# Conceptual Physics, chapter 19

Total word count: 972
Pages: 4

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 What is meant by the period of a pendulum? the period of a pendulum is the time required for the bob to swing out and back once how many vibrations per second are represented in a radio wave of 101.7 MHZ? The M represents million and HZ represents vibrations per second, therefore we have the frequency of 101.7 million vibrations per second How do frequency and period relate to each other they are inversely proportional to each other. Frequency = 1/T where T represents the period what is the relationship among frequency , wavelength, and wave speed? V=frequency x wavelength, therefore the wave’s speed is directly proportional to its frequency and wavelength. As the frequency of a wave of constant speed is increased, does the wavelength increase or decrease since there is an inverse relationship between frequeny and wavelength,as the frequency increases the wavelength must decrease V=f~; solving for ~ we get ~= v/f in a transverse wave, in which direction does the medium vibrate when compared to the direction that the wave is moving? the wave vibrates at right angles (90degrees) to the direction of wave propagation. in what direction are the vibrations relative to the direction of wave travel in a longitudinal wave the vibrations are in the direction of propagation the wavelength of a transverse wave is the distance between successive crest. what is the wavelength of a longitudinal wave the distance between two compressions what is meant by the superposition principle? place two or more waves in the same place at the same time. The result will be one wave that is the sum of their combined effects what is constructive interference? it is the increase in wave amplitude caused by the superposition of waves. The occurs when the crest and trough of one wave is in the same space as the crest and trough of another wave. what is destructive interference? the decreased in wave amplitude caused by the superposition of waves. This occurs when the crest of on wave is in the same space as the trough of another wave In the Doppler effect, does frequency change? does wavelength change? does wave speed change? Both the frequency and wavelength change. The wave speed remains constant. what is meant by a blue shift and a red shift for light Blue shift for light indicates an increase in frequency and tells you that the objects are approaching on another. Red shift is a decrease in frequency and indicates that the objects are moving apart What does it mean to say that one wave is out of phase what another? it means that their crests and trough do not occur at the same place at the same time. This results in destructive interference. If they are 180degrees out of phase, complete destructive interference occurs. if we double the frequency of a vibrating medium, what happens to the period of the wave? since the period is inversely proportional to the frequency, the period will be one-half its original value if its frequency is doubled while keeping wave velocity constant. you dip your finger repeatedly into a puddle of water and makes wave. What happens to the wavelength if you dip your finger more frequently? From the equation for wave velocity (V=f~), increasing the frequency must decrease the wavelength in order to maintain a constant velocity Why is there a Doppler effect when the source of sound is stationary and the listener is in motion? In which direction should the listener move to hear a higher frequency? A lower frequency? The Doppler effect is produced by the relative motion of the wave emitter and receiver. If the crest arrive sooner than the source emitted them there will be an increase in frequency. If the crests arrive less frequently than the source emitted them there will be a decrease in frequency. How does the Doppler effect aid police in detecting speeding motorists? the radar unit sends out waves of invisible light at a specific frequency. some of the waves bounce off the vehicle and return back to the officer. The faster your relative motion, the larger the frequency shift. the unit then calculates your speed and displays it on a screen. a vibration is a wiggle in time a wave is a periodic wiggle in both space and time. A wave extends from one place to another. sound is a mechanical wave which needs a medium to vibrate through (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) light is a vibration of electric and magnetic fields a sine curve is a pictorial representation of a wave produced by simple harmonic motion the unit of frequency is called a hertz, one vibration per second is 1 hertz of a vibration br wave is the time for one complete vibration period standing wave a stationary wave pattern formed in a medium when two sets of identical waves pass through the medium in opposite directions bow wave the V-shaped disturbance created by an object moving across a liquid sufarce at a speed greater than the wave speed shock wave the cone-shaped disturbance created by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid sonic boom the loud sound resulting from the incidence of a shock wave frequency corresponds to pitch, high pitched sound from a piccolo has a high frequency; low pitched sound of a fog horn has a low frequency. sound wave with frequencies below .. 20HZ are infrasonic sound waves with frequencies higher than .. 20,000hz are ultrasonic sound travels 4 times faster in water than air and about 15 times faster in steel than in air the speed of sound depends on the wind conditions, temperature and humidity. It does not depend on the loudness or the frequency of the sound for each degree rise in temperature about 0 degrees Celsius, the speed of sound in air increases by 0.6 meters per second

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