Combo with -AP PSY CPT 14 PART 1- and 1 other

Your page rank:

Total word count: 6910
Pages: 25

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant

The text defines social psychology as the scientific study of how people ________ one another.

think about, influence, and relate to

To analyze how people explain others’ behavior, Fritz Heider developed

attribution theory.

Ksana insists that her boyfriend’s car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of

a dispositional attribution.

The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another’s behavior is called

the fundamental attribution error.

A tendency to overestimate the extent to which a stranger’s violent behavior stems from his or her aggressive personality best illustrates

the fundamental attribution error.

Caitlin concluded that her husband was late for dinner because he was caught in heavy traffic. Her conclusion best illustrates

a situational attribution.

Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to

personality traits.

In explaining our own behavior or the behavior of those we know well, we often resort to

situational attributions.

Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by ________ and in terms of situational influences by ________.

political conservatives; political liberals

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.

belief-based feelings

Opinion change resulting from incidental cues such as a speaker’s attractiveness illustrates

peripheral route persuasion.

Central route persuasion is most likely when people

are naturally analytical.

To "brainwash" captured American soldiers during the Korean War, Chinese communists made effective use of

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

In the years immediately following the introduction of school desegregation in the United States and the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, White Americans expressed diminishing racial prejudice. According to the text author, this best illustrated the impact of

actions on attitudes.

The tendency for initial compliance with a small request to facilitate subsequent compliance with a larger request is known as the

oot-in-the-door phenomenon.

The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n)

role.

Having observed participants in his simulated prison study, Philip Zimbardo offered an explanation for the destructive behavior of U.S. military guards at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib Prison. Zimbardo’s explanation best exemplified

a situational attribution.

Fernando’s favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a class debate. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.

cognitive dissonance

When no weapons of mass destruction were found following the U.S. invasion of Iraq, some Americans revised their memories of the main rationale for going to war. The text author suggests that we can best explain why people changed their memories in terms of

cognitive dissonance theory.

Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as

the chameleon effect.

We tend to feel cheerful around happy people and sad around depressed people. This illustrates

the chameleon effect.

Solomon Asch asked people to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line. His research was designed to study

conformity.

Research participants believed that the Asch conformity test involved a study of

visual perception.

Alex thinks drinking sugar-laden sodas is bad for you but other players on his hockey team insist that it is not. Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if

he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.

Normative social influence results from peoples’ desire to

gain social approval.

Mr. Maslova attends faculty meetings simply to gain the approval of the school principal. Mr. Maslova’s behavior exemplifies the importance of

normative social influence.

Conformity resulting from the acceptance of others’ opinions about reality is said to be a response to

informational social influence.

A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage

nonconformity

In all of Milgram’s obedience experiments, participants were deceived about

he amount of shock the victim actually received.

In Milgram’s first study of obedience, the majority of "teachers" who were ordered to shock a "learner"

complied fully and delivered the highest level of shock.

Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to

deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers

In Milgram’s obedience experiments, "teachers" were MOST likely to deliver high levels of shock when

the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher."

In Milgram’s obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter’s orders when

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

In Milgram’s obedience experiments, "teachers" were LEAST likely to deliver the highest levels of shock when

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

When the participants in Milgram’s study were later surveyed about taking part in the research, most reported that they

did not regret taking part in the experiment.

In 1942, German reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when

they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures.

In Milgram’s experiments, participants were torn between whether they should respond to the pleas of the ______ or the demands of the ______.

"learner"; experimenter

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

The gradually escalating levels of destructive obedience in the Milgram experiments best illustrate one of the potential dangers of

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Social facilitation is most likely to occur in the performance of ________ tasks.

simple

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to

perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

Norman Triplett observed that adolescents wound a fishing reel faster in the presence of someone working simultaneously on the same task. This best illustrates

social facilitation.

After a light turns green, drivers take about 15 percent less time to travel the first 100 yards when another car is beside them at the intersection than when they are alone. This best illustrates

social facilitation

University students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates

social loafing.

Class members are asked to work cooperatively in groups on major course papers. Every member of a group is to receive exactly the same grade based on the quality of the group’s paper. This situation is most likely to lead to

social loafing.

Individuals who are normally law-abiding may vandalize and loot when they become part of a mob. This change in behavior is best understood in terms of

deindividuation.

Deindividuation refers to

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which

individuals share a similar opinion.

Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be

even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.

By providing prospective terrorists with electronic "chat rooms" for interfacing online with others who share their attitudes, the Internet most likely serves as a medium for

group polarization.

social psychology

Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?

how people explain others’ behavior.

Attribution theory was designed to account for

dispositions or their situations.

Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others’ behavior either to their

situational influences; personal dispositions

The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.

We have a tendency to explain the behavior of strangers we have observed in only one type of situation in terms of ________ and to explain our own behavior in terms of ________.

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

cognitive dissonance.

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called

a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove.

We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel

conformity

Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called

even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.

Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group’s judgment of the lengths of lines

the teachers were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram’s initial obedience experiment because

teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.

The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to

exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal.

Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to

audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced.

Social loafing is MOST likely to occur among

individuals share a similar opinion.

Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which

groupthink

The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of

an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members.

Prejudice is best defined as

Which theory describes how we explain others’ behavior as being due to internal dispositions or external situations?

Attribution Theory

Two neighboring nations are stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor’s actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of

The fundamental attribution error

When male students in an experiment were told that a woman to whom they would be speaking had been instructed to act in a friendly or unfriendly way, most of them subsequently attributed her behavior to

her personal disposition

Professor Washington’s students did very poorly on the last exam. The tendancy to make the fundamental attribution error might lead her to conclude that the class did poorly because

students were unmotivated

Which of the following is true?

Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions

Which of the following is an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?

After agreeing to wear a small "Enforce Recycling" lapel pin, a women agrees to collect signatures on a petition to make recycling required by law

Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by

Congnitive dissonance theory

Which of the following situations should produce the greatest congnitive dissonance?

A student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally disagrees with

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when

An individual does something that is personally disagreeable

Which of the following phenomena is best explained by cognitive dissonance theory?

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Asch’s studies of conformity?

All of theses conditions increased conformity

Subjects in Asch’s line-judgment experiment conformed to the group standard when their judgments were observed by others but not when they were made in private. This tendancy to conform in public demonstrates

Normative social influence

Which of the following is important in promoting conformity in individuals?

Whether an individual’s behavior will be observed by others in the group

Jose is the one student member on his school’s board of trustees. At the board’s first meeting, Jose wants to disagree with the others on several issues but in each case decides to say nothing. Studies on conformity suggest all expcept one of the following factors in Jose’s not speaking up. Which one is not a factor?

The board members are already aware that Jose and the student body disagree with them on these issues

Maria recently heard a speech calling for a ban on aerosol sprays that endanger the earth’s ozone layer. Maria’s subsequent decision to stop using aerosal sprays is an example of

Informational social influence

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects

Complied with the experiment until the "learner" first indicated pain

Based on findings from Milgram’s obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter’s orders when

They see another subject disobey instructions

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?

Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process

Which of the foloowing most accurately states the effects of crowding on behavior?

Crowding usually weakes the intensity of people’s reactions

Which of the following would most likely be subject to social faciliation?

Running quickly around a track

The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal restraints when they are part of a group is called

Deindividuation

Concluding her presentation on deindividuation, Renee notes that deindividuation is less likely in situations that promote

Increased self-awareness

Which of the following statements is true?

A group that is like-minded will probably not change its apinions through discussion

Jane and Sandy were best friends in their first year of university. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn’t. By the end of their last year, they found that they had less in common with each other than the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings?

Group polarization

Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?

Group polarization is evident

Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of personal control and social control of our behavior?

Situational and personal influences interact in determining our behavior

Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority must

Be able to convince a key majority leader

Alexsis believes that all male athletes are self-centered and sexist. Her beliefs are an example of

Stereotypes

(Close-Up) Which of the following is an example of implicit prejudice?

Jake, who is White, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by Blacks than to Whit-authored essays

We tend to preceive the members of an ingroup as_____ and the members of an out group as_____.

Different from one another; similar to one another

Given the tendancy of people to categorize information according to preformed schemas, which of the following stereotypes would Juan, a 65-year-old political liberal and fitness enthusiast, be most likely to have?

"Young people today have no sense of responsibility."

Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward oe camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of

The scapegoat theory

Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other; this most directly illustrates

An ingroup bias

People with power and status may become prejudiced because

They tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others

Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text discussion of the roots of prejudice?

People’s tendancy to assume that exceptional, or especially memorable, individuals are unlike the majority of members of a group

The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the

Just-world phenomenon

Violent criminals often have diminished activity in the____of the brain, which play(s) an important role in_____.

Front lobes; controlling impulses

Aggression is defined as behavior that

is intended to hurt another person

Which of the following is true about aggression?

It varies too much to be instinctive in humans

Research studies have found a positive correlation between aggressive tendencies in animals and levels of the hormone

Testosterone

Regarding the influence of alcohol and testosterone on aggressive behavior, which of the following is true?

Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both promote aggressive behavior

Summarizing his report on the biology of aggression, Sam notes that

Hormones and alcohol influence the neural systems that control aggression

After waiting in line for an hour to buy concert tickets, Teresa is told that the concert is sold out. In her anger she pounds her fist on the ticket counter frightening the clerk. Teresa’s behavior is best explained by

The frustration-aggression principle

Research studies have idicated that the tendancy of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is

Increased by exposure to pornography

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films

May produce all of these effects

Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship?

Physical Proximity

Most researchers agree that

Media violence is a factor in aggression

The mere exposure effect demonstrates that

Familiarity breeds fondness

Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by

The mere exposure effect

Ahmed and Monique are on a bllind date. Which of the following will probably be most influential in determining whether they like each other?

Their physical attractiveness

Having read the chapter, which of the following is best borne out by research on attraction?

Birds of a feather flock together

In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared with men who had not been aroused, these men

Reported mor positive feelings toward the woman

Opening her mail, Joan dicovers a romantic greeting card from her boyfriend. According to the two-factor theory, she is likely to feel the most intense romantic feelings if, prior to reading the card, she has just

Completed her daily run

The deeo affection that is felt in long lasting relatioships is called_____love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which_____.

Companionate; there is equity between the partners

Research studies indicated that in an emergency situation, the presence of others often

Leads to all of these behaviors

Increasing the number of people that are present during an emergency tends to

Decrease the likelihood that anyone will help

Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a bystander to offer help in an emergency situation?

Being in a good mood

Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are constantly fighting, and each perceives the other as hard-headed and insesitive. Their conflict is being fueled by

Mirrior-image perceptions

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between tow conflicting groups?

Have the groups work on a superordinate goal

Which of the following best describes how GRIT works?

The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts

Which theory describes how we explain others’ behavior as being due to internal dispositions or external situations?

Attribution Theory

Two neighboring nations are stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor’s actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of

The fundamental attribution error

When male students in an experiment were told that a woman to whom they would be speaking had been instructed to act in a friendly or unfriendly way, most of them subsequently attributed her behavior to

her personal disposition

Professor Washington’s students did very poorly on the last exam. The tendancy to make the fundamental attribution error might lead her to conclude that the class did poorly because

students were unmotivated

Which of the following is true?

Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions

Which of the following is an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?

After agreeing to wear a small "Enforce Recycling" lapel pin, a women agrees to collect signatures on a petition to make recycling required by law

Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by

Congnitive dissonance theory

Which of the following situations should produce the greatest congnitive dissonance?

A student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally disagrees with

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when

An individual does something that is personally disagreeable

Which of the following phenomena is best explained by cognitive dissonance theory?

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Asch’s studies of conformity?

All of theses conditions increased conformity

Subjects in Asch’s line-judgment experiment conformed to the group standard when their judgments were observed by others but not when they were made in private. This tendancy to conform in public demonstrates

Normative social influence

Which of the following is important in promoting conformity in individuals?

Whether an individual’s behavior will be observed by others in the group

Jose is the one student member on his school’s board of trustees. At the board’s first meeting, Jose wants to disagree with the others on several issues but in each case decides to say nothing. Studies on conformity suggest all expcept one of the following factors in Jose’s not speaking up. Which one is not a factor?

The board members are already aware that Jose and the student body disagree with them on these issues

Maria recently heard a speech calling for a ban on aerosol sprays that endanger the earth’s ozone layer. Maria’s subsequent decision to stop using aerosal sprays is an example of

Informational social influence

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects

Complied with the experiment until the "learner" first indicated pain

Based on findings from Milgram’s obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter’s orders when

They see another subject disobey instructions

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?

Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process

Which of the foloowing most accurately states the effects of crowding on behavior?

Crowding usually weakes the intensity of people’s reactions

Which of the following would most likely be subject to social faciliation?

Running quickly around a track

The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal restraints when they are part of a group is called

Deindividuation

Concluding her presentation on deindividuation, Renee notes that deindividuation is less likely in situations that promote

Increased self-awareness

Which of the following statements is true?

A group that is like-minded will probably not change its apinions through discussion

Jane and Sandy were best friends in their first year of university. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn’t. By the end of their last year, they found that they had less in common with each other than the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings?

Group polarization

Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?

Group polarization is evident

Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of personal control and social control of our behavior?

Situational and personal influences interact in determining our behavior

Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority must

Be able to convince a key majority leader

Alexsis believes that all male athletes are self-centered and sexist. Her beliefs are an example of

Stereotypes

(Close-Up) Which of the following is an example of implicit prejudice?

Jake, who is White, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by Blacks than to Whit-authored essays

We tend to preceive the members of an ingroup as_____ and the members of an out group as_____.

Different from one another; similar to one another

Given the tendancy of people to categorize information according to preformed schemas, which of the following stereotypes would Juan, a 65-year-old political liberal and fitness enthusiast, be most likely to have?

"Young people today have no sense of responsibility."

Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward oe camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of

The scapegoat theory

Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other; this most directly illustrates

An ingroup bias

People with power and status may become prejudiced because

They tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others

Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text discussion of the roots of prejudice?

People’s tendancy to assume that exceptional, or especially memorable, individuals are unlike the majority of members of a group

The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the

Just-world phenomenon

Violent criminals often have diminished activity in the____of the brain, which play(s) an important role in_____.

Front lobes; controlling impulses

Aggression is defined as behavior that

is intended to hurt another person

Which of the following is true about aggression?

It varies too much to be instinctive in humans

Research studies have found a positive correlation between aggressive tendencies in animals and levels of the hormone

Testosterone

Regarding the influence of alcohol and testosterone on aggressive behavior, which of the following is true?

Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both promote aggressive behavior

Summarizing his report on the biology of aggression, Sam notes that

Hormones and alcohol influence the neural systems that control aggression

After waiting in line for an hour to buy concert tickets, Teresa is told that the concert is sold out. In her anger she pounds her fist on the ticket counter frightening the clerk. Teresa’s behavior is best explained by

The frustration-aggression principle

Research studies have idicated that the tendancy of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is

Increased by exposure to pornography

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films

May produce all of these effects

Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship?

Physical Proximity

Most researchers agree that

Media violence is a factor in aggression

The mere exposure effect demonstrates that

Familiarity breeds fondness

Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by

The mere exposure effect

Ahmed and Monique are on a bllind date. Which of the following will probably be most influential in determining whether they like each other?

Their physical attractiveness

Having read the chapter, which of the following is best borne out by research on attraction?

Birds of a feather flock together

In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared with men who had not been aroused, these men

Reported mor positive feelings toward the woman

Opening her mail, Joan dicovers a romantic greeting card from her boyfriend. According to the two-factor theory, she is likely to feel the most intense romantic feelings if, prior to reading the card, she has just

Completed her daily run

The deeo affection that is felt in long lasting relatioships is called_____love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which_____.

Companionate; there is equity between the partners

Research studies indicated that in an emergency situation, the presence of others often

Leads to all of these behaviors

Increasing the number of people that are present during an emergency tends to

Decrease the likelihood that anyone will help

Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a bystander to offer help in an emergency situation?

Being in a good mood

Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are constantly fighting, and each perceives the other as hard-headed and insesitive. Their conflict is being fueled by

Mirrior-image perceptions

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between tow conflicting groups?

Have the groups work on a superordinate goal

Which of the following best describes how GRIT works?

The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts

1. Continuing to operate a fuel-inefficient car despite warnings about the effect of greenhouse gases best illustrates the dynamics of:
A) the fundamental attribution error.
B) the just-world phenomenon.
C) social loafing.
D) the mere exposure effect.
E) a social trap.

E) a social trap.

2. An example of the fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others’ behavior is influenced by:
A) their political philosophy.
B) their level of motivation.
C) personality traits.
D) genetics.
E) social roles.

E) social roles.

3. The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:
A) do any of the above.
B) experience any empathy for a stranger.
C) assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.
D) realize that the incident was really an emergency situation.
E) notice that the incident was taking place.

C) assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

4. The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called:
A) group polarization.
B) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C) cognitive dissonance.
D) the fundamental attribution error.
E) deindividuation.

C) cognitive dissonance.

5. Only when experimental participants were informed that a woman was raped did they perceive the woman’s behavior as inviting rape. This best illustrates that victim-blaming is fueled by:
A) the bystander effect.
B) deindividuation.
C) hindsight bias.
D) the mere exposure effect.
E) the foot-in-the-door-phenomenon.

C) hindsight bias.

6. The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is not:
A) influenced by social norms.
B) a result of group polarization.
C) a product of deindividuation.
D) a reaction to frustration.
E) an instinctive behavior.

E) an instinctive behavior.

7. The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain:
A) passionate love.
B) social facilitation.
C) the just-world phenomenon.
D) the bystander effect.
E) the mere exposure effect.

A) passionate love.

8. In Milgram’s obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter’s orders when:
A) the "learner" was in another room where his physical well-being couldn’t be observed by the "teacher."
B) the "teacher" was instructed to administer the learning test and someone else was asked to shock the "learner."
C) the "learner" complained of a slight heart condition just before the experiment began.
D) the "learner" screamed as the shocks became more punishing.
E) the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

E) the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

9. Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of:
A) the mere exposure effect.
B) deindividuation.
C) social facilitation.
D) group polarization.
E) the fundamental attribution error.

D) group polarization.

10. Elsworth is unusually attractive and intelligent, and she works hard to please her husband. He displays little affection for her, however, and spends most of the family’s resources on his own interests. Elsworth’s relationship with her husband is best characterized as:
A) companionate.
B) inequitable.
C) complementary.
D) reciprocal.
E) deindividuated.

B) inequitable.

11. An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins best illustrates a potential consequence of:
A) the bystander effect.
B) the just-world phenomenon.
C) the mere exposure effect.
D) deindividuation.
E) ingroup bias.

B) the just-world phenomenon.

12. Darley and Latané observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students’ failure to help is best explained in terms of:
A) their limited feelings of responsibility.
B) indifference and apathy.
C) the ingroup bias.
D) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E) a failure to interpret the incident as an emergency.

A) their limited feelings of responsibility.

13. Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group’s judgment of the lengths of lines:
A) only when members of the group were of high status.
B) only when the group was composed of at least six members.
C) even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.
D) even when the group seemed uncertain and repeatedly altered its judgment.

C) even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.

14. Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among ________ in cultures that value ________.
A) men; collectivism
B) women; collectivism
C) men; individualism
D) women; individualism

C) men; individualism

15. Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates:
A) group polarization.
B) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C) the mere exposure effect.
D) social facilitation.
E) the bystander effect.

D) social facilitation.

16. A social trap is a situation in which:
A) false stereotypes influence how people interpret the behavior of others.
B) the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.
C) all people in a conflict situation suffer, no matter how cooperatively they behave.
D) the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.
E) there are not enough resources to satisfy the needs of all members of a social group.

D) the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.

17. GRIT attempts to reduce conflict through:
A) conciliation.
B) third-party mediation.
C) pacifism.
D) intimidation.

A) conciliation.

18. The tendency to favor members of one’s own group is likely when people are formed into distinguishable groups on the basis of:
A) common occupational concerns.
B) identical racial backgrounds.
C) any of the above criteria.
D) shared religious beliefs.
E) similar leisure-time hobbies.

C) any of the above criteria.

19. The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the:
A) "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to severe stress.
B) "teachers" actually seemed to enjoy shocking the "learners."
C) "learners" received painful electric shocks even if they had heart problems.
D) experiments were performed despite mass student protests against the research.

A) "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to severe stress.

20. The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the:
A) observer has been exposed to many similar emergencies in the past.
B) emergency takes place in a large city.
C) emergency is being observed by a number of other people.
D) observer has just endured a frustrating experience.
E) emergency victim is a member of a different racial group than the observer.

C) emergency is being observed by a number of other people.

21. Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister’s wedding to avoid his family’s disapproval. Kentaro’s behavior exemplifies the importance of:
A) normative social influence.
B) the mere exposure effect.
C) social facilitation.
D) the reciprocity norm.
E) informational social influence.

A) normative social influence.

22. Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others’ behavior either to their ________ or to their ________.
A) dispositions; situations
B) heredity; environment
C) abilities; effort
D) cognitions; emotions
E) biological motives; psychological motives

A) dispositions; situations

23. Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be:
A) convinced that the death penalty should be retained.
B) in favor of a more moderate position on the issue.
C) even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.
D) sharply divided over whether the death penalty should be abolished.

C) even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.

24. After Manny’s father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires. His action is best explained in terms of the:
A) frustration-aggression principle.
B) fundamental attribution error.
C) mere exposure effect.
D) foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E) bystander effect.

A) frustration-aggression principle.

25. Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
A) "We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there’s no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."
B) "Do any of you see any potential problem with our group’s position?"
C) "As a group, we have to think carefully about all the pros and cons surrounding this issue."
D) "In order to proceed democratically, we need to know the honest opinions of all group members."

A) "We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there’s no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."

26. Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of:
A) deindividuation on the fundamental attribution error.
B) frustration on aggression.
C) team membership on social loafing.
D) groupthink on social conflict.
E) role-playing on attitudes.

E) role-playing on attitudes.

27. Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that:
A) women are more likely rape victims than are men.
B) most rapes are never reported to the police.
C) most rapes are commonly committed by victims’ dates or acquaintances.
D) many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

D) many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

28. Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of:
A) social facilitation.
B) conformity.
C) aggression.
D) group polarization.

C) aggression.

29. Political pollsters find that people’s attitudes toward the presidential candidates are very accurate predictors of the election outcome. This best illustrates that attitudes guide our actions when the attitude:
A) is specifically relevant to the behavior.
B) is forged through life experiences rather than mere hearsay.
C) is a response to informational social influence.
D) has a strongly emotional component.
E) is closely related to a more general value.

A) is specifically relevant to the behavior.

30. On the basis of what Americans say, in the last half-century, prejudice toward women has ________ and prejudice toward African-Americans has ________.
A) increased; decreased
B) decreased; decreased
C) increased; increased
D) decreased; increased

B) decreased; decreased

31. Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in their town. This best illustrates:
A) the fundamental attribution error.
B) the reciprocity norm.
C) scapegoating.
D) the just-world phenomenon.
E) ingroup bias.

E) ingroup bias.

32. After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul’s behavior best illustrates the impact of:
A) informational social influence.
B) social facilitation.
C) normative social influence.
D) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E) the mere exposure effect.

A) informational social influence.

33. Sigmund Freud would most likely have suggested that wars result from:
A) human instinct.
B) inequitable relationships.
C) frustration.
D) deindividuation.
E) the fundamental attribution error.

A) human instinct.

34. Carol is restless during class because her professor’s distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol’s restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of:
A) the fundamental attribution error.
B) deindividuation.
C) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
D) the mere exposure effect.
E) group polarization.

A) the fundamental attribution error.

35. The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because:
A) arousal encourages performance of the most likely response.
B) one’s focus of attention shifts when playing the role of actor rather than observer.
C) an increasing familiarity with novel stimuli facilitates liking.
D) group discussion enhances whatever attitude is initially dominant in the group.
E) the loss of self-restraint often accompanies arousal and anonymity.

A) arousal encourages performance of the most likely response.

36. Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
A) social psychology
B) experimental psychology
C) developmental psychology
D) clinical psychology
E) personality psychology

A) social psychology

37. Which of the following individuals most clearly adheres to a stereotype?
A) Cyril, who never hires people over age 50 to work in his restaurant
B) Vladimir, who is especially attracted to Latin-American women
C) Peter, who feels very uncomfortable interacting with African-Americans
D) Robin, who is convinced that college professors are usually impractical and forgetful

D) Robin, who is convinced that college professors are usually impractical and forgetful

38. The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the:
A) fundamental attribution error.
B) foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C) mere exposure effect.
D) frustration-aggression principle.
E) bystander effect.

B) foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

39. Fernando’s favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a college debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.
A) the two-factor
B) equity
C) social exchange
D) cognitive dissonance
E) scapegoat

D) cognitive dissonance

40. Deindividuation refers to:
A) the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another’s behavior.
B) a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
C) lack of critical thinking due to a strong desire for social harmony within a group.
D) the enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
E) the failure to give aid in an emergency situation observed by many onlookers.

B) a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Share This
Flashcard

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more

NCLEX 300-NEURO

A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

We can Write a Custom Essay

Consectetur labore ullamco magna do irure fugiat Lorem

Check Price

Successful message
sending