Comm Midterm pretest

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The word communication comes from the Latin "communicare," which means

B. "to make common"

Which of the following does NOT relate to the term process?

D. static

Which of the following terms is NOT part of the definition of communication?

D. codes

Communication begins with

A. the self

Dean Barnlund uses a model in which each two-person interaction really involves

A. six persons

The model of communication is which senders and receivers simultaneously send and receive verbal and nonverbal messages is the

C. transaction model

Which of the following is NOT a component of communication?

D. action

When you do not listen well because you are daydreaming, it is because of

C. noise

Which of the following is NOT a context of communication.

A. feedback

When you look at yourself in the mirror and decide that you need to comb your hair, you are using what context of communication?

A. intrapersonal communication

Which of the following does NOT relate to the term public communication.

D. spontaneity

Of the contexts that include two or more people, the one that permits the least opportunity for feedback is

D. mass context

The term that includes the use of language in communication is known as

B. code

Which term refers to communication between two people?

A. dyadic communication

Saying "uh huh" to indicate that you understand is classified as a

B. nonverbal code

The idea that our past experiences lead us to see the world in a particular way that is difficult to change is called

A. perceptual constancy

Which of the following is the best example of how role affects perception?

B. I am an honor student and president of the student body.

Which statement about co-cultures and perception is true according to chapter 2 of the textbook?

B. Men see talk as instrumental, as something done for a specific purpose.

Which of the following activities does NOT occur in perception?

A. exploration

Which of the following is the best example of selective attention?

A. She immediately spotted the guy with the earring who looked so much like someone she had known before.

When you remember how wonderful your mother was but forget how often she made you feel inadequate, then you are exhibiting the perception concept called

A. selective retention

Which of the following would be the reason why an individual looking at a class picture might see his or her own face first?

B. because it is figure and the rest of the class is ground

If I notice that Bill and Yolanda are often together and I "fill in" my inference that they are now lovers, then I am illustrating the perception concept called

A. closure

Which of the following is NOT cited in the book as one of the three reasons why differences in perception occur?

D. present eating habits

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of passive perception?

C. People create meanings.

The characteristic listed below that is NOT true of active perception is that it is

D. simple

Which of the following would be an example of a physiological factor that affects perception?

D. a woman who weighs ninety-seven pounds

Which concept listed below is one in which evaluation (positive or negative judgment) plays an important role?

B. self-esteem

Which of the following best describes an instance of disconfirmation of a person’s self-concept?

B. You believe yourself to be very smart in math; but because you are a woman, no one else acknowledges your math ability.

You know you are a marginal student, your grades show it, and your family and friends do not expect anything better from you. The responses you receive from others are examples of

A. confirmation

Of what two parts does self-concept consist?

B. self-image and self-esteem

The concept referring to the idea that messages and feedback from others shape you into what you are today is called

C. symbolic interactionism

Maslow’s pyramid has as its highest level the concept known as the

D. self-actualized person

Which of the following is NOT a research cited in the textbook regarding gender and self-concept?

C. Women tend to have higher self-esteem than do men in our society.

The evaluative part of self is

C. self-esteem

If your mother thinks that you walk on water, then you might try to live up to her expectations. This tendency is called

B. self-fulfilling prophecy

The term that refers to the arrangement of words is

D. syntax

The best definition of decoding from the choices below is the

B. interpretation, assignment of meaning, and conversion of the words into thoughts of our own

Which of the following does NOT mean that "words are arbitrary?"

A. Words have inherent meaning

Which of the following ideas is NOT conveyed by expressions like "the word is not the thing" and "the map is not the territory?"

A. Words are abstractions of that for which they stand

Semantics can be defined as the

A. science of meaning in language

Which of the following does NOT accurately describe what we mean when we say that language is personal?

D. We each have developed language without the influence of our age, gender or personality

Which of the following examples best depicts the denotative meaning of a word?

B. Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy in the first trimester.

Which of the following statements about language is false?

D. The meaning of a word does not change once it is included in the dictionary.

Which of the statements below is an example of euphemism?

D. rest room

Which of the following is NOT a true statement about slang and jargon?

D. Slang is not understood or used by most people.

Which of the following is NOT an example of a cliché?

B. "Our country is more of a banquet than a melting pot."

The same bottom-feeding fish known as bullheads in Minnesota are called catfish in Ohio. This language phenomenon is classified as

B. regionalism

Which of the following best typifies the meaning of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?

C. Your language shapes your perception.

Paraphrasing is the act of

B. repeating what you think you heard in your own words

Which of the following statements is descriptive as opposed to evaluative?

C. I counted twenty questions of which I was uncertain.

Which of the following is an operational definition?

A. A friend is someone who likes to be with you, who stands by you in time of trouble, and who listens to you when you need an ear.

Which of the following is the best example of concreteness?

B. My hometown is Isle, Minnesota, population 521.

As he drove out of the driveway, he saw his wife waving but did not realize that she wanted him to stop to avoid running over the tricycle. He thought she was just waving good-bye. The problem in this nonverbal episode is that we

B. use the same cue to communicate a variety of meanings

Sandeep Shukla was fishing far from shore when his friend on shore appeared to be vigorously signaling him to return. Unfortunately, he came back a long distance before he realized that his friend was not even facing the water and that he was simply doing his morning exercises. This episode is an example of which kind of intentionality in nonverbal communication?

C. an unintentional cue perceived as intentional

He acts very interested in her, stands close, looks deep into her eyes, and brings her drinks during the party. She observes his words and actions and dares to believe that he is falling in love with her on this first meeting. Which of the following questions would an expert on nonverbal communication NOT ask?

D. Why shouldn’t I just go home with this guy? All the nonverbal cues indicate interest and sincerity.

Two men are arguing at the bar when the smaller one says something unkind about the other’s mother. The bigger fellow glares straight ahead at his opponent, both arms and hands extended and fingers beckoning as if to say, "Cooome Heeeer." The latter fellow is using a nonverbal signal that is best described as being an

C. affect display

As the woman shaded her eyes with her open hand on her brow, she said, "Wow, is it ever bright out here." The nonverbal cue here is a(n)

A. illustrator

Which of the following is NOT included in the study of proxemics?

C. sound

A distance of ten feet between two people talking is what Edward T. Hall referred to as

C. social distance

Which of the following statements about distance is false?

A. Women exhibit discomfort at the small space they are allowed by others.

To whom are you the most likely to stand the closest?

B. a person of the same race

Which statement about nonverbal use of space is false?

D. Americans tend to stand much closer to each other than do people from most other countries.

Which of the following statements about touch is false?

A. Men value touch more than women do.

Who is more likely to use touch as a means of communicating?

B. a black woman from Puerto Rico

Which of the following are NOT paralinguistic features?

D. sounds with meaning and words without meaning

Which of the following CANNOT be used to indicate paralinguistic cues?

C. intelligence

Which of the following findings is true of the relationship between dress and personality?

D. People who conform to current styles seek to be accepted and liked.

Which statement about clothing and the perceptions of others is NOT verified by research?

B. Clothing and artifacts are unrelated to how acceptable we find other people to be.

Communicating by touch is called

A. tactile objectives

The study of nonword sounds that communicate meaning is called

B. paralinguistics

Which of the following is an example of a physical distraction to listening.

C. The two people talking in the row ahead of me kept me from catching very much of his lecture.

A person who gets so involved in the particulars that she misses the main point is demonstrating an example of a

B. factual distraction

Which of the following is an example of hearing rather than listening:

B. The sound of firecrackers filled the nighttime air.

Which of the following is NOT necessarily part of the process of listening?

D. The receiver responds with a return message.

Which of the following statements about listening is false?

D. Two months after listening to a message, the receivers will not remember the message at all.

Which two concepts seem most closely related?

A. self-focus and egocentrism

Focusing on main points is a method of avoiding

B. factual distractions

College students spend approximately what proportion of their time listening to others and the mass media?

A. 50 percent

Which of the following statements about active listening is false?

B. Active and empathic listening are exactly the same thing.

Which of the following nonverbal characteristics does NOT illustrate positive feedback?

C. neutral expression

Empathic listening differs from active listening in that

C. empathic listening adds the goal of understanding

Which of the following arguments illustrates the fallacy called the hasty generalization?

D. I was jilted by a woman once, so I’ll never trust women again.

You can accept the governor’s plan or his opponent’s, but the opponent’s plan will bankrupt the state" is a statement exemplifying what fallacy?

C. false alternatives

If one member of the gang is a murderer, then they all are" is an example of which fallacy?

A. division

Which of the following best exhibits critical thinking?

D. You are able to use what you know to apply standards to what you hear and decide the merits of the message.

Which of the following is an inference?

C. The road appears dangerous for ordinary travel.

Which of the following is a logical proof?

D. Use Ivory soap because it is inexpensive, antibacterial, safe and effective.

Which of the following statements about inductive arguments is false?

B. Inductive arguments include a major and minor premise.

Which of the following statements about deductive arguments is false?

D. Deductive arguments require an inference.

Deductive arguments must be checked for validity and

A. accuracy

Which of the following statements about syllogisms is false?

B. A syllogism has a generalization

Which of the following is NOT required for individual brainstorming?

B. Critically evaluate every choice before listing.

Which of the following is NOT recommended in the book as a way to select a topic?

D. psychic review

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways of determining if the topic is narrow enough?

D. The topic will appeal to the audience.

Which of the following is NOT one of the four levels of audience analysis?

B. determining whether the audience is heterogeneous or homogeneous

An attitude is

B. a predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably

Which is easier to change in an audience?

D. an attitude

Which of the following is an observation about an audience?

A. The audience is meeting in a sorority house at one of their regular Monday night meetings.

Wisdom, freedom, and security are all examples of

A. values

Which of the following is NOT a method recommended in the book for gathering inferences about an audience from questionnaires?

D. Determine the audience members’ astrological signs to indicate their states of mind.

In public speaking which of the following are you NOT expected to adapt to the audience?

A. your own personal position on the issue

Which of the following is the best example of a long-range goal?

A. to increase the number of people who will vote for the Libertarian ticket in the next election.

The word strategic in the term strategic choices means

B. purposeful

Which of the following statements concerning source credibility is consistent with the textbook?

B. Source credibility is an audience perception that must be established every time a person gives a speech to an audience.

The definition of dynamism is that the speaker is perceived as

C. bold, energetic, active, and assertive

The sleeper effect means that the

B. the speech had a delayed message impact because of separation of speaker from message over time

The concept of common ground in public speaking is most closely related to which dimension of source credibility?

D. co-orientation

Which of the following is NOT a research-based finding about source credibility?

D. Audiences are mercifully slow in deciding a speaker’s status or source credibility.

Which of the following statements is NOT reflected in the research on source credibility?

A. Source credibility is directly corrected with IQ.

Which of the following is NOT one of the four dimensions of source credibility?

C. personal attraction

When should you use personal experience in a speech?

B. When the personal experience is true and typical.

The best source to lead you to an article in Newsweek about an incident six months ago would be the

B. Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature

If you neglect to cite your sources of information, you can be accused of

A. plagiarism

Which of the following statements about oral footnotes is false?

B. An oral footnote includes all of the information found in a written footnote.

Inappropriate conduct for interviewing a source for your speech would include

B. recording information on a recorder and with notes whether or not the interviewee knows about the recorder.

In which of the following surveys should you place the most trust?

C. a university study by known sociologists that concludes welfare payments are insufficient

Which testimonial evidence best meets the criteria for evaluating such evidence?

C. A cafeteria worker, a student, testifies about conditions in the cafeteria kitchen.

Information from which you can draw a conclusion, make a judgment, or establish probability is called

C. evidence

Which of the following is NOT a function of a speech introduction?

C. to state a brief summary of the main arguments you will be presenting

Which speech topic might a speaker be most cautious about when stating its purpose in the introduction?

D. alternative concepts of religion that may differ from the audience’s own religious beliefs

The method taught for organizing a speech is

B. an outline

Which of the following is more of a long-range goal than an immediate purpose?

D. The audience should read Gore’s book on the environment to increase their knowledge.

Which of the following is NOT a principle of outlining as described in the chapter on organization?

D. The outline should contain a mixture of sentences, phrases, and words.

A rough draft is defined as a(n)

A. tentative plan for arranging the point in your speech

A sentence outline uses complete sentences. Which of the following examples fits that description?

A. We have to overcome our "bigger is better" notion that has been encouraged during most of this century.

A speech that claims that because solid waste is overcoming our city streets we need to consider recycling is using which pattern of speech organization?

D. problem-solution pattern

A speech on the qualities that make a fine athlete in the sport of soccer is likely to be using which pattern of organization?

A. topical-sequence pattern

A speech on how to assemble the electrical circuitry in a basic refrigerator motor would likely use which pattern of organization?

C. spatial-sequence

Which of the following is more of a transition than a signpost?

C. Having now discussed why you should activate your savings account, we will look next at how much money to place in it.

Which of the following is NOT a function of the conclusion?

D. the warning light function

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