Computer Concept for End Users- Unit 7

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Which of the following terms would best match this definition: Transforms a message or data file in such a way that
its contents are hidden from unauthorized readers.


An original message or file that has not yet been encrypted is referred to as ciphertext.


A cryptographic ________ is a word, number, or phrase that must be known to encrypt or decrypt data.


There are various encryption methods, but __________ is the encryption standard currently used worldwide.


A cryptographic __________ is a procedure for encryption or decryption.


​Which of the following is not an example of an authentication protocol?

password, PINs, fingerprint scanner

The single most effective security measure for digital devices is to password protect access to them.


​Passwords used as encryption ________ help to make hijacked data unusable.


Android devices automatically encrypt data stored on the device when a user activates the login password.


It is not possible to encrypt a Windows hard drive volume.


OS X devices include a utility that automatically encrypts data stored locally.


A(n) _______ password is difficult to hack.


​Conventional wisdom tells us that strong passwords are at least _____ characters in length and include one or
more uppercase letters, numbers, and symbols.


​Which of the following type of attack uses passwordcracking software to generate every possible combination of
letters, numerals, and symbols.

brute force

​Which of the following is not a characteristic of a weak password?

eight characters in length and include one or more uppercase letters, numbers and symbols

Brute force attacks methodically try every possible password until the correct one is found


Password _________ is a measure in bits of a password’s unpredictability.


Password entropy is a measure in _____ of a password’s unpredictability


If you want to store passwords on your digital device, make sure to _________ the file in which they are stored.


​If you feel more secure with a totally random and unique password for each of your logins, then a(n)
_______________ is an excellent option.

password manager

​The core function of a password manager is to store user IDs with their corresponding ________.


Password managers can generate unique passwords that have very good entropy


Password managers store passwords in a(n) _________ file


​If you use a password manager, what do you as the user need to remember?

the master password

​A password manager can store passwords in an encrypted file located at which of the following storage locations?

local storage, cloud storage, USB storage

________ refers to any computer program designed to surreptitiously enter a digital device.


The action carried out by malware code is referred to as a(n) _______.


​Common classifications of _________ include viruses, worms, and trojans.


A computer _________ is a set of selfreplicating program instructions that surreptitiously attaches itself to a
legitimate executable file on a host device.


n addition to replicating itself, a virus selfdistributing.


Viruses spread themselves from one device to another


__________ is the process of modifying an executable file or data stream by adding additional commands

code injection

What is the process called when an app from a source other than an official app store is installed on a device?


any code that is designed to hide the existence of processes and privileges is referred to as a(n) _______.


A key characteristic of viruses is their ability to lurk in a device for days or months, quietly replicating themselves.


​A computer _______ is a selfreplicating, selfdistributing program designed to carry out unauthorized activity on a
victim’s device.


. ​Which of the following is not a characteristic of a computer worm?

spread through a process called side-loading

Stuxnet is a notorious computer _______.


​Similar to a worm, a trojan is not designed to spread itself to other devices.


Most trojans are not designed to replicate themselves


A(n) __________ is a computer program that seems to perform one function while actually doing something else.


_________ are standalone programs that masquerade as useful utilities or applications


​Trojans depend on ________ to spread.

social engineering

​A(n) _________ is designed to deliver malicious code into a device.


Any data entering a digital device could be malware.


The best defense against malware is _____________

antivirus software

A virus __________ is a section of program code that contains a unique series of instructions known to be part of
a malware exploit.


Antivirus software can use techniques called__________ to detect malware by analyzing the characteristics and
behavior of suspicious files.

heuristic analysis

One method of heuristic analysis allows the suspicious file to run in a guarded environment called a(n)
___________ .


Heuristics may produce false positives that mistakenly identify a legitimate file as malware


When antivirus software detects malware, which of the following would not be a course of action you could take?

conduct a heuristic analysis

Once you have installed antivirus software, you don’t typically need to keep it running full time in the background


A virus __________ usually arrives as an email message that contains warnings about a supposedly new virus.


A(n) ________________ takes place when an unauthorized person gains access to a digital device by using an
Internet connection and exploiting vulnerabilities in hardware or software.

online intrusion

Which of the following sequence of events best describes an online intrusion?

malware enters the device, then opens a backdoor, leading to an open communication link on the device that a hacker can exploit

​A ___________ is malware that arrives in a trojan disguised as legitimate software and sets up a secret
communication link to a hacker


A(n) __________ is an undocumented method of accessing a digital device.


RATs can be used to create a backdoor to a victim’s device that takes control of the device’s camera.


If you are traveling and expect to access files on a computer that you’ve left at home, make sure the remote
access utilities is turned off.


​Which type of device is the top target for ransomware?


___________ locks a device and then requests payment for an unlocking code


​Hackers who gain control over several computers can organize them into a clientserver network known as a(n)


A botnet has a server that is controlled by hackers.


______ can be used to flood a Web site with so much traffic that it can no longer provide its intended service

DDoS, botnets, and commands from a botmaster

Correctly installed antivirus software will prevent all intrusions.


Antivirus software cannot be expected to block threats that do not arrive in the form of malware.


A(n) ______________ attack exploits previously unknown vulnerabilities in software applications, hardware, and
operating system program code


​_____________ software shields certain applications against behaviors commonly exhibited by intrusions


​Hackers can use ports to communicate with devices in botnets


A(n) __________ pings a packet of data to a port in order to see if that port is open or not.

port scan

. ​A network utility called ______________ produces a detailed list of open ports on a device.


A(n) __________ is a device or software that is designed to block unauthorized access while allowing authorized


Which of the following can be used to block unauthorized access while allowing authorized communications on a
device or network?

network router, personal firewall and hardware that uses a NAT

Any software that secretly gathers personal information without the victim’s knowledge is classified as


Which of the following would be considered spyware?

a keylogger

​MITM attacks include which of the following

address spoofing, IMSI catchers, evil twins

The objective of a MITM attack is for a third party to block communications between two entities.


A(n) _____________ is a LAN server that is designed to look like a legitimate WiFi hotspot

evil twin

​To establish a(n) ________, hackers set up an unsecured WiFi hotspot complete with an Internet connection.

evil twin

__________ changes an originating address or a destination address to redirect the flow of data between two

address spoofing

If a hacker intercepts encrypted data by way of a MITM attack, the contents of that data is not always secure.​


The current method of encrypting communication between a client and a server depends on a security protocol
called _______


_______ is a 64bit number that uniquely identifies a cellular device.


IMSI catchers are operated by cellular service companies.


​______________ is a deceptive practice that exploits human psychology by inducing victims to interact with a
digital device in a way that is not in their best interest.

social engineering

​____________ is a term for a person who devises and carries out a scam in order to accomplish a goal.

NOT main-in-the-middle, internet worm or RAT

Social engineering attacks prey on human vulnerabilities


​A social engineering scam called ___________ is when a victim is promised a large sum of money in exchange
for a bank account number from which a small advance fee is withdrawn.

advance fee fraud

​__________ is defined as unsolicited messages that are usually sent in massive numbers using electronic mail


​Spam sent by scammers often uses spoofed email addresses.


Most massmailing databases are legitimately compiled from customer lists.


​Spam accounts for approximately ______ of all email.


The CANSPAM Act is considered an effective means of controlling the volume of spam on the Internet.


​___________ is a term describing spam that uses a false pretext to trick victims into participating.


Most ISPs and email services do not use filtering techniques to block spam.


​A spam __________ uses a set of rules to examine email messages and determine which are spam.


Which of the following is not a type of spam filter?


Blacklist and header filtering is usually performed by email clients and Webmail services.


. ​________ is an email scam that masquerades as a message from a legitimate source.


_________ redirects Web site traffic to fraudulent Web sites


Pharming attacks carried out by DNS spoofing can be detected by antivirus software or spyware removal


​____________ is a service offered by Google that checks URLs against a list of suspicious Web site URLs.

safe browsing

Microsoft uses a service called Safe Browsing to alert users about sites to avoid.


. ​A ______________ exploit usually begins with a virus warning and an offer to disinfect the infected device.

rogue antivirus

The most common types of PUPs and PUAs are toolbars and alternative browsers.


​What is the term used to describe unwanted software that installs along with the application software that you
originally downloaded and installed?


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