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Tobacco leaves and stems contain an addictive drug known as .

nicotine

In the_______ , medical studies began to reveal a link between tobacco use and various forms of cancer.

1960s

The harmful effects of tobacco use are mainly caused by nicotine, ______, and carbon monoxide.

tar

As a stimulant, ______speeds up neural activity by increasing the body’s production of epinephrine.

nicotine

Withdrawal symptoms from______ addiction include craving for tobacco, headaches, anxiety, fatigue, and a lack of patience.

nicotine

causes damage to the alveoli and increases the production of mucus in the mouth, throat, and lungs.

tar

hinders the body’s ability to absorb needed amounts of oxygen.

Carbon monoxide

___1_more frequently develop chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, heart disease and emphysema than .__2___

1.smokers 2.non smokers

are at risk as much as smokers for respiratory and circulatory diseases.

passive smoker

Quitting tobacco use is usually very easy.

false

The best method of quitting is to:

quit "cold turkey"

Which of the following are medical devices which help tobacco users cope with withdrawal symptoms?

nicotine gum nicotine patch

Drinking too much alcohol can have a negative effect on the body.

true

What is alcohol made from?

the fermented sugars found in grains and fruits

What are some physical consequences of drunkenness

dehydration, nausea, and death

What are some medicinal uses of alcohol?

relief of anxiety or stress and reduction of cholesterol levels in the bloodstream

Physical symptoms of an alcoholic might include flushed ? skin, poor overall ?, ? and intestinal pain in the morning, tinging in the ?, confusion, and irregular ?

facial, health, stomach, hands and legs, pulse

Which of the following factors influence an individual’s blood alcohol levels?

gender, weight, and rate of consumption

A feeling of well-being that may not necessarily be based in reality.

euphoria

The class of drug that increases the activity of the central nervous system is known as:

stimulants

Pain killing drugs derived from opium are known as:

narcotics

Naturally occurring or synthetically produced drugs that can cause hallucinations are known as:

hallucinogens

Drugs that reduce the activity of the central nervous system are known as:

depressants

_____suppress brain activity by blocking the ability of nerves in the brain to send or receive signal.

Barbiturates

___increase the heart rate and suppress the appetite.

Amphetamines

______-reduce the physical and psychological symptoms of anxiety by reducing brain activity.

Tranquilizers

first used by Europeans as a local anesthetic; now abused for its euphoric effects

cocaine

found in coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans

caffeine

prescribed for pain involving serious injury or surgery

morphine

illegal derivative of morphine that is sold on the street as a white powder

heroin

can evoke feelings of terror and panic

lsd

causes user to experience a conscious dreamlike state

marijuana

acute

brief and intense

antediluvian

of the period before the Flood

biodegradable

susceptible to decomposition by living organisms

chronic

continuing for a long time

congenital

existing from birth

corrosive

capable of destroying by a chemical action

euphoria

a feeling of well-being that may not necessarily be based in reality

non-infectious

non-communicable; cannot be spread through casual contact or any mechanism of transmission, such as air, water, or blood. Diseases that are caused by heredity, diet, or the environment are termed ___________.

organic

derived from plants or animals

particulate

tiny particle that can be dispersed in a gas

pathogen

disease-causing agent

phagocyte

white blood cell that helps eliminate the chance of infection by attacking foreign substances in the body

putrefaction

the decay of organic matter caused by microorganisms

refuse

waste

subservient

in a subordinate position

vector

an animal or insect that is known to transmit a specific disease

viable

capable of life

viral infection

Are caused by the multiplication of a small infectious agent, known as a virus, within the body. Viruses cause disease by invading a host cell and then destroying it through replication.

bacterial infection

Are caused by the reproduction of a small infectious agent within the body. Can be contracted by breathing in infectious droplets, eating contaminated food, or exposing open wounds or mucus membranes to surfaces covered with pathogenic bacteria. Once in the body, pathogenic bacteria cause disease by producing poisons that destroy cells.

fungal infection

Are caused by the multiplication of fungal organisms on or in the body. Usually occur when the body’s immune system is impaired and is unable to keep the amount of fungi on or in the body at a healthy level. Fungi can cause disease by destroying or invading body tissues.

rickettsial and protozoan infection

Are caused by microscopic parasites. Can be contracted through an insect bite or by eating contaminated food.

immune system

Protects the body from the threat of disease.

innate immunity

Is the system of defense that every human is born with. It consists of the skin, protective secretions, the inflammatory response, and phagocytes.

adaptive immune system

If the innate immune system is unable to control the infection, the ______ immune system responds by producing specific antibodies or the activation of killer cells to attack the invading microorganisms.

humoral immunity

Disease-specific antibodies are produced in order to attack and destroy harmful bacteria.

cellular immunity

Generally works to combat cancer cells, some viruses, and parasites. Defensive agents involved include helper cells and killer cells.

helper cells

Identify abnormal cells and alert killer cells to attack.

killer cells

Attach to abnormal cells, eventually destroying them.

symptoms of infection

Certain symptoms indicate that the body is trying to combat invading microorganisms. Inflammation or fever is usually the first sign that your immune system is at work. Inflammation occurs when the innate immune system is attempting to flush a specific area with phagocytes. A fever occurs when the adaptive immune system is combating invading microorganisms. It is the body’s attempt to kill the disease-causing agents by increasing the temperature of their environment above that which is conducive to their existence.

immunization

________ helps boost the immune system by injecting weak or dead pathogens into the body. The body then builds up antibodies to fight against the disease.

disease

"the improper functioning of the body brought about by heredity, infection, diet, or the environment."

influenza

Symptoms include respiratory difficulties (sneezing, coughing, sore throat), the victim will also suffer from fatigue.

common cold

Are considered a viral infection. Symptoms may include runny nose, sneezing, congestion, coughing, sore throat, fever, and achy muscles

pneumonia

is a serious condition of the lungs that can lead to death. Is usually caused by bacterial or viral infection in the lungs. Symptoms include fever, chest pain, respiratory difficulties, and coughing up yellow-green mucus. Is a leading cause of death among the sick and the elderly.

streptococcal infections

Are spread by airborne disease-infected droplets. Depending upon the disease, symptoms may include fever, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, sore throat, and fatigue. If not treated properly, it can cause damage to kidneys or develop into rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is a very serious condition that can cause damage to the heart.

hepatitis

Is the inflammation of the liver and other tissues. Acute _____ can be caused by drug abuse or a virus. Chronic ______ is usually the result of a viral infection or an auto-immune disorder. Type A is generally spread through the fecal contamination of food. This occurs when food is touched by unclean hands. Type B is generally spread through sexual contact and "dirty" needles used by drug abusers. Can cause severe liver damage, if not treated properly.

symptoms of hepatitis

The symptoms of Type A and B are very similar, except Type B tends to be more severe, causing greater damage to the liver. If any illness is detectable, patients might feel like they have the flu. As the disease progresses, they may become jaundiced as the liver begins to struggle to perform properly.

treatment for hepatitis

The treatment for viral hepatitis, acute or chronic, is rest. This allows the body to fight the virus, which cannot be destroyed with medication. Hepatitis that is caused by substance abuse is treated with rest and complete abstinence from the damaging substance.

circulatory system diseases

Diseases affecting the circulatory system are the leading cause of death among American adults. Can either be congenital or the result of an unhealthy lifestyle.

congenital heart disease

Is a malformation of the heart present at birth. It can be caused by rubella in the mother. But, usually there is no known cause for its development. Symptoms of the disease include breathlessness, blue skin (caused by lack of oxygen in the blood), susceptibility to fatigue, and stunted physical development. Many ______ _____ conditions can be corrected with surgery.

coronary heart disease

Is the most common circulatory system disease. Damage to the heart is caused by reduced blood flow to the heart resulting from blocked or narrowing coronary arteries. Usually goes unnoticed until chest pain is felt or a heart attack occurs. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow is completely cut off. Heart attacks are usually preceded by dull chest pain that becomes more intense as the muscle struggles to keep blood flowing. Heart attacks can also cause weakness, sweating, and nausea. Can be treated with drugs or surgery. The best means to prevent the development of ______ _____ ______ is to eat nutritious foods and exercise regularly.

cancer

A disease characterized by the unrestrained growth of abnormal cells on or in tissues of the body. The symptoms are the result of ____ cells draining normal cells of vital nutrients. Is caused by the transforming effect of carcinogens on normal cells.

Sarcomas

affect connective tissue, supportive tissue, and blood vessels.

Carcinomas

affect the skin and tissues that cover or line the organs.

Lymphomas

affect the tissues of the lymphatic system.

carcinogens

Are cancer-causing agents. Can be chemical (tobacco), physical (asbestos) or biological (virus or fungi).

radiation therapy

Tries to destroy abnormal cells by directing radioactive rays through the patient’s skin to the diseased tissue.

chemotherapy

Seeks to destroy abnormal cells by injecting anticancer drugs directly into the affected tissue.

diabetes

It is a disease of the pancreas in which insulin is not produced in the correct amounts so that glucose (sugar) can be converted into energy or stored as fat. If left untreated, it can cause irreversible damage to your eyes, nerve fibers, and kidneys.

insulin-dependent

Is also known as Type I diabetes or childhood diabetes. Type I diabetes usually develops in people between the ages of 9 and 16. Type I diabetes is generally thought to be caused by an inherited predisposition to pancreas problems brought on by a viral infection. Symptoms may include excessive thirst and urination. These symptoms are a result of the body’s need to rid itself of excess amounts of glucose in the bloodstream. Excess amounts of glucose in the bloodstream will cause parts of the brain to shut down, which can eventually lead to death. Type I diabetes is mainly treated with regular insulin injections. These injections may be received one to four times a day. The injection might be administered with an insulin pen or with a portable pump that has a catheter inserted into the skin. In order to help keep insulin levels near normal, Type I diabetics are expected to follow a time-regulated, low-carbohydrate diet and exercise regularly.

non-insulin-dependent

Is also known as Type II diabetes or adult-onset diabetes. It is thought to be an inherited predisposition. It is also sometimes brought about by obesity. Symptoms may include excessive thirst and urination. These symptoms are a result of the body’s need to rid itself of excess amounts of glucose in the bloodstream. Excess amounts of glucose in the bloodstream will cause parts of the brain to shut down, which can eventually lead to death. Type II diabetics are expected to follow a time-regulated, low-carbohydrate diet and exercise regularly. To avoid the development of Type II diabetes, you should maintain healthy eating habits and exercise regularly.

medicine

It is defined as the art and science of treating and preventing human disease.

health care

Is the actual practice of medical knowledge.

doctor’s office

You get highly personalized health care for a fee. Your doctor examines you for specific symptoms and prescribes a treatment that, in his personal knowledge of you, would most likely bring about a cure.

health clinics

Also offer health care for a fee, but without the level of personal care that patients receive from a doctor in private practice. Usually consist of a group of health care professionals that are employed by a corporation.

hospitals

Offer round the clock care for people who are recovering from surgery or a life-threatening illness. They also provide emergency services, special treatments, and testing services for those who are on an out-patient status.

nursing homes

Provide health care for the aging, the disabled, and the chronically ill. Depending upon the type of _____ ____, different levels of care are provided for residents. Some allow residents to be very independent. Others offer extended intensive care.

hospices

Provide specialized care for the dying. It is the goal of the staff to make the last days of a patient as peaceful as possible. May be located in a hospital or in a separate building. To increase the level of comfort, hospice nurses will also administer care in a patient’s home.

physicians

Are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury.

primary care physicians

Physicians that diagnose and treat common illnesses and injuries

specialist

Is trained in a specific area of medicine

physician assistants (PAs)

PAs help alleviate the workload of primary care physicians. However, the role of PAs is distinct from that of nurses. PAs are licensed to examine patients and prescribe treatments.

registered nurses (RNs)

Are licensed to treat patients and record their symptoms.

nurse practitioners

Are licensed to examine patients and render basic care.

licensed practical nurses (LPNs)

Administer care under the supervision of physicians and RNs.

pharmacists

Are health professionals who dispense prescription medication to patients and provide information about the drugs their doctors have ordered for them. They also advise physicians and other health care professionals on the selection, dosages, interactions and side effects of medications. Oftentimes, they also help provide information and make recommendations about over-the-counter drugs for customer.

dentists

Are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting teeth or gums.

dental hygienists

Assist dentists in the promotion of healthy teeth and gums. Some of their duties include cleaning teeth, educating patients on proper dental hygiene, and assisting the dentist during oral surgery.

public health

Public health systems seek to promote the health of an entire community by controlling the spread of disease. In most developed countries today, this is accomplished by providing reliable and sanitary systems of waste disposal and ensuring adequate supplies of clean water. Secondly, public health systems seek to provide immunization programs and educate people on the means of disease prevention.

Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Regulate and manage government services that promote public health and welfare. Within the HHS, there are eight divisions devoted to public health

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Is the main agency concerned with tracking outbreaks and developing methods to combat the spread of disease. Two of the CDC’s most effective means of disease control are education and immunization. The CDC often works with local officials to provide certain socio-economic groups with free immunization programs. Its education programs for health workers help to improve public knowledge about disease control and prevention.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Is the main agency responsible for the discovery and spread of medical information that is pertinent to the control and prevention of disease. NIH consists of 13 institutes of health and the National Library of Medicine. The institutes are staffed by medical professionals and scientists that are working towards finding cures for diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and the common cold.

The Food and Drug Administration

Is another important division of HHS. It is the responsibility of the FDA to ensure the purity and safety of food products, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. The FDA also monitors food labeling to ensure its truthfulness.

What can a PA do that an RN cannot?

PAs are licensed to examine patients and prescribe treatments. RNs are licensed to treat patients and record their symptoms. RNs cannot prescribe treatments.

What were the moral and physical ramifications of the Fall of man?

The physical ramifications are sickness, death, child labor, the need to eat and drink, the moral ramifications are knowing what is good and evil, knowing what is sin.

drug

Is a chemical substance used to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease or alter one or more functions of the body. It affects the body by either stimulating or blocking a chemical reaction by a cell or a disease-causing agent.

drug functions

In order for a drug to work properly, it must be administered properly. Methods of administration may depend upon the illness, the potency of the drug, and the length of treatment. Drugs are administered in several ways. They are taken by mouth (pills), they are injected directly in the bloodstream or tissue (vaccines), they are applied topically (creams), or they are inhaled (nasal sprays). Once a drug is administered, it is distributed to affected sites via the bloodstream. Enroute to the affected sites, the drug is broken down into a form that can be used by the body or discarded. This process is called metabolism. Metabolism usually occurs in the liver. After a drug undergoes metabolism, it interacts with cells or disease-causing agents in a specific way. The interaction either stimulates or blocks a chemical reaction. The effectiveness of a drug depends upon its dosage. Too little or too much interaction of a drug with cells or infecting agents will either render the drug useless or cause it to be harmful.

drug classifications

They can be classified according to name (i.e. aspirin), chemical make up (i.e. corticosteriods); the disorder they treat (i.e. antidepressants), or their specific effect on the body or a disease (i.e. stimulants), which is the usual means of classification.

antibiotics

_____ drugs are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs. They are used to treat bacterial infections. They fight invading bacteria by either slowing their multiplication or destroying them. They are chosen according to the place of infection and the type of bacteria.

analgesics

Are commonly known as painkillers. They come in two forms: non-narcotic and narcotic.

non-narcotic

________ are used for the treatment of mild pain, fever, or swelling. They work by stopping the transmission of pain impulses to the brain and spinal cord or by preventing the perception of pain. They can be dispensed over the counter (without prescription).

narcotic

_______ are used for the treatment of severe pain. They contain opium and natural or synthetic derivatives of opium. They kill pain by blocking impulses at specific receptor sites of the brain and spinal cord. Because they contain opium, a drug that can cause addictive euphoric effects, they can only be dispensed by prescription.

diuretics

They help the body to eliminate excess amounts of water in the blood, tissues, or organs by increasing the production of urine. They are used to treat fluid buildup caused by congestive heart failure, joint injury, cirrhosis of the liver, and kidney disease. They are also used to prevent further complications associated with high blood pressure. They work by either increasing the volume of blood flow through the kidneys or by limiting the kidney’s ability to put water and sodium back into the blood.

tranquilizers

Are used to help treat mental disorders by producing a calming effect and reducing the heart rate. They can be categorized into two groups: anti-anxiety drugs and anti-psychotic drugs.

anti-anxiety

They are prescribed to help relieve the physical and emotional symptoms of anxiety. They work by slowing brain activity and reducing the heart rate.

anti-psychotic

Are used to treat severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia. They work by blocking the effects of certain neurotransmitters on the brain.

neurotransmitters

Are chemicals that relay messages from one nerve cell to another.

hormones

Also known as endocrine drugs, they treat disorders of the endocrine system. The endocrine system consists of hormone-producing glands that regulate the body’s functions, metabolism, and growth. Endocrine drugs correct the level of specific hormones in the body.

drug abuse

Is the taking of a legal or illegal drug in a manner that can cause physical harm or psychological and physical dependence.

physical dependence

Is characterized by a state of mental and physical abnormality when the drug is withdrawn. The body has become so accustomed to the presence of the drug that it cannot function properly without it. Usually, the abuser needs greater and greater dosages of the drug in order for the drug to have its desired effect.

psychological dependence

Is marked by a craving for the drug. Abusers rely on the elated state that the drug causes in order to deal with the problems they might face.

stimulants

Increase the activity of the central nervous system. They can make you feel more alert and less hungry. Adverse side effects include heart palpitations, nervousness, hallucinations, and seizures.

amphetamines

Are drugs that increase the heart rate and suppress the appetite.

cocaine

Is derived from the leaves of the South American plant known as coca. It was first used in European countries as a local anesthetic; however, its euphoric effects soon led to its abuse.

narcotics

Are mainly pain-killing drugs that are derived from opium.

hallucinogens

Are naturally-occurring or synthetically-produced drugs that can cause hallucinations. They have no medical use. They are often used for their psychedelic effects and are termed a recreation drug.

depressants

They reduce or slow the activity of the central nervous system. They act as a sedative, causing the user to feel relaxed or drowsy. They are often prescribed to relieve anxiety or insomnia. If taken in combination with other depressants (such as alcohol), they can cause coma or death.

barbiturates

Are derived from barbituric acid. They suppress brain activity by blocking the ability of nerves in the brain to send or receive signals.

heroin

A derivative of morphine, is an illegal substance. It is sold on the street as a white powder that can be inhaled through the nostrils, mixed with water and injected into the veins, or smoked in a special pipe. Heroin is much more potent than other analgesics. It also causes feelings of peace, warmth, and indifference. Long-term use can cause physical and psychological addiction, along with increased tolerance for the drug.

marijuana

Is the dried leaves, stems, and flowering tops of the Indian hemp plant, Cannabis Sativa. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active ingredient in marijuana. It causes users to feel as if they are in a conscious dreamlike state, where happiness and peace are readily experienced.

morphine

Is one of the most widely abused narcotic analgesics. It is usually prescribed for pain involving serious injury or surgery. The drug can also cause feelings of euphoria. Its long-term use can lead to physical and psychological addiction.

LSD

Is the most well-known psychedelic drug. It is a synthetic psychedelic drug that is derived from a fungus. Like other psychedelic drugs, it alters one’s perception of reality. It can cause dizziness, nausea, and weakness.

caffeine

Is found in coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans. It is consumed by people every day in the form of cola drinks, tea, coffee, and chocolate. It stimulates the activity of the central nervous system which, in turn, reduces fatigue, improves concentration, and increases muscle performance.

alcohol

Also known as ethanol or ethyl alcohol, is a colorless liquid that is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeast.

What is alcohol made from?

Alcohol is a colorless liquid that is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeast. Ethyl alcohol is found in beer, wine, and hard liquor. Alcohol has been created throughout history wherever fruits and grains have been grown. The people of the Near East made wine from grapes. The ancient Egyptians used barley to make beer. The Medieval Scots used the whole grain of wheat to make whiskey.

What are some of the medicinal uses of alcohol?

Doctors throughout the centuries have used alcohol to treat many ailments. In ancient times, wine was used to treat stomach ailments. Today, some doctors encourage patients who struggle with anxiety to drink a daily glass of wine, as the sedative effect of alcohol may help relieve tension. Drinking fermented grape products may also reduce the level of cholesterol in the bloodstream.

What are some of the physical consequences of drunkenness?

Drunkenness can have mild to severe physical consequences, depending upon the amount of alcohol that is consumed. These effects can range from dehydration to death. As a diuretic, alcohol causes the body to urinate more frequently. Depending upon the amount of alcohol that is consumed, a certain level of dehydration will occur.

Why is drunkenness considered a sin?

It indicates a desire to find peace and fulfillment in the things of the world rather than in God.

Briefly, describe the physical and psychological state of the alcoholic:

The alcoholic can develop severe emotional problems. The consequences include needless injury, inappropriate behavior, and addiction. The alcohol, which the alcoholic looks to as a cure, compounds his or her problems. This growing frustration with self and others often manifests in changes in behavior and personality. The physical symptoms of alcoholism might include flushed facial skin, poor overall health, stomach and intestinal pain in the morning, tingling in the legs and hands, confusion, and irregular pulse. These symptoms usually indicate the development or the existence of irreversible damage to body tissues. Some alcohol-related disorders include cancer of the mouth, tongue, and esophagus, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis, coronary heart disease, stroke, ulcers, kidney failure, and brain damage. Pregnant women who consume alcohol run the risk of miscarriage or, if they carry their babies to term, a birth defect known as fetal alcohol syndrome.

tobacco

Is a plant that is grown for its leaves and stems. The leaves and stems contain an addictive drug, known as nicotine, which can have various effects on the body.

1960

In the year ____, medical studies began to reveal a link between tobacco use and various forms of cancer.

nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide

The harmful effects of tobacco use are mainly caused by…

nicotine

Speeds up neural activity by increasing the body’s production of epinephrine.

nicotine

Withdrawal symptoms from ______ addiction include craving for tobacco, headaches, anxiety, fatigue, and a lack of patience.

tar

Causes damage to the alveoli and increases the production of mucus in the mouth, throat, and lungs.

carbon monoxide

Hinders the body’s ability to absorb needed amounts of oxygen.

passive smokers

Are at risk as much as smokers for respiratory and circulatory diseases.

treat a disease, prevent a disease, diagnose a disease, alter one or more functions of the body.

According to the text, a drug is a chemical substance used to:

spiritual and physical death, disease, pain in childbirth, and the strain of work

What were some of the moral and physical ramifications of the fall of man?

virus

Which type of infectious agent invades a host cell and then destroys it through replication?

False

After the Flood, the high humidity produced a "greenhouse effect" over the entire earth. True or False

True

God split mankind into nations so that people would "fill the earth and subdue it." True or False.

False

God intended mankind to be subservient to the environment. True or False.

False

The cultural mandate to "subdue" the environment allows mankind to use natural resources without regard for future generations. True or False.

atmosphere

The layer of air that surrounds the earth and supports life is called the ________. It is a mixture of gases and particles, including oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and dust.

troposphere

Is the layer that envelops the earth’s surface. All living things exist within the ________. It is approximately 5 to 10 miles thick.

stratosphere

is the second layer of the atmosphere. It ranges from 5 to 30 miles above the earth’s surface. The ozone layer is part of the ________.

mesosphere

The layer that reaches from 30 to 50 miles above the surface of the earth.

thermosphere/ionosphere

Is the fourth layer of the atmosphere. It extends from 50 to 300 miles above the earth’s surface. It is called the __________ and the _________ because of its high temperatures and high content of ions. Meteors are spotted and usually vaporized as they pass through this layer.

exosphere

Is the outermost layer. Its outer limits extend 600 miles above the earth’s surface.

350,000

There are approximately ______ cubic miles of water on and surrounding the earth. It is contained in oceans (93 to 97 percent), ice (2 percent), and fresh water (1 percent). Sources of fresh water include rivers, lakes, underground springs, and atmospheric moisture.

air pollution

Air pollution can lead to respiratory problems and aggravate existing respiratory and circulatory diseases. Pollutants in the atmosphere can also cause damage to vegetation and animal life. In order to curb the effect of air pollution on human health and the environment, many countries have enacted laws requiring regions to maintain a specified level of "clean air." The air is polluted by many factors. The burning of fossil fuels for transportation, industry, and domestic purposes all contribute to the introduction of pollutants into the air. Volcanoes, decaying organic material, lightning, and plants also add to the amount of "pollutants" in the air. As one scientist has noted, "the amount of pollutants in the air, particularly sulfates and nitrates, on a global scale comes about equally from natural and human sources."

particulates

Are solid or liquid particles that settle after being dispersed in a gas. They enter the body via inhalation or contact with the skin. They also affect the body indirectly through the contamination of food or drink sources. Examples of _______ include lead from automobile exhaust, cigarette ash, pesticides, and dust.

air pollutants

Air pollutants can be categorized into either gases or particulates. Gases that are considered pollutants cause harm to animal or plant life. Some gases that are considered toxic occur naturally in the earth’s atmosphere. For example, nitrogen is an essential component of the earth’s atmosphere. However, if nitrogen levels in the air rise above normal, the atmosphere can become toxic to animal or plant life.

carbon dioxide

The burning of gasoline and other fossil fuels by man has significantly increased the amount of toxic gases and particulates in the atmosphere. Increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere should, however, be a concern. Though CO2 levels have varied throughout history, scientists are still uncertain as to the long-term effects of heightened levels of CO2. Scientists do know that CO2 is an important "greenhouse gas." It helps maintain the Earth’s comfortable climate by preventing the escape of heat radiated from the Earth’s surface. It is a natural product of all animal life. It also is produced by decaying vegetation, volcanic eruptions, and forest fires. Secondary to these sources of CO2 is the burning of fossil fuels.

Fossil fuels

Are primarily used to produce gas for vehicles, heat, and industry. We can phase out the use of fossil fuels for making electricity and turn to the established and proven technology that has no adverse impact on the atmosphere–nuclear power." On a national and global level, this would result in an increased use of electricity for heating, transportation, and industrial purposes. An increased number of nuclear power plants would easily meet the increased demand for electricity. Another practical way to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is to plant trees. Carbon dioxide is used by trees and other plants for photosynthetic activity. The reforestation of urban areas can be especially helpful in reducing the impact of CO2 emissions by gas-powered vehicles and industry.

ozone

It protects the earth from the damaging effects of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. Ozone is a form of oxygen. The stratosphere, consists mainly of ozone. This section of the atmosphere is called the ozone layer. The ozone layer absorbs much of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun’s rays, protecting the earth and its inhabitants. Ozone is formed in the stratosphere by the effects of sunlight on oxygen molecules. "Holes" can appear in the ozone layer but soon disappear or are displaced. Nitrogen in the stratosphere keeps the natural production of ozone within a certain range, sufficient for the support of life on earth. Ozone is also formed by the activities of man. It is produced commercially to purify air, water, and certain foods. This is done by sending an electrical discharge through pure, cold oxygen. The burning of fossil fuels for transportation, industry, and domestic heat is another man-made source of ozone, but only secondarily. Ozone is formed in the atmosphere when chemicals called volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are acted upon by sunlight.

VOCs

Are ejected into the atmosphere by gas-powered vehicles, chemical refineries, and industrial plants. Vegetation and forest fires also emit ___. Nitrogen dioxide is emitted by electrical power plants and motor vehicles.

CFCs

Also known as Chlorofluorocarbons, they have been blamed for the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere. Chloride is a chemical byproduct of CFCs. Chloride apparently contributes to the break-down of ozone in the atmosphere. Consequently, CFC production has been theoretically linked to an increase in the occurrence of skin cancers caused by "holes" in the ozone layer. CFCs are produced and used widely. CFCs are used mainly in refrigeration and air conditioning. CFCs are vital to many industries, including medicine and food. Without the use of CFCs, many foods, such as meat and dairy products, would spoil before they reached your table. Medical supplies, such as vaccines, blood, and organs, could not be used to protect and save the lives of millions of individuals. CFCs are also used in substances that extinguish fire. The chloride produced by CFCs is found abundantly in nature. It is produced naturally by volcanoes at yearly rates that dwarf the amount produced by man. As one writer has noted, chloride emissions from one major volcanic eruption can produce 200 times the annual amount of chloride produced by CFCs. If chlorides do indeed cause long-term or short-term damage to the ozone layer, then natural pollutants are much to be blamed.

photochemical smog

High levels of ozone in the atmosphere can cause _________ ____. It can lead to acute or temporary health problems. It can trigger respiratory problems, such as asthma attacks, shortness of breath, and coughing.

thermal inversion

Is a natural phenomenon. It occurs when a layer of cool air is trapped underneath a layer of warm air, preventing the dissipation of pollutants by normal air currents. Usually, pollutants are circulated with the upward flow of warm air from the earth’s surface. _______ _______ occurs most frequently in the afternoon when the sunlight is the warmest and brightest. It also occurs more often over areas that are hemmed in by natural barriers, such as mountains.

sulfur dioxide

Is a colorless gas that has an irritating odor. It can cause damage in the form of atmospheric gas, dry particles, and acid. When it is combined with water, it becomes sulfuric acid. Sulfur acid is highly corrosive. It can cause damage to stone, metal, wood, and especially flesh. ____ _____ is a main component of industrial smog. It is produced when fossil fuels are burned for transportation, industrial, or domestic heating purposes. It is also the natural product of volcanic eruptions. The production of sulfates by man-made and natural sources are about equal. _____ _____ is blamed for respiratory problems, eye irritations, and highly acidic rain.

water pollution

Billions of gallons of water are contaminated every day by the activities of both man and nature. Millions of tons of toxic chemicals are spewed forth each day from volcanoes and distributed over oceans and lakes. Refineries and factories throughout the world dump tons of solid and liquid wastes into coastal waters, rivers, and streams. Depending upon the degree and the source of contamination, it can lead to sickness, death, or even the extinction of a species in an affected area.

sources of water pollution

Primary sources of water pollution include industrial waste, agriculture, and sewage. Industry pollutes water sources mainly by pouring waste into rivers, streams, or oceans. Some factories have been known to dump wastes into city sewage systems. Agriculture can cause water pollution with the overuse of pesticides and fertilizers. Pesticides and fertilizers that are used in farming can seep down into the ground, contaminating underground water sources. Although most pesticides and fertilizers decompose quickly, excess use can cause adverse effects. Sewage is wastewater from either domestic or industrial sources. Domestic sewage is the by-product of bathing, bodily waste, cooking, etc. If not properly disposed of, domestic sewage can cause the spread of harmful bacteria. In many countries and regions without water treatment plants, sewage is the leading cause of water contamination and consequently, disease. Water pollution can also be caused indirectly by solid waste disposal and forms of air pollution. Solid waste buried in landfills can contaminate underground water supplies by allowing toxins to seep into the surrounding soil. Chemicals and toxins dispersed by vehicle and industrial exhaust in the atmosphere can pollute precipitation, which can then pollute ground water supplies.

Types of Water Pollutants

Water pollutants are either chemical, organic, or physical materials. Physical materials are the most noticeable type of water pollution. You can see the effects of sediments or trash in water. Soil erosion around rivers, lakes, or streams can cause sediments to accumulate in large amounts, making the water appear cloudy. Water that is contaminated with sediments can hinder plant growth. It can also disrupt the reproductive cycles of some fish.

Solid waste

Solid waste that is dumped into water sources can pollute shorelines and waterways, making them hazardous to humans and animals. Discarded glass bottles, plastic and styrofoam containers, aluminum cans, paper products, etc., can contaminate the environment by adding toxins directly into water sources. Broken glass and rusted cans in rivers, streams, or lakes can present recreational dangers to humans. Plastic products, such as plastic bags, are often eaten by birds, fish, or other animals. The plastic, which cannot be digested, usually leads to the animal’s death.

Organic pollutants

Organic pollutants include disease-causing organisms and overabundant organic matter. Water supplies that are contaminated with disease-causing organisms cause the deaths of over 10 million people each year worldwide. A majority of the people are from undeveloped countries with little or no water treatment system. Even in countries that have elaborate systems of water purification, such as the U. S., thousands of people get sick every year from drinking contaminated water. An overabundance of organic matter in water supplies can lead to a process known as eutrophication.

Eutrophication

Begins when fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals that are washed into water supplies cause certain aquatic plants, such as algae, to grow at accelerated rates. The algae’s death then leads to putrefaction.

Putrefaction

Is the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms. In addition to their consumption of decaying matter, the microorganisms consume great amounts of dissolved oxygen. The depletion of oxygen can lead to the death of fish and plant life.

Chemical pollutants

Include pesticides, petroleum products, lead, mercury, and other toxins. Pollution caused by petroleum products is probably the most notorious form of water contamination. Oil spills for example. Another form of petroleum dumping that is equally damaging to the environment because of its more widespread occurrence is the improper disposal of engine oil. Oil or other chemicals that are dumped onto the ground can seep down into underground water supplies, causing contamination. Water supplies with harmful levels of metals, such as lead, mercury, and copper, can cause adverse health effects, especially to children and the elderly. Lead, mercury, and copper occur naturally in the soil. However, aging water systems made with these metals can increase their quantities in water supplies. Wells are particularly susceptible to metal contamination.

pesticides

Pesticides enter the water cycle through agricultural or domestic use. Pesticides that do not decay naturally present the worst threat to human and animal life. If used in excess of recommended amounts, they can become toxic.

Soil

It consists of inorganic materials, organic materials, water, and other nutrients. Inorganic materials consist of rocks, stones, pebbles, sand, etc. The inorganic composition of a particular plot of land is determined by the underlying layer of rock and the effects of weather. Inorganic materials can range in size from large rocks to microscopic particles. Soil pollution generally refers to the buildup of waste, both organic and inorganic, that can adversely affect human, animal, and plant life. Organic wastes are by-products of living matter.

hazardous waste

Are solid, liquid, or gas wastes that are toxic, flammable, corrosive, reactive, or radioactive. _________ _____are usually the chemical by-products of industrial, medical, agricultural, and domestic activity. They are nondegradable and, therefore, must be managed by means of treatment plants, storage sites, and recycling. Treatment plants may burn hazardous wastes, dilute them with water or other chemicals, or melt them down into a non-toxic substance.

landfills

Waste is deposited into the fill in thin layers. Each layer of waste is then compacted by bulldozers and other equipment until it is approximately 10 feet thick. Then, each layer is covered with a thin layer of soil.

incinerators

Burn solid waste materials and trace gases. In addition to reducing the need for more landfills, they also reduce the use of fossil fuels in the production of energy. Many are designed to produce electricity when refuse is burned. However, they also eject pollutants into the air.

composting

Disposes of solid biodegradable wastes through the implementation of the process of decomposition. Like landfills, layers of waste are piled on top of one another and then condensed. However, wastes are condensed through the natural process of decomposition brought about by moisture and heat acting on the waste materials.

recycling

Is the process by which certain waste materials, such as plastic, glass, aluminum, and paper, are prepared for reuse.

sewage

the leading cause of water contamination in countries without water treatment plants

industry

pollutes water sources by dumping wastes in rivers, streams, and oceans

lead

a metal that leaks into water supplies via the soil or aging water systems

petroleum

can cause the contamination of underground water supplies if poured on the ground

He did not believe that nature should be preserved for nature’s sake. As a Christian and an American, he believed that the nation’s natural resources were to be managed for the benefit of future generations. "His love of nature did not obscure his comprehension of its fallen estate and its ultimate subservience to the interests of man," one author observed.

How was Theodore Roosevelt’s approach to the environment different from that of modern-day environmentalists?

Theodore Roosevelt understood that it was man’s responsibility to care for the environment as it had been Adam’s responsibility to care for the Garden. During his second term of office, President Roosevelt led the conservationist movement by setting aside millions of acres of timberland and establishing wildlife preserves and national parks.

Why did Roosevelt set aside millions of acres for national parks and wildlife?

Central to Theodore Roosevelt’s conservationist ideas was the protection of the American people. Roosevelt asserted that a person’s health was directly related to his or her environment. Therefore, to preserve nature was to preserve mankind.

What was the motivating factor behind Roosevelt’s conservationist ideas?

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIDS, a disease that is ravaging the earth

gonorrhea

a sexually transmitted bacterial disease. Another bacterial STD, gonorrhea causes burning urination and can lead to infertility and more serious infections. It can cause blindness in newborn babies if the mother has it. Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium, Neisseria gonorrhea. It was once thought to be under control because of antibiotics, but its ability to develop antibiotic resistance has again raised fears that it will continue to spread. Many women and fewer men carry gonorrhea without knowing it.

granuloma inguinale

STD causing large painful ulcers in the genital region

human immunodeficiency virus

the virus that causes AIDS (HIV)

human papilloma virus

HPV, the cause of cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men

indolent

sleepy, causing milder symptoms and taking longer to cause damage

Kaposi’s sarcoma

a form of cancer common in the later stages of AIDS

lymphogranuloma venereum

STD causing huge swellings and sometimes ulcers in the groin

Neisseria gonorrhea

the cause of gonorrhea

Pediculosis pubis

crabs, the pubic louse. There are several kinds of lice that can infest humans. This particular one, Pediculosis pubis, is sexually transmitted, itchy, and embarrassing. It is easily treated.

prevalent

widespread

scabies

the cause of syphilis. Another tiny critter, Sarcoptes scabiei, that can cause severe itching is transmitted by close, but not necessarily sexual, contact. Scabies can be transmitted also by contact with bed sheets or upholstery. This bug is a mite, a little spider-like creature that burrows into the skin. It causes mange in dogs and other domestic animals.

trichomonas, trichomoniasis

one-celled organisms and the mild STD they cause. Trichomonas or "trich" are one-celled organisms similar to the paramecium or euglena you will see under the microscope in biology lab. Trichomoniasis causes irritation mostly in women and is usually carried unknowingly by men. It is treatable if discovered.

Syphilis

This disease is caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. It looks like a corkscrew. Before penicillin was discovered in the first half of the 20th century, this disease was responsible for half the inmates of the world’s insane asylums; it causes its victims to lose their minds. It also causes sores, rashes, terrible shooting pains and destroyed joints. It can be transmitted to babies before they are born, causing severe congenital deformities. Miraculously, it is still sensitive to penicillin and can be cured if it is treated early. But early symptoms are mild and go away by themselves, so many people don’t know they have it and don’t get it treated in time.

Chlamydia

An infection similar to gonorrhea but more indolent and far more prevalent, chlamydia is more likely to be carried unknowingly. It can also cause infertility and chronic pain in the lower abdomen. It is treatable with antibiotics if it is discovered. It can also cause trouble with newborn babies.

herpes

Here is one that cannot be effectively treated. Herpes begins as a set of tiny, painful blisters. It can sometimes also cause severe pain in the lower abdomen. It goes away on its own, but it hides in the nerves and pops out every once in a while with new symptoms. It can damage newborn babies. Treatment can reduce the recurrences, but herpes never goes away for good. It can be transmitted even when it is not causing symptoms. There is also another kind of herpes that causes cold sores around the mouth. Cold sores are not an STD.

Warts and Cervical Cancer.

Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) cause genital warts and cancer in both men and women. In women, the cervical cancer it causes is the most common cancer in younger women. Men get a cancer of the penis from it less frequently. Treatment involves surgery. In women who have HPV, cervical cancer can be prevented or cured by frequent Pap smear tests, minor surgeries, and sometimes major surgery. There are now two vaccines available to prevent the HPV types that cause most cervical cancers. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that boys and girls should be given the vaccine between the ages of 11 and 12, but it can also be given to those who have never been vaccinated up to age 26.

VOCs

are emitted into the atmosphere by gas-powered vehicles, chemical refineries, industrial plants, vegetation, and forest fires.

Non-narcotic analgesics

work by stopping the transmission of pain impulses to the brain and spinal cord or by preventing the perception of pain.

It indicates a desire to find peace and fulfillment in the things of the world rather than in God.

Why is drunkenness considered a sin?

What is a disease-causing agent called?

pathogen

What is an animal or insect that is known to transmit a specific disease called?

vector

What are the white blood cells that eliminate the chances of infection called?

phagocytes

What is non-communicable; cannot be spread through casual contact?

non-infectious

When was the only time mankind has ever experienced perfect health?

in the garden of eden

What are the four types of infections?

viral, bacterial, fungal, rickettsial

viruses, bacteria, fungi, chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and protozoa are all harmful what?

microorganisms

What is the improper functioning of the body brought about by heredity, infection, diet, or the environment called?

disease

What cannot be spread through contact or any mechanism of transmission?

non-infectious disease

What is caused by the spread of harmful microorganisms?

infectious disease

What is caused by the multiplication of a small infectious agent which invades a host cell and then destroys it called?

viral infection

What is caused by the reproduction of a small infectious agent which produces poisons that destroy cells called?

bacterial infection

What is caused by the multiplication of fungal organisms on or in the body called?

fungal infection

What is caused by microscopic parasites called?

protozoan infection

The body is protected from the threat of disease by the _____ system.

immune

The _____ immune system consists of the skin, protective secretions, the inflammatory response, and phagocytes.

innate

______ are white blood cells that eliminate the chances of infection.

phagocytes

The ______ immune system is activated if the innate immune system is unable to control the infection.

adaptive

_______ immunity depends upon the production of disease-specific antibodies to destroy harmful bacteria.

humoral

______ immunity uses helper cells and killer cells to identify and destroy abnormal cells.

cellular

_______ of infection indicate that the body is trying to combat invading microorganisms.

symptoms

________ occurs when the innate immune system is attempting to flush a specific area with phagocytes.

inflammation

A ______ occurs when the adaptive immune system is combating invading microorganisms.

fever

What is a disease characterized by the unrestrained growth of abnormal cells on or in tissues of the body called?

cancer

What is a cancer that affects the connective tissue, supportive tissue, and blood vessels called?

sarcoma

What is a cancer that affects the skin and tissues that covers or lines the organs called?

carcinoma

What is a cancer that affects the tissues of the lymphatic system called?

lymphoma

What is cancer-causing agents that transform normal cells into cancer cells called?

carcinogens

What is a type of therapy that destroys cells by injecting anticancer drugs directly into the affected tissue called?

chemotherapy

The contraction of infectious diseases can be avoided by practicing good _____, avoiding contact with _____ , and boosting your immune system with _____ .

hygiene, vectors, immunizations

_______ heart disease is a malformation of the heart present at birth.

congenital

______ heart disease is the result of reduced blood flow to the heart caused by the build up of fatty deposits in the arteries.

coronary

Coronary heart disease can lead to a ________.

heart attack

_____ and good _____ is the best means to prevent the development of coronary heart disease.

exercise, nutrition

______ infections cannot be cured with antibiotics.

viral

The only cure for the common cold and the flu is ______.

rest

Symptoms of the ______ include sneezing, coughing, sore throat, and fatigue.

flu

Pneumonia is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection in the _____ , which causes the patient to cough up yellow-green mucus.

lungs

Streptococci are ____ that can cause diseases such as strep throat, tonsillitis, pneumonia, and scarlet fever.

bacteria

A _____ is a chemical substance used to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease or alter one or more functions of the body.

drug

Most drugs are produced in a ___ by either altering or combining ____ or artificial substances

labratory, natural

Drugs are administered orally, injected directly into the bloodstream or tissue, applied ______, or inhaled.

topically

After a drug is administered, it undergoes the process of ______.

metabolism

During metabolism, the drug is ______ down into a form that can be used by the body or discarded.

broken

A drug causes an effect by either _____ or blocking a chemical reaction by a cell or a disease-causing agent.

stimulent

The effectiveness of a drug depends upon its _____.

dosage

Drugs can be classified according to _____, ______ makeup, the disorder they treat, or specific effects on the body.

name, chemical

______ drugs fight invading bacteria by either slowing their multiplication or destroying them.

antibiotic

__________ work by stopping the transmission of pain impulses to the brain and spinal cord or by preventing the perception of pain.

non-narotic analgesic

_________ kill pain by blocking impulses at specific receptor sites of the brain and spinal cord.

narcotic analgesics

______ drugs help the body to eliminate excess amounts of water in the blood, tissues, or organs by increasing the production of urine.

diuretic

______ drugs produce a calming effect by slowing brain activity and reducing the heart rate.

tranquilizer

______ drugs block the effects of certain neurotransmitters on the brain.

anti-psychotic

______ drugs correct the level of specific hormones in the body.

endocrine

True or False: Drug abuse is the taking of any drug in a manner that can help bolster one’s physical or psychological state.

false

True or False: People commonly abuse drugs because they enjoy the physical or emotional effects that the drug produces.

true

[ True / False ] Physical dependence upon a drug is characterized by a craving for the drug.

false

[ True / False ] Psychological dependence is marked by a state of mental and physical abnormality when the drug is withdrawn.

false

True or False: Only illegal drugs can be used in such a way that causes physical harm or psychological and physical dependence.

false

______ is "a feeling of well-being that may not necessarily be based in reality."

euphoria

increases the activity of the central nervous system

stimulants

increases the heart rate and suppresses the appetite

amphetamines

first used by Europeans as a local anesthetic; now abused for its euphoric effects

cocaine

found in coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans

caffeine

reduces the activity of the central nervous system

depressants

suppresses brain activity by blocking the ability of nerves in the brain to send or receive signals

barbiturates

reduces the physical and psychological symptoms of anxiety by reducing brain activity

tranquilizers

pain killing drugs that are derived from opium

narcotics

prescribed for pain involving serious injury or surgery

morphine

illegal derivative of morphine that is sold on the street as a white powder

heroin

naturally-occurring or synthetically-produced drugs that can cause hallucinations

hallucinogens

can evoke feelings of terror and panic

lsd

causes user to experience a conscious dreamlike state

marijuana

Tobacco leaves and stems contain an addictive drug known as ______

nicotine

In the ____ , medical studies began to reveal a link between tobacco use and various forms of cancer.

1960s

The harmful effects of tobacco use are mainly caused by nicotine, ____ , and carbon monoxide

tar

As a stimulant, _____ speeds up neural activity by increasing the body’s production of epinephrine.

nicotine

Withdrawal symptoms from _____ addiction include craving for tobacco, headaches, anxiety, fatigue, and a lack of patience.

nicotine

_______ causes damage to the alveoli and increases the production of mucus in the mouth, throat, and lungs.

tar

______ hinders the body’s ability to absorb needed amounts of oxygen.

carbon monoxide

_____ more frequently develop chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, heart disease and emphysema than ______ .

smokers, non-smokers

_______ are at risk as much as smokers for respiratory and circulatory diseases.

passive smokers

True or False: Quitting tobacco use is usually very easy.

false

True or False: The best method of quitting is to cut the tobacco use gradually.

false

True or False: Nicotine gum and patches can help tobacco users cope with withdrawal symptoms.

true

True or False: Addiction to any drug, food, or behavior can make us its slave.

true

True or False: The psychological and physical disorders caused by tobacco use can weaken an individual, preventing the person from fulfilling the duties that God has called him or her to do.

true

a ____ is a chemical substance used to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease or alter one or more functions of the body.

drug

Most drugs are produced in a ___by either altering or combining natural or artificial substances.

laboratory

the following are ways in which drugs can be administered

orally injection topically inhalation

After a drug is administered, it undergoes the process of

metabolism

the following things can happen during metabolism of a drug

the drug is broken down into a form that can be used by the body the drug is discarded

A drug causes an effect by either__1__ or __2__a chemical reaction by a disease causing agent.

1.stimulates 2. blocking

The effectiveness of a drug depends upon its .

dosage

ways drugs can be classified

name chemical make-up disorder they treat specific effect on the body

___-drugs fight invading bacteria by either slowing their multiplication or destroying them.

Antibiotics

analgesics work by stopping the transmission of pain impulses to the brain and spinal cord by preventing the perception of pain.

Non-narcotic

analgesics kill pain by blocking impulses at specific receptor sites of the brain and spinal cord.

Narcotic

___drugs help the body to eliminate excess amounts of water in the blood, tissues, or organs by increasing the production of urine.

Diuretics

____drugs produce a calming effect by slowing brain activity and reducing the heart rate.

Anti-anxiety

_____drugs block the effects of certain neurotransmitters on the brain.

Anti-psychotic

____-drugs correct the level of specific hormones in the bod

Endocrine

The taking of any drug in a manner that can help bolster one’s physical or psychological state is known as:

drug use

People commonly _____drugs because they enjoy the physical or emotional effects that the drug produces.

abuse

____-dependence upon a drug is characterized by a craving for the drug.

Psychological

__dependence on a drug is marked by a state of mental and physical abnormality when the drug is withdrawn.

Physical

Only illegal drugs can be used in such a way that causes physical harm or psychological and physical dependence.

false

● disease-causing agent
● an animal or insect that is known to transmit a specific disease
● white blood cells that eliminate the chances of infection
● non-communicable; cannot be spread through casual contact

● pathogen ● vector ● phagocytes ● non-infectious

Select the FOUR types of infections.

● viral ● bacterial ● protozoan ● fungal

_____ are white blood cells that eliminate the chances of infection.

phagocytes

● bacterial infection
● fungal infection
● viral infection
● protozoan infection

● caused by the reproduction of a small infectious agent which produces poisons that destroy cells ● caused by the multiplication of fungal organisms on or in the body ● caused by the multiplication of a small infectious agent which invades a host cell and then destroys it ● caused by microscopic parasites

The body is protected from the threat of disease by the _____ system.

immune

The _____ immune system consists of the skin, protective secretions, the inflammatory response, and phagocytes.

inate

The _____ immune system is activated if the _____ immune system is unable to control the infection.

adaptive, inate

_____ immunity depends upon the production of disease-specific antibodies to destroy harmful bacteria.

humoral

_____ immunity uses helper cells and killer cells to identify and destroy abnormal cells.

cellular

Which of the following statements is true?

Symptoms of infection indicate that the body is trying to combat invading microorganisms.

_____ occurs when the innate immune system is attempting to flush a specific area with phagocytes.

inflammation

_____ occurs when the adaptive immune system is combating invading microorganisms.

fever

Which of the following actions will help you to avoid the contraction of infectious disease?

● practicing good hygiene ● avoiding contact with vectors ● boosting your immune system with immunizations

_____ means "continuing for a long time."

chronic

_____ means "brief and intense."

acute

The common cold is considered a _____ infection.

viral

_____ infections cannot be treated with antibiotics.

viral

The only cure for the common cold and the flu is:

rest

Symptoms of the _____ include sneezing, coughing, sore throat, and fatigue.

flu

Which of the following are ways of preventing the spread of influenza?

● covering you mouth and nose when you sneeze ● covering your mouth when you cough ● getting an influenza vaccine

Pneumonia is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection in the _____ , which causes the patient to cough up yellow-green mucus.

lungs

_____ is a leading cause of death among the sick and elderly.

pneumonia

Streptococci are _____ that can cause diseases such as strep throat, tonsillitis, pneumonia, and scarlet fever.

bacteria

Streptococci infections are spread by:

airborne droplets

If not treated with _____, streptococcal infections can cause damage to kidneys or develop into rheumatic fever.

antibiotics

_____ is the inflammation of the liver and other tissues that can be caused by viral infection or drug abuse.

hepatitis

Chronic hepatitis is usually caused by:

viral infection or autoimmune disorder

Which type of viral hepatitis can be contracted by eating food that has been touched by dirty hands?

type A

Which type of viral hepatitis is caused by drug use or sexual activity?

type B

Hepatitis can cause severe liver damage, if not treated properly.

true

STDs are spread though _____ contact.

sexual

Symptoms of STDs are usually never detectable or life-threatening.

false

The best means to avoid being infected by an STD is:The best means to avoid being infected by an STD is:

to abstain from sexual contact

Existing from birth:

congenital

Word meaning "non-communicable"

non-infectious

Congenital heart disease is a malformation of the _____ present at birth.

heart

Symptoms of _____ include blue skin, breathlessness, susceptibility to fatigue, and stunted physical growth.

congenital heart disease

Congenital heart disease can be corrected with:

surgery

_____ is the result of reduced blood flow to the heart caused by the build up of fatty deposits in the arteries.

coronary heart disease

Coronary heart disease can lead to a:

heart attack

Coronary heart disease and its symptoms can be treated with which of the following?

● nitrates ● bypass surgery

What is the best means to prevent development of coronary heart disease?

regular exercise and good nutrition

_____ is a disease of the pancreas in which insulin is not produced in the correct amounts so that glucose can be converted into energy or stored as fat.

diabetes

_____ diabetes usually develops during adolescence and is thought to be caused by an inherited predisposition to pancreas problems.

type I

_____ diabetes is mainly treated with insulin injections, which are received several times a day.

type I

Both Type I and Type II diabetics can help keep their insulin levels near normal by following a strict diet that is low in:

carbohydrates

Untreated diabetes can cause _____ damage to your eyes, nerve fibers, and kidneys.

irreversible

a type of therapy used to destroy abnormal cells by directing radioactive rays at the diseased tissue

radiation

a type of therapy that destroys cells by injecting anticancer drugs directly into the affected tissue

chemotherapy

Medicine: The art and _____ of _____ and _____ human disease.

science, preventing, treating

What type of health care facility offers the most personalized medical care?

doctor’s office

What is the difference between a nursing home and a hospice?

A nursing home provides care for the aging, disabled, and chronically ill while a hospice provides care for the dying.

A _____’s primary responsibility is to diagnose and treat disease and injury.

doctor

What is the role of a dentist?

to diagnose and treat diseases affecting the teeth and gums

Public health systems seek to promote the health of an entire community by controlling the spread of disease.

true

Which of the following are goals of public health programs?

● to provide reliable and sanitary systems of waste disposal ● to ensure adequate supplies of clean water ● to provide educational programs to the public ● to provide immunization programs

In the United States, the main federal agency for the promotion of public health and welfare is the:

Department of Health and Human Services

The government agency concerned with tracking outbreaks and developing methods to combat the spread of disease is the:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The agency responsible for promoting public health by providing free immunization programs and educating health workers is the:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Condoms make sexual activity safe from disease.

false

Select ALL of the following STDs that are curable if detected early enough.

● gonorrhea ● syphilis ● chlamydia

You can get a STD from someone who doesn’t know he or she has it.

true

Select ALL of the following STDs that can be transmitted by a seemingly healthy person.

● gonorrhea ● syphilis ● chlamydia ● herpes ● AIDS

Victims of AIDS usually die of:

other infectious diseases

Select all of the following ways AIDS can be transmitted.

● sexual activity with someone who has it ● dirty (shared) needles used by drug addicts ● poorly tested blood transfusions ● childbirth

Human papilloma viruses cause:

● genital warts ● genital cancers

Pap smears can detect early:

cervical cancer

The most effective method of preventing both STDs and pregnancy is:

absitnence

Teenage pregnancy reduces the risk of having a low birth weight baby.

false

Which of the following is a common consequence of teenage pregnancy?

all of the above

1. can cause sores, rashes, dementia, or blindness
2. can cause burning urination and infertility
3. similar to gonorrhea but more likely to be carried unknowingly
4. parasitic STD causing genital irritation and mild discharge
5. pubic lice that cause itching
6. untreatable STD causing periodic outbreaks of blisters
7. can cause genital warts or cervical cancer

1.syphilis 2. gonorrhea 3. chlamydia 4. trichomoniasis 5. crabs 6. genital herpes 7. HPV

A(n) _____ is a chemical substance used to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease or alter one or more functions of the body.

drug

Most drugs are produced in a(n) _____ by either altering or combining natural or artificial substances.

laboratory

Which of the following are ways in which drugs can be administered?

● orally ● injection ● topically ● injection

After a drug is administered, it undergoes the process of:

metabolism

Which of the following things can happen during metabolism of a drug?

● the drug is broken down into a form that can be used by the body ● the drug is discarded

A drug causes an effect by either _____ or _____ a chemical reaction by a disease causing agent.

stimulating, blocking

The effectiveness of a drug depends upon its:

dosage

Which of the following ways can drugs be classified?

● name ● chemical make-up ● disorder they treat ● specific effect on the body

_____ drugs fight invading bacteria by either slowing their multiplication or destroying them.

antibiotic

_____ analgesics work by stopping the transmission of pain impulses to the brain and spinal cord by preventing the perception of pain.

non-narcotic

_____ analgesics kill pain by blocking impulses at specific receptor sites of the brain and spinal cord.

narcotic

_____ drugs help the body to eliminate excess amounts of water in the blood, tissues, or organs by increasing the production of urine.

Diuretic

_____ drugs produce a calming effect by slowing brain activity and reducing the heart rate.

anti-anxiety

_____ drugs block the effects of certain neurotransmitters on the brain.

anti-psychotic

_____ drugs correct the level of specific hormones in the body.

endocrine

The taking of any drug in a manner that can help bolster one’s physical or psychological state is known as:

drug use

People commonly _____ drugs because they enjoy the physical or emotional effects that the drug produces.

abuse

_____ dependence upon a drug is characterized by a craving for the drug.

psychological

_____ dependence on a drug is marked by a state of mental and physical abnormality when the drug is withdrawn.

physical

Only illegal drugs can be used in such a way that causes physical harm or psychological and physical dependence.

false

_____ is a feeling of well-being that may not necessarily be based in reality.

euphoria

The class of drug that increases the activity of the central nervous system is known as:

stimulants

Pain killing drugs derived from opium are known as:

narcotics

Naturally occurring or synthetically produced drugs that can cause hallucinations are known as:

hallucinogens

Drugs that reduce the activity of the central nervous system are known as:

depressants

_____ suppress brain activity by blocking the ability of nerves in the brain to send or receive signal.

barbiturates

_____ increase the heart rate and suppress the appetite.

amphetamines

_____ reduce the physical and psychological symptoms of anxiety by reducing brain activity.

tranquilizers

first used by Europeans as a local anesthetic; now abused for its euphoric effects

cocaine

found in coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans

caffeine

prescribed for pain involving serious injury or surgery

morphine

illegal derivative of morphine that is sold on the street as a white powder

heroin

can evoke feelings of terror and panic

LSD

causes user to experience a conscious dreamlike state

marijuana

What is alcohol made from?

the fermented sugars found in grains and fruits

What are some medicinal uses of alcohol?

● relief of indigestion ● relief of anxiety or stress ● reduction of cholesterol levels in the bloodstream

What are some physical consequences of drunkenness?

● dehydration ● nausea ● dizziness ● death

Physical symptoms of an alcoholic might include flushed __1__ skin, poor overall __2__, __3__ and intestinal pain in the morning, tingling in the __4__, confusion, and irregular __5__

1. facial 2. health 3. stomach 4. legs and hands 5. pulse

Which of the following factors influence an individual’s blood alcohol levels?

● gender ● weight ● rate of consumption

Which of these STDs is incurable regardless of how early it is detected?

● herpes ● aids

Which of these STDs can a person have and transmit without realizing they are transmitting?

● gonorrhea ● syphilis ● chlamydia ● herpes ● AIDS

Which of the following are ways that AIDS cannot be transmitted?

● sneezing ● insect vectors

Human papillomaviruses cause:

● genital warts ● genital cancers

In which of the following ways does a drug affect the body?

● stimulates a chemical reaction by a cell or disease causing agent ● blocks a chemical reaction by a cell or disease causing agent

People commonly abuse drugs because they enjoy the physical or emotional effects that the drug produces.

true

Psychological dependence is marked by a state of mental and physical abnormality when the drug is withdrawn.

false

The best method of quitting tobacco is to:

quit ‘cold turkey’

Which of the following statements is true?

Nicotine gum and patches can help tobacco users cope with withdrawal symptoms.

Tobacco leaves and stems contain an addictive drug known as:

nicotine

Nicotine is a _____ that speeds up neural activity by increasing the body’s production of epinephrine.

stimulant

Which of the following are withdrawal symptoms from nicotine?

● headache ● anxiety ● fatigue ● lack of patience

_____ causes damage to the alveoli and increases the production of mucus in the mouth, throat, and lungs.

tar

_____ hinders the body’s ability to absorb needed amounts of oxygen.

carbon monoxide

_____ more frequently develop chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, heart disease, and emphysema than _____

smokers, nonsmokers

_____ are at as great of a risk as smokers for respiratory and circulatory diseases.

passive smokers

The harmful effects of tobacco use are mainly caused by what substances?

nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide

1. tiny particle that can be dispersed in a gas
2. capable of destroying by a chemical action
3. derived from plants or animals

1. particulate 2. corrosive 3. organic

Your environment consists of all the living and non-living things that surround and support you.

true

The _____ consists of a mixture of gases and particles, including oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and dust.

atmosphere

All living things exist within the:

troposphere

The ozone layer is part of the:

stratosphere

Air pollution can lead to _____ problems.

respiratory

Air pollution occurs when certain gases or particulates are ejected into the:

atmosphere

_____ are solid or liquid particles that settle after being dispersed in a gas.

particulates

In the last 100 years, the burning of _____ by man has significantly increased the level of CO2 in the atmosphere.

fossil fuels

What substance prevents the escape of heat radiated from Earth’s surface?

carbon dioxide

_____ is a natural product of animal and human life.

carbon dioxide

Which of the following are methods of reducing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere?

● increasing the use of nuclear power ● planting trees in urban areas

_____ is formed in the atmosphere when chemicals, called volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are acted upon by sunlight.

ozone

Which of the following are sources of VOCs?

gas-powered vehicles industrial plants chemical refineries forest fires

_____ prevents the dissipation of pollutants by normal air currents.

thermal inversion

High levels of ozone in the atmosphere can cause _____, which can trigger respiratory problems.

photochemical smog

_____ production is linked to an increase in the occurrence of skin cancers caused by holes in the ozone layer.

CFC

Which substance can cause damage in the form of atmospheric gas, dry particles, and acid?

sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide is a main component of:

industrial smog

Which of the following are sources of sulfur dioxide?

● engine exhaust ● domestic heating ● volcanic eruptions

1. the decay of organic matter caused by microorganisms
2. susceptible to decomposition by living organisms
3. waste

1. putrefaction 2. biodegradable 3. refuse

1. the continuous movement of water between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere
2. pollutes water sources by dumping wastes in rivers, streams, and oceans
3. the leading cause of water contamination in countries without water treatment plants
4. a source of water pollution caused by the overuse of pesticides and fertilizers
5. caused by an overabundance of organic matter in water supplies
6. the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms
7. a chemical pollutant that can enter the water cycle through agricultural or domestic use
8. can cause the contamination of underground water supplies if poured on the ground
9. a metal that leaks into water supplies via the soil or aging water systems

1. hydrological cycle 2. industry 3. sewage 4. agriculture 5. eutrophication 6. putrefaction 7. pesticides 8. petroleum 9. lead

Soil pollution is caused by the buildup of _____ wastes that can adversely affect human, animal, and plant life.

organic and inorganic

_____ wastes can be broken down by other organisms into a reusable form.

biodegradable

Discarded plastic, rubber, glass, and Styrofoam are examples of _____ wastes.

nondegradable

_____ wastes are solid, liquid, or gas wastes that are toxic, flammable, corrosive, reactive, or radioactive.

hazardous

Improperly disposed of solid or hazardous wastes can affect the _____ of water, soil, and air.

quality

Waste is deposited into _____ in thin layers which are then compacted and covered with soil.

landfills

_____ reduce the need for landfills by burning solid wastes.

incinerators

_____ dispose of solid biodegradable wastes through the implementation of the process of decomposition.

compost piles

_____ is the process by which certain waste materials, such as plastic, glass, aluminum, and paper, are prepared for reuse.

recycling

_____ wastes are managed with treatment plants, storage sites, and recycling.

hazardous

Your environment consists of all the living and nonliving things that surround and support you.

true

The air is polluted by _____ sources.

natural and human

In the last 100 years, the level of CO2 in the atmosphere has been significantly increased by man by:

the burning of fossil fuels

Increasing the use of nuclear power and planting trees in urban areas are two methods of reducing atmospheric levels of what gas?

carbon dioxide

Which two chemicals, acted upon by sunlight, form ozone in the atmosphere?

volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide

AIDS, a fatal disease, caused by a virus, which destroys the immune system.

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

A thin sheath placed over the penis during sexual activity to prevent disease and pregnancy.

condom

Refers to the sexual organs.

genital

A sexually transmitted bacterial disease.

gonorrhea

A recurring viral STD.

herpes

HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

human immunodeficiency virus

HPV, the cause of cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men.

human papillomavirus

Sleepy; causing milder symptoms and taking longer to cause damage.

indolent

The inability to conceive.

infertility

A form of cancer common in the later stages of AIDS.

Kaposi’s sarcoma

Tiny insects that live on other animals.

lice

STD causing huge swellings and sometimes ulcers in the groin.

lymphogranuloma venereum

The cause of gonorrhea.

Neisseria gonorrhea

Crabs, the pubic louse.

Pediculosis pubis

Widespread.

prevalent

A return episode of a disease.

recurrence

The mite that causes scabies in humans and mange in dogs.

Sarcoptes scabiei

An itchy skin disease caused by a mite.

scabies

The cause of syphilis.

Treponema pallidum

One-celled organisms and the mild STD they cause.

trichomonas, trichomoniasis

Condoms make sexual activity safe from disease.

False

STDs that are curable if detected early enough.

syphilis chlamydia gonorrhea

You can get a STD from someone who doesn’t know he or she has it.

True

the following STDs that can be transmitted by a seemingly healthy person

gonorrhea syphilis herpes AIDS chlamydia

Victims of AIDS usually die of .

infections that the body, even with the help of antibiotics, cannot handle

the following ways AIDS can be transmitted.

sexual activity with someone who has it dirty (shared) needles used by drug addicts poorly tested blood transfusions childbirth

Human papillomaviruses cause:

genital warts genital cancers

Pap smears can detect early .

cervical cancer

The most effective method of preventing both STDs and pregnancy is:

abstinence

can cause sores, rashes, dementia, or blindness

syphilis

can cause burning urination and infertility

gonorrhea

similar to gonorrhea but more likely to be carried unknowingly

chlamydia

parasitic STD causing genital irritation and mild discharge

trichomoniasis

pubic lice that cause itching

crabs

untreatable STD causing periodic outbreaks of blisters

genital herpes

can cause genital warts or cervical cancer

HPV

Teenage pregnancy reduces the risk of having a low birth weight baby.

False

common consequence of teenage pregnancy?

premature delivery discontinued education poverty

Being ? about health care will help you make the best decisions for your personal health

informed

Medicine: The art and ? of ? and ? human disease

Science, preventing, treating

What type of health care facility offers the most personalized medical care?

Doctors office

What is the role of a dentist?

to diagnose and treat diseases affecting the teeth and gums

A(n) ?’s primary responsibility is to diagnose and treat disease and injury

physicians assistant

What is the difference between a nursing home and a hospice?

A nursing home delivers highly personalized care for a fee while a hospice offers care from individuals employed by a corporation

The government agency concerned with tracking outbreaks and developing methods to combat the spread of disease is the:

Centers of Disease Control and Prevention

Which of the following are goals of public health programs?

to provide reliable and sanitary systems of waste disposal, to ensure adequate supplies of clean water, to provide educational programs to the public and to provide immunization programs

Public health systems seek to promote the health of an entire community by controlling the spread of disease.

True

In the United States, the main federal agency for the promotion of public health and welfare is the:

Department of Health and Human Services

The agency responsible for promoting public health by providing free immunization programs and educating health workers is the:

Centers of Disease Control and Prevention

If there are six categories of harmful microorganisms, what is the one that starts with a "R"?

rickettsiae

If there are six categories of harmful microorganisms, what is the one that starts with a "C"?

chlamydiae

If there are six categories of harmful microorganisms, what is the one that starts with a "P"?

protozoa

If there are six categories of harmful microorganisms, what is the one that starts with a "B"?

bacteria

If there are six categories of harmful microorganisms, what is the one that starts with a "F"?

fungi

If there are six categories of harmful microorganisms, what is the one that starts with a "V"?

viruses

the improper functioning of the body brought about by heredity, infection, diet, or the environment

disease

cannot be spread through contact or any mechanism of transmission

non-infectious disease

caused by the spread of harmful microorganisms

infectious disease

caused by the multiplication of a small infectious agent which invades a host cell and then destroys it

viral infection

caused by the reproduction of a small infectious agent which produces poisons that destroy cells

bacterial infection

caused by the multiplication of fungal organisms on or in the body

fungal infection

caused by microscopic parasites

protozoan infection

a disease characterized by the unrestrained growth of abnormal cells on or in tissues of the body

cancer

a cancer that affects the connective tissue, supportive tissue, and blood vessels

sarcoma

a cancer that affects the skin and tissues that covers or lines the organs

carcinoma

a cancer that affects the tissues of the lymphatic system

lymphoma

cancer-causing agents that transform normal cells into cancer cells

carcinogens

a type of therapy that destroys cells by injecting anticancer drugs directly into the affected tissue

chemotherapy

The _____ immune system consists of the skin, protective secretions, the inflammatory response, and phagocytes.

innate

____ are white blood cells that eliminate the chances of infection.

phagocytes

The ______ immune system is activated if the innate immune system is unable to control the infection.

adaptive

_____ immunity depends upon the production of disease-specific antibodies to destroy harmful bacteria.

humoral

____ immunity uses helper cells and killer cells to identify and destroy abnormal cells.

cellular

Streptococci infections are spread by _____

airborne droplets

_____ is a disease of the pancreas in which insulin is not produced in the correct amounts so that glucose can be converted into energy or stored as fat.

diabetes

True or False: Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver and other tissues that can be caused by a viral infection or drug abuse.

true

True or False: Viral Hepatitis, Type A is usually contracted by eating food that has been touched by dirty hands.

true

True or False: Hepatitis can cause severe liver damage if it is not treated properly.

true

True or False: Symptoms of STDs are usually never detectable or life-threatening.

false

True or False: Public health systems seek to promote the health of an entire community by controlling the spread of disease.

true

True or False: Proper waste disposal and clean water are the primary means of promoting public health.

true

True or False: The FDA promotes public health by providing free immunization programs and educating health workers.

false

____help the body to eliminate excess amounts of water in the blood, tissues, or organs by increasing the production of urine.

diuretics

____ drugs produce a calming effect by slowing brain activity and reducing the heart rate.

anti-anxiety

___ drugs block the effects of certain neurotransmitters on the brain.

anti-psychotic

____ drugs correct the level of specific hormones in the body.

endocrine

True or False: Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver and other tissues that can be caused by a viral infection or drug abuse.

true

increases the activity of the central nervous system

stimulants

increases the heart rate and suppresses the appetite

amphetamines

reduces the activity of the central nervous system

depressants

suppresses brain activity by blocking the ability of nerves in the brain from sending or receiving signals

barbiturates

reduces the physical and psychological symptoms of anxiety by reducing brain activity

tranquilizers

pain-killing drugs that are derived from opium

narcotics

caused by the multiplication of a small infectious agent which invades a host cell and then destroys it

viral infection

cancer-causing agents that transform normal cells into cancer cells

carcinogens

As a stimulant,____ speeds up neural activity by increasing the body’s production of epinephrine.

nicotine

The harmful effects of tobacco use are mainly caused by what substances?

nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide

True or False: Spiritual and physical death, disease, pain in childbirth, and the strain of work
were some of the moral and physical ramifications of the fall of man.

true

What is the role of a physician?

to diagnose and treat disease and injury

true

True or FAlse: After the Flood, the high humidity produced a "greenhouse effect" over the entire earth.

false

The _____ consists of a mixture of gases and particles, including oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and dust.

atmosphere

The ozone layer is part of the _____

stratosphere

Air pollution can lead to _____ problems.

respiratory

_______ reduce the need for landfills by burning solid wastes.

incinerators

______ dispose of solid biodegradable wastes through the implementation of the process of decomposition.

compost piles

In the last 100 years, the burning of ____by man has significantly increased the level of CO2 in the atmosphere.

fossil fuels

Levels of CO2 in the atmosphere can be reduced by increasing the use of ____ power and by planting ____ in urban areas.

nuclear, trees

______ is formed in the atmosphere when chemicals, called volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are acted upon by sunlight.

ozone

_____are emitted into the atmosphere by gas-powered vehicles, chemical refineries, industrial plants, vegetation, and forest fires.

vocs

can cause the contamination of underground water supplies if poured on the ground

petroleum

chemical pollutant that can enter the water cycle through agricultural or domestic use

pesticides

the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms

putrefaction

caused by an overabundance of organic matter in water supplies

eutrophication

a source of water pollution caused by the overuse of pesticides and fertilizers

agriculture

the leading cause of water contamination in countries without water treatment plants

sewage

pollutes water sources by dumping wastes in rivers, streams, and oceans

industry

Non-infectious

Non-communicable; cannot be spread through casual contact or any mechanism of transmission, such as air, water, or blood.

Pathogen

Disease-causing agent.

Phagocytes

White blood cell that helps eliminate the chance of infection by attacking foreign substances in the body.

Vector

An animal or insect that is known to transmit a specific disease

Disease

the improper functioning of the body brought about by heredity, infection, diet, or the environment

Non-infectious disease

cannot be spread through contact or any mechanism of transmission

Infectious disease

caused by the spread of harmful microorganisms

Viral infection

caused by the multiplication of a small infectious agent which invades a host cell and then destroys it

Bacterial infection

caused by the reproduction of a small infectious agent which produces poisons that destroy cells

Fungal infection

caused by the multiplication of fungal organisms on or in the body

Protozoan infection

caused by microscopic parasites

-Viral
-Bacterial
-Fungal
-Protozoan

Select the FOUR types of infections.

Innate

______immunity uses helper cells and killer cells to identify and destroy abnormal cells.

Immune

The body is protected from the threat of disease by the______system

Humoral

______immunity depends upon the production of disease-specific antibodies to destroy harmful bacteria.

Innate

The______immune system consists of the skin, protective secretions, the inflammatory response, and phagocytes.

Inflammation

______occurs when the innate immune system is attempting to flush a specific area with phagocytes.

Fever

____occurs when the adaptive immune system is combating invading microorganisms.

Phagocytes

are white blood cells that eliminate the chances of infection.

Adaptive;Innate

The_____immune system is activated if the_____immune system is unable to control the infection.

Symptoms of infection indicate that the body is trying to combat invading microorganisms.

Which of the following statements is true?

Practicing good hygiene
avoiding contact with vectors
boosting immune system with immunizations

Which of the following actions will help you to avoid the contraction of infectious disease?

Chronic

______means "continuing for a long time."

Acute

_______means "brief and intense."

During recommended ages

Children and teenagers should receive vaccinations:

Type B

Which type of viral hepatitis is caused by drug use or sexual activity?

True

Hepatitis can cause severe liver damage, if not treated properly.

Getting an influenza vaccine
Taking antibiotics

Which of the following are ways of preventing the spread of influenza?

Pneumonia

_________is a leading cause of death among the sick and elderly.

Antibiotics

If not treated with______streptococcal infections can cause damage to kidneys or develop into rheumatic fever.

Hepatitis

______is the inflammation of the liver and other tissues that can be caused by viral infection or drug abuse.

To abstain from sexual contact

The best means to avoid being infected by an STD is______

sexual

STD’s are spread through_____contact

Airborn droplets

Streptococci infections are spread by

Type A

Which type of viral hepatitis can be contracted by eating food that has been touched by dirty hands?

Bacteria

Streptococci are____that can cause diseases such as strep throat, tonsillitis, pneumonia, and scarlet fever.

Sexual contact

Chronic hepatitis is usually caused by

False

Symptoms of STDs are usually never detectable or life-threatening

flu

Symptoms of the____include sneezing, coughing, sore throat, and fatigue.

Lungs

Pneumonia is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection in the____ , which causes the patient to cough up yellow-green mucus.

Viral

The common cold is considered a ______infection.

rest

The only cure for the common cold and the flu is

viral

infections cannot be treated with antibiotics.

congenital

Existing from birth:

non-infectious

Word meaning "non-communicable"

congenital heart disease

Symptoms of_____include blue skin, breathlessness, susceptibility to fatigue, and stunted physical growth.

regular exercise and good nutrition

What is the best means to prevent development of coronary heart disease?

heart attack

Coronary heart disease can lead to a:

heart

Congenital heart disease is a malformation of the_____present at birth

coronary heart disease

______is the result of reduced blood flow to the heart caused by the build up of fatty deposits in the arteries.

surgery

Congenital heart disease can be corrected with______

nitrates
bypass surgery

Coronary heart disease and its symptoms can be treated with which of the following:

cancer

a disease characterized by the unrestrained growth of abnormal cells on or in tissues of the body

sarcoma

a cancer that affects the connective tissue, supportive tissue, and blood vessels

carcinomas

a cancer that affects the skin and tissues that cover or line the organs

lymphoma

a cancer that affects the tissues of the lymphatic system

carcinogens

cancer-causing agents that transform normal cells into cancer cells

radiation

a type of therapy used to destroy abnormal cells by directing radioactive rays at the diseased tissue

chemotherapy

a type of therapy that destroys cells by injecting anticancer drugs directly into the affected tissue

type 1

diabetes is mainly treated with insulin injections, which are received several times a day.

carbohydrates

Both Type I and Type II diabetics can help keep their insulin levels near normal by following a strict diet that is low in_____

irreversible

Untreated diabetes can cause____damage to your eyes, nerve fibers, and kidneys.

diabetes

____is a disease of the pancreas in which insulin is not produced in the correct amounts so that glucose can be converted into energy or stored as fat.

type 1

_____diabetes usually develops during adolescence and is thought to be caused by an inherited predisposition to pancreas problems.

Informed

Being ______ about health care will help you make the best decisions for your personal health.

Doctor’s office

What type of health care facility offers the most personalized medical care?

Science;preventing;treating

Medicine: The art and____of_____ and_____ human disease.

Doctor

A(n)_______’s primary responsibility is to diagnose and treat disease and injury.

A nursing home provides care for the aging, disabled, and chronically ill while a hospice provides care for the dying.

What is the difference between a nursing home and a hospice?

to diagnose and treat diseases affecting the teeth and gums

What is the role of a dentist?

Department of Heath and Human Services

In the United States, the main federal agency for the promotion of public health and welfare is the:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The agency responsible for promoting public health by providing free immunization programs and educating health workers is the:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The government agency concerned with tracking outbreaks and developing methods to combat the spread of disease is the:

True

Public health systems seek to promote the health of an entire community by controlling the spread of disease.

to provide reliable and sanitary systems of waste disposal
to provide educational programs to the public
to provide immunization programs

Which of the following are goals of public health programs?

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