or any blood leakage from the eye seek medical attention immediately. Foreign Objects: in the eye can be very serious and proper aid is necessary. Treatment: make sure your hands are clean. Make sure to pull the lower lid down while having the patient look up and vice versa in the opposite direction. Clean the patient’s eye with saline solution or water. Make sure to call 911 or take the patient to the nearest hospital if: the object is in-removable, if it’s embedded in the eyeball, if there ‘s any abnormalities or persistent pain once the object is removed. Chemical Splash: can cause extreme pain, mild pain and no pain. Treatment: make sure to have the patient run his/her eyes under lukewarm water for at least 20 minutes. Make sure contact lenses are removed. If the patient undergoes persistent pain make sure to call 911 or bring the patient to the nearest hospital. Make sure to have the patient take the bottle or the name of the chemical to the hospital (for medical determinations).

Head Injuries

Head Injuries usually result in minor bruises or bumps, however, some head injuries can be very serious and even fatal. If these signs appear call 911 immediately: If the victim has a seizure, slurs while speaking, if the patient’s pupils are unequal in size, any inabilities in the usage of body parts or motor skills, any loss of balance (make sure to tell the patient to sit down), confusion, any discoloration in the face, a severe headache or if there’s any severe bleeding from the head, nose, ears or face call 911 immediately. Do Not attempt to remove any articles off of the patient and unless necessary, do not move the patient. Cover the wound if blood is immense; however, do not apply any pressure for any head injuries (lightly cover the wound). If the patient falls unconscious or is non-responsive without a pulse make sure to call 911 and perform CPR.

Spinal Injuries

Spinal Injuries are very serious. If any suspicion, whatsoever, of a spinal injury do not move the patient. If the patient has had a head injury, back pain, has any numbness or lacks control of limbs, bladder or bowels—suspect a spinal injury. Treatment: Call 911. Make sure to keep the patient from moving. Perform CPR, if needed. If there isn’t a pulse make sure to perform chest compressions. Do not remove any items off the patient. If the patient is vomiting or is bleeding from the mouth or nose turn the patient on his/her side only if there are 2 responders—making sure to move the patient in accordance with each responders movement.


A Shock can occur for many reasons. Some reasons are: poisoning, burns, blood loss, heatstroke, trauma and any other serious medical accident. When a patient is Shocked it can lead to a loss of oxygenated blood to vital organs which, if untreated, can lead to organ damage or possibly death. Signs of Shock: cool and clammy skin, unconsciousness or poor responsiveness, dilated pupils and nausea. Treatment: If the patient is unconscious call 911 immediately then perform CPR—if the patient is a child or infant perform CPR for 2 minutes and then call 911. Make sure to lay the patient down with his/her feet 12 inches above the heart. Check for C-A-B’s. You may need to put the patient on his/her side to prevent choking. Make sure to check for other injuries.


When a Seizure occurs these are signs to look for: dizziness or faintness, uncontrolled bowel movement, breathing difficulties, unconsciousness or unresponsiveness, arching of the back, clenching of things—such as teeth. If a patient is ever unconscious or unresponsive make sure to perform CPR and to call 911. Some causes of Seizures are: head injuries, fevers, brain damage, poisoning, cessation of oxygen to the brain and diabetes. Treatment: check universal precautions, remove any life threatening objects, loosen clothing, and make sure to call 911 and respond with appropriate orders. Make sure to NOT restrain the patient unless the patient is going to be hurt or is going to hurt someone.


A Stroke occurs when there is a ruptured/blocked blood vessel in the brain. When the brain has a cessation of oxygen it begins deteriorating. If the patient falls unconscious or is unresponsive, call 911 and perform CPR immediately. Make sure to check for any signs of any body parts drooping, any slurring of speech or unresponsive motions. Check for any numbness in the patient, dizziness or faintness and check for headaches or loss of vision. Risk factors are: high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, smoking and having had a prior stroke.

Bloodborne Pathogens:

Hepatitis A, B, C Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Other Disease Pathogens Transmission: Cuts, abrasions, burns, needle sticks, punctures, rashes, bites and mucous membranes. Fluids: Semen, pleural fluid, synovial fluid, vaginal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid. No-Risk Fluids: Vomit, nasal, sweat, tears, saliva, sputum, urine. Risk Factors: Intravenous drug users, sexual contact, birth, hemodialysis patients, any contact with blood or body fluids.


Causation through a virus/toxin, liver inflammation (swelling, soreness)

Hepatitis A

Not persistent in blood, minor form of Hepatitis, caused by RNA virus. Symptom: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice. Treatment: Vaccine

Hepatitis B

Persistent in blood, transmitted through indigestion of blood and/or body fluids, sexual contact and injection. Symptoms: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice, joint pain. Treatment: Vaccine, transplant

Hepatitis C

Persistent in blood, transmitted through contact of blood, sexual contact, drug use, contaminated needle stick about 1.8%. Symptoms: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice, joint pain. Treatment: No vaccine available

Difference between Acute and Chronic

Acute: First-time infected, 15-20% cleared without treatment. Chronic: Second or more infected, 75-85% will carry virus long-term with 60-70% chronic liver disease, 1-5% death of complications.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Persistent in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, pre-ejaculation, breast milk, is a free particle virus and within cells, cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) spread through needles, mother-to-infant, sexual contact & drug users. Symptoms: Fever, headache, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, rash. Treatment: No vaccine, hormones for women, Hepatitis C drugs, antiviral medicines.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

The final stage of HIV, caused by damaged immune system. Symptoms: Sweating, fatigue, shortness of breath, dry coughing, chronic diarrhea, white lesions on tongue and in mouth, headache, and weight loss. Treatment: No vaccine, hormones for women, Hepatitis C drugs, antiviral medicines. HIV / AIDS in the US: 16.5 per 100,00 population HIV / AIDS in the U.S. risk to Health Workers: Less than 100 Health Workers infected Risk: Needle stick/cut 0.3%

OSHA Required Prevention:

Engineering Controls Work Practices Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Universal Precautions Body Substance Isolation (BSI)

Engineering Controls

• Labeling of infectious materials (biohazard labeling) • Cleaning faculties (eye, hands, showers, etc…) • Containment of infectious materials (containers, refrigerators’, freezers, bags, etc…) • Proper waste control (transportation, etc…) • Reusable tools should be labeled in appropriate storage

Sharp with Engineered Sharps Injury Protections (SESIP)

• Retractable needles • Retractable finger-prick lancet • Needleless systems (needle guards, blunted needles, retractable scalpels, etc…)

Proper recapping of needles

•One-handed motion •Mechanical device


• Document injury • Testing—successions • Safe sexual contact • Therapy/Counseling • Stop breastfeeding • Immediate evaluation of presumed illnesses

Work Practices

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) disposure in appropriate places and thorough cleaning of hands before/during & after, usage of gloves and all reusable tools. Usage of sharp objects must be adequately disposed of and/or cleaned. Workstation and environment (must be cleaned regularly) with proper towels, tools, etc… for later use and disposal. Proper usage of tools to pick up contaminated objects and fluids. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Used for Prevention of: Bloodborne Pathogens and OPIM’s Protecting: Head, torso, arms, hands, feet, etc… All PPE should be properly disposed of after usage of such equipment in proper disposal units. Equipment: gloves, aprons, gowns, face protectors, masks, safety eye glasses, coats, linen. Bleach solutions usage: For medical equipment 1:10 For work stations 1:100

Universal Precautions

All blood and other body fluids are to be considered infected besides: Vomit, nasal, sweat, tears, saliva, sputum, urine

Body Substance Isolation (BSI)

BSI practices are used to lessen the chances of transmissions of any diseases and/or infections—all fluids are to be suspected of infectious diseases. OSHA’s guidelines are to be followed by all persons dealing/working with Bloodborne Pathogens and other OPIM’s. These guidelines are for the protection of all workers and bystanders who come in contact with any Bloodborne Pathogens and OPIM’s.

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