Cog Psych Quiz 3

A task for determining how prototypical an object is would be

a task where participants rate the extent to which each member represents the category title.

Which of the following members would most likely be ranked highest in prototypicality in the "birds" category?

Sparrow

Items high on prototypicality have ____ family resemblances.

strong

Which of the following is an example of the sentence verification technique?

Indicate whether the following statement is true: An apple is a fruit. YES NO

Which of the following reaction time data sets illustrate the typicality effect for the bird cate-gory, given the following three trials?
(NOTE: Read data sets as RTs for Trial 1: Trial 2: Trial 3)

Trial 1: An owl is a bird.
Trial 2: A penguin is a bird.
Trial 3: A sparrow is a bird.

583: 653: 518 msec

According to the typicality effect,

items that are high in prototypicality are judged more rapidly as being in a group.

When a participant is asked to list examples of the category vegetables, it is most likely that

a carrot would be named before eggplant.

For the category "fruit," people give a higher typicality rating to "banana" than to "kiwi." Knowing that, we can also reason that

the word "fruit" will lead to a larger priming effect for banana than for kiwi.

Priming occurs when presentation of one stimulus

facilitates the response to another stimulus.

Rosch found that participants respond more rapidly in a same-different task when presented with "good" examples of colors such as "red" and "green" than when they are presented with "poor" examples such as "pink" or "light green." The result of this experiment was interpreted as supporting the _____ approach to categorization.

prototype

If you say that "a Labrador retriever is my idea of a typical dog," you would be using the _____ approach to categorization.

exemplar

_______ are actual members of a category that a person has encountered in the past.

Exemplars

An advantage of the prototype approach over the exemplar approach is that the prototype ap-proach provides a better explanation of the typicality effect.

False

Which approach to categorization can more easily take into account atypical cases such as flightless birds?

Exemplar

Imagine that a young child is just learning about the category "dog." Thus far, she has expe-rienced only two dogs, one a small poodle and the other a large German shepherd. On her third encounter with a dog, she will be LEAST likely to correctly categorize the animal as a dog if that animal

is a dog that does not bark.

Research suggests that the _____ approach to categorization works best for small categories (e.g., U.S. presidents).

exemplar

According to Rosch, the ____ level of categories is the psychologically "privileged" level of category that reflects people's everyday experience.

basic

People playing the parlor game "20 Questions" often use hierarchical organization strategies. One player asks up to 20 yes/no questions to determine the identity of an object another player has selected. The player's questions usually start as general and get more specific as the player approaches a likely guess. Initial questions asked by a player are often one of three questions: "Is it an animal?" "Is it a vegetable?" and "Is it a mineral?" Each of these three questions describes which level of categorization?

Superordinate

Which of the following would be in a basic level category?

Truck

According to the text, jumping from _______ categories results in the largest gain in information.

superordinate level to basic level

Which of the following represents a basic level item?

Guitar

Rosch and coworkers conducted an experiment in which participants were shown a category label, like car or vehicle, and then, after a brief delay, saw a picture. The participants' task was to indicate as rapidly as possible whether the picture was a member of the category. Their results showed

the priming effect was most robust for basic level categories.

Your text describes cross-cultural studies of categorization with U.S. and Itza participants. Given the results of these studies, we know that if asked to name basic level objects for a catego-ry, U.S. participants would answer ____ and Itza participants would answer ____.

bird; sparrow

If we were conducting an experiment on the effect knowledge has on categorization, we might compare the results of expert and non-expert groups. Suppose we compare horticulturalists to people with little knowledge about plants. If we asked the groups to name, as specifically as possible, five different plants seen around campus, we would predict that the expert group would primarily label plants on the _____ level, while the non-expert group would primarily label plants on the _____ level.

subordinate; basic

In the semantic network model, a specific category is represented at a

node.

The _____ model includes associations between concepts and the property of spreading acti-vation.

semantic network

Which term below is most closely associated with semantic networks?

Cognitive economy

How is cognitive economy represented in the following example? The property _____ is stored at the _____ node.

can fly; bird

The semantic network model predicts that the time it takes for a person to retrieve information about a concept should be determined by

the distance that must be traveled through the network.

In evaluating retrieval rates for category information for a concept, Collins and Quillian's semantic network approach would predict the slowest reaction times for which of the following statements using a sentence verification technique?

A field sparrow is an animal.

Which of the following is NOT associated with the semantic network model?

Family resemblance

According to Collins and Quillian's semantic network model, it should take longest to verify which statement below?

A pig is an animal.

Collins and Quillian explained the results of priming experiments by introducing the concept of _____ into their network model.

spreading activation

Spreading activation

primes associated concepts.

In a lexical decision task, participants have to decide whether

a letter string is a word.

Collins and Quillian's semantic network model predicts that the reaction time to verify "a canary is a bird" is _____ the reaction time to verify "an ostrich is a bird."

the same as

Collins and Loftus modified the original semantic network theory of Collins and Quillian to satisfy some of the criticisms of the original model. In their modification, Collins and Loftus ac-count for the typicality effect by

using shorter links to connect more closely related concepts.

Collins and Loftus modified the original semantic network theory of Collins and Quillian to satisfy some of the criticisms of the original model. People consider this to be a strong theory because it is powerful enough to explain just about any result.

False

Collins and Loftus modified the original semantic network theory of Collins and Quillian to satisfy some of the criticisms of the original model. However, their revised model was not im-mune to criticism. One criticism of Collins and Loftus' semantic network theory is that it

is of little explanatory value because it can explain just about any result.

Good psychological theories must have all of the following properties EXCEPT being

too powerful to be refuted by empirical evidence.

Which of the following is most closely modeled on the way the nervous system operates?

Parallel distributed processing theory

Connectionist theory states that a particular object (like a canary) is identified by activity in the specific "canary" output unit of the network.

False

Connectionist networks are modeled after neural networks in the nervous system and incorporate all of the following features of the nervous system EXCEPT

concepts represented by activity in individual nodes.

One of the key properties of the _____ approach is that a specific concept is represented by activity that is distributed over many units in the network.

connectionist

Which of the following is NOT a property of the connectionist approach?

Before any learning has occurred in the network, the weights in the network all equal zero.

Learning takes place in a connectionist network through a process of _____ in which an error signal is transmitted from output units towards the input units.

back propagation

The process of back propagation is most closely associated with

connectionist networks.

The activity that represents a particular object is established in a connectionist network through a process of learning that involves

adjusting the weights of inhibitory and excitatory connections between units.

Learning in the connectionist network is represented by adjustments to network

weights

The connectionist network has learned the correct pattern for a concept when

the back propagated error signal is zero.

One beneficial property of connectionist networks is graceful degradation, which refers to the property that

damage to the system does not completely disrupt its operation.

If a system has the property of graceful degradation, this means that

damage to the system doesn't completely disrupt its operation.

Research on the physiology of semantic memory has shown that the representation of different categories in the brain (like living and non-living things) is best described as being

distributed.

Which methodology is used to study categorization processes in very young infants?

Familiarization/novelty preference procedure

At what age do infants begin forming basic level categories?

3-4 months

Language consists of smaller components, like words, that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, to create sentences, which themselves can be components of a larger story. This property is known as

hierarchical structure.

Which property below is NOT one of the characteristics that makes human language unique?

Communication

Yoda, a central character of the Star Wars movies created by George Lucas, has a distinctive way of speaking. His statement, "Afraid you will be," violates which English language property?

Rules

Evidence that language is a social process that must be learned comes from the fact that when deaf children find themselves in an environment where there are no people who speak or use sign language, they are unable to develop any formal language skills.

False

In New Guinea, tribes that had been isolated for centuries were found that

had a large number of sophisticated language systems.

B.F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through

reinforcement.

Noam Chomsky proposed that

humans are genetically programmed to acquire and use language.

One of Chomsky's most persuasive arguments for refuting Skinner's theory of language acqui-sition was his observation that children

produce sentences they have never heard.

Ty has finished work on his doctoral dissertation. He studied how most adults understand words, specifically the priming effects of categorically related words and submitted a proposal to be included in a psychological conference to present his work to his peers. Presentation at the conference is segregated based on the particular topic in psychology under consideration. It is most likely that Ty's work will be presented in a conference session on

psycholinguistics.

Lilo can't wait for school to start. This year is the first time she gets to take a foreign language class, and she is taking Japanese. Dr. Nabuto is a professor interested in studying how people learn additional languages later in life, and he is including Lilo's class in his research. Dr. Nabuto is most likely studying

language acquisition.

Ron is an avid reader. He has a large vocabulary because every time he comes across a word he doesn't know, he looks it up in the dictionary. Ron encounters "wanderlust" in a novel, reaches for the dictionary, and finds out this word means "desire to travel." The process of looking up unfamiliar words increases Ron's

lexicon.

A phoneme refers to

the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word.

The word "bad" has ____ phoneme(s).

three

"Kitchen tables" consists of ____ morphemes.

three

An experiment on the phonemic restoration effect would most likely include

an extraneous cough.

In the phonemic restoration effect, participants "fill in" the missing phoneme based on all of the following EXCEPT

a mental "skimming" of the lexicon to find likely words.

You are conducting a study on how fluency influences the phonemic restoration effect. You study two groups of non-native English speakers, one with a year of English classes and the other with 10 years. All of your stimuli are in English. Who would you expect to show the greatest phonemic restoration effect?

The group with 10 years of English instruction

When we look at a record of the physical energy produced by conversational speech, we see that the speech signal

is continuous.

Pollack and Pickett's experiment on understanding speech found that when participants were presented with individual words taken out of conversations (single words presented alone with no context), they could identify

50% of the words spoken by their own voices.

The word frequency effect refers to the fact that we respond more

slowly to low-frequency words than high-frequency words.

Which set of stimuli would be the best selection for having people perform a lexical decision task?

Words "pizza, history" and non-words "pibble, girk"

In the lexical decision task, participants are asked to

decide whether a string of letters is a word or a non-word.

A researcher had participants read each of the sentences below and measured the time it took to read each sentence.
Trial 1: The lamb ran past the cottage into the pasture.
Trial 2: The dog ran past the house into the yard.

The participants' response times were longer for _____ because of the _____ effect

trial 1; word frequency

In an eye movement study, Rayner and coworkers had participants read sentences that contained either a high- or low- frequency target word. For example, the sentence "Sam wore the horrid coat though his ____ girlfriend complained," contained either the target word "pretty" or "demure." Results showed the participants' _____ was shorter for the target word _____.

fixation; pretty

Within the realm of conversational speech, context refers to

the meaning of a conversation.

Swinney did an experiment in which he presented participants with the sentence, "The man was not surprised to find several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room." He found that immediately after hearing the word "bug," the participants accessed

both the "insect" and the "hidden listening device" meanings of the word.

Lexical ambiguity studies show that people initially access

multiple meanings of an ambiguous word.

In a study, participants listened to the following tape recording:

Rumor had it that, for years, the government building had been plagued with problems. The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room.

As participants heard the word "bugs," they completed a lexical decision task to a test stimulus flashed on a screen. Results showed that the participants responded most slowly to the test stimulus

SKY.

Swinney's lexical priming studies using ambiguous words as stimuli show that context

exerts its influence after all meanings of the word have been briefly accessed.

Which of the following is NOT influenced by meaning?

Word frequency effect

Swinney's research measuring response time to different words with either similar or different meanings is an example of which research methodology?

Lexical priming

Syntax is

the rules for combining words into sentences.

Brain imaging studies reveal that semantics and syntax are associated with ____ brain mech-anisms.

different

When the front part of a sentence can be interpreted more than one way, but the end of the sentence clarifies which meaning is correct, we say that the sentence is an example of

speech segmentation

The idea that the grammatical structure of a sentence is the primary determinant of the way a sentence is parsed is part of the _____ approach to parsing.

syntax-first

Consider the sentence, "Because he always jogs a mile seems like a short distance to him."
The principle of late closure states that this sentence would first be parsed into which of the fol-lowing phrases?

"Because he always jogs a mile"

Which of the following is the best example of a garden path sentence?

Before the police stopped the Toyota disappeared into the night.

The principle of late closure can be described as a(n) _____ since it provides a best guess about the unfolding meaning of a sentence.

heuristic

The interactionist approach to parsing states that

semantics is activated as a sentence is being read.

The crucial question in comparing syntax-first and interactionist approaches to parsing is ____ is involved.

when semantics

Tanenhaus and coworkers' eye movement study presented participants with different pictures for interpreting the sentence, "Put the apple on the towel in the box." Their results showed the importance of _____ in how we understand sentences in real-life situations.

environmental context

Tanenhaus and coworkers' eye movement study presented participants with different pictures for interpreting the sentence, "Put the apple on the towel in the box." Their results support

the interactionist approach to parsing.

Your research advisor asks you to create stimuli for a discourse processing experiment to be run in the lab. Most likely, you would create stimuli where each trial you present a(n)

paragraph of text.

Coherence refers to the

representation of the text in a reader's mind, so that information in one part of the text is related to information in another part of the text.

Most of the coherence in text is created by

inference.

Consider the following sentences: "Captain Ahab wanted to kill the whale. He cursed at it." These two sentences taken together provide an example of a(n)

anaphoric inference.

Boxing champion George Foreman recently described his family vacations with the statement, "At our ranch in Marshall, Texas, there are lots of ponds and I take the kids out and we fish. And then of course, we grill them." That a reader understands "them" appropriately (George grills fish, not his kids!) is the result of a(n) _____ inference.

anaphoric

Chaz is listening to his grandma reminisce about the first time she danced with his grandpa 60 years ago. When his grandma says, "It seemed like the song would play forever," Chaz un-derstands that it is more likely his grandma was listening to a radio playing and not a CD. This understanding requires Chaz use a(n)

instrument inference.

Imagine you are interpreting a pair of sentences such as "The sidewalk was covered with ice" and "Ramona fell down." The kind of inference we use to link these sentences together would most likely be a(n) _____ inference.

causal

According to the situation model of text processing,

people create a mental representation of what the text is about in terms of people, objects, locations, and events.

According to the idea of _____, when we read a sentence like, "Carmelo grabbed his coat from his bedroom and his backpack from the living room, walked downstairs, and called his friend Gerry," we create a map of Carmelo's apartment and keep track of his location as he moves throughout the apartment.

situation models

The given-new contract is a method for creating

coherence in people's conversations.

When two people engage in a conversation, if one person produces a specific grammatical construction in her speech and then the other person does the same, this phenomenon is referred to as

syntactic priming.

The ____ states that the nature of a culture's language can affect the way people think.

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

A psycholinguist conducts an experiment with a group of participants from a small village in Asia and another from a small village in South America. She asked the groups to describe the bands of color they saw in a rainbow and found they reported the same number of bands as their language possessed primary color words. These results

support the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Mental imagery involves

experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input.

One of Sarah's friends asks her to describe her new house by asking her how many windows are on the front of it. After a minute, Sarah answers 12. She has most likely used _____ in an-swering the question.

visual imagery

Ira and his sister are playing "Name that Tune," the object of which is to name the title of the song when given the song's first line. Ira suggests the line "Sleigh bells ring, are you listening?" His sister can't come up with the answer at first, but realizing that the title is often embedded in the lyrics, she tries to sing them silently to herself. She then bursts out "Ah! It's 'Winter Wonder-land'!" It is most likely that Ira's sister used _____ in playing the game.

inner audition

Examples like Paul McCartney's composition of the song "Yesterday" and Jack Nicklaus's improvement of his golf swing demonstrate a connection between imagery and

dreams.

Behaviorists branded the study of imagery as being unproductive because

visual images are invisible to everyone except the person experiencing them.

"Early" researchers of imagery (beginning with Aristotle until just prior to the dominance of be-haviorism) proposed all of the following ideas EXCEPT

imagery requires a special mechanism.

Which statement below is most closely associated with the early history of the study of imagery?

Thought is always accompanied by imagery.

Paivio proposed the conceptual peg hypothesis. His work suggests which of the following would be most difficult to remember?

Freedom

Peggy is participating in a paired-associate learning experiment. During the study period, she is presented with pairs of words such as boat-hat and car-house. While taking the test, she would be presented with

car.

The conceptual peg hypothesis would predict enhanced memory for which word pair?

Valley girl

Shepard and Metzler measured the time it took for participants to decide whether two objects were the same (two different views of the same object) or different (two different objects). The-se researchers inferred cognitive processes by using

mental chronometry.

Dominic is at a job interview sitting across from the company's CEO, Ms. Bing. While she takes a phone call, Dominic tries to recall her first name. Her business card is on the desk, but its orientation is not facing Dominic straight on. The business card has the initial of Ms. Bing's first name, so Dominic mentally rotates that initial letter into a straight-up orientation. For which angle (compared to the final straight-up orientation) would you predict Dominic would be fastest in identifying the initial?

30 degrees

Shepard and Metzler's "image rotation" experiment was so influential and important to the study of cognition because it demonstrated

imagery and perception may share the same mechanisms.

Ben has had problems with the pipes in his apartment. First, he had a clog in his bathroom sink, and then two months later, his garbage disposal in the kitchen sink clogged. Ben's superintendant told him he was not adequately flushing the debris from his pipes. She suggested that he run the water a little longer and visualize the debris (be it carrot peelings or toothpaste) traveling through the pipes all the way out to the sewer connection in the street. Using this technique, Ben has had no more clogs. The superintendant's suggestion involved

mental scanning.

The scanning task used by Kosslyn involves

mental images.

Mental-scanning experiments found

a positive linear relationship between scanning time and distance on the image.

Luis is taking his girlfriend, Rosa, to a resort town neither one of them has visited. Luis wants to make a good impression on Rosa, so he spends the week before the trip reading about fun places to go while they are there. He also memorizes a map of the small resort town so he can lead her around without bothering to ask for directions. When they arrive, they first visit a botanical garden. When Rosa says, "Where to next?" Luis conjures a mental image of the map and says, "art museum." Let's assume the garden was six inches due south on the map and that it took Luis four seconds to scan the map image between the two. After they visit the museum, Luis takes Rosa to a fancy restaurant. On the map, the restaurant was three inches northwest of the museum, so it is most likely that when Luis scanned the image to find the restaurant, the scan took approximately _____ seconds.

2

The "imagery debate" is concerned with whether imagery

is based on mechanisms related to language.

Kosslyn's island experiment used the _____ procedure.

mental scanning

Kosslyn interpreted the results of his research on imagery (such as the island experiment) as supporting the idea that the mechanism responsible for imagery involves ____ representations.

spatial

Sometimes a behavioral event can occur at the same time as a cognitive process, even though the behavior isn't needed for the cognitive process. For example, many people look toward the ceiling when thinking about a complex problem, even though "thinking" would likely continue if they didn't look up. This describes a(n)

epiphenomenon.

OVER (MOON, MIAMI) is a _____ representation.

propositional

The propositional approach uses all of the following to describe the mechanism responsible for mental imagery EXCEPT

spatial layouts.

Carly is an interior design student. As part of her internship, she is redesigning a small kitchen for a client. She would like to expand the kitchen and add a dining area. Before creating sketches for the client, she imagines the new layout in her mind, most likely using

a depictive representation.

Which of the following has been used as an argument AGAINST the idea that imagery is spatial in nature?

The tacit-knowledge explanation

In their imagery study, Finke and Pinker presented a four-dot display briefly to participants. Af-ter a two-second delay, participants then saw an arrow, and their task was to indicate whether the arrow would have pointed to any of the dots in the previous display. The significance of their results was they called into question the ____ explanation of imagery.

tacit-knowledge

Suppose we asked people to form simultaneous images of two or more animals such as a rabbit alongside an elephant. Then, we ask them basic questions about the animals. For example, we might ask if the rabbit has whiskers. Given our knowledge of imagery research, we would expect the fastest response to this question when the rabbit is imagined alongside

a fly.

Kosslyn concluded that the image field is limited in size. This conclusion was drawn from the _____ experiment.

mental walk

Suppose that, as a participant in an imagery study, you are asked to memorize the four outside walls of a three-story rectangular house. Later, you are asked to report how many windows are on the front of the house. You will probably be fastest to answer this question if you create an image as though you were standing

at the far side of the front yard, away from the house.

Perky's imagery study from the early 1900s had participants describe images of objects that were dimly projected onto a screen. The significance of Perky's results was that

people were unconsciously influenced by the projected images when forming their mental im-ages.

Perky's experiment, in which participants were asked to "project" visual images of common objects onto a screen, showed that

imagery and perception can interact with one another.

Imagery neurons respond to

visual images as well as objects in a specific category.

Suppose we ask people to perform the following cognitive tasks. Which is LEAST likely to strongly activate the visual cortex?

Imagine the meaning of the word "ethics."

Suppose you were conducting a brain imaging experiment to investigate the overlap between brain areas activated by perceiving an object and those activated by imagining it. Which of the following best describes your investigation's baseline condition?

The baseline condition is needed for determining imagery activation and for determining per-ception activation.

Ganis and coworkers used fMRI to measure brain activation for perception and imagery of objects. Their results showed that

perception and imagery activate the same areas of the frontal lobe, but perception activates more of the back of the brain than imagery does.

Amedi and coworkers used fMRI to investigate the differences between brain activation for perception and imagery. Their findings showed that when participants were ____, some areas associated with non-visual sensation (such as hearing and touch) were ____.

creating images; deactivated

Transcranial magnetic stimulation is used to

temporarily disrupt the functioning of a brain area.

Kosslyn's transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment on brain activation that occurs in response to imagery found that the brain activity in the visual cortex

plays a causal role in both perception and imagery.

Your text describes the case of M.G.S. who underwent brain surgery as treatment for severe epilepsy. Testing of M.G.S. pre- and post-surgery revealed that the right visual cortex is involved in the

size of the field of view.

Your text describes imagery performance of a patient with unilateral neglect. This patient was asked to imagine himself walking in a familiar plaza and to report the objects he saw. His beha-vior shows

neglect always occurred on the left side of the image, with "left side" being determined by the direction in which the patient imagined he was walking.

A circular plate rests at the center of a small square table. Around the table are a total of four chairs, one along each side of the square table. A person with unilateral neglect sits down in one of the chairs and eats from the plate. After he is "finished," he moves to the next chair on his right and continues to eat from the plate. Assuming he never moves the plate and he continues with this procedure (moving one chair to the right and eating) how many chairs will he have to sit in to eat all the food on the plate?

3

To explain the fact that some neuropsychological studies show close parallels between perceptual deficits and deficits in imagery, while other studies do not find this parallel, it has been proposed that the mechanism for imagery is located at _____ visual centers and the mechanism for perception is located at _____ visual centers.

higher; both lower and higher

In explaining the paradox that imagery and perception exhibit a double dissociation, Behrmann and coworkers suggested that perception necessarily involves _____ processing and imagery starts as a _____ process.

bottom-up; top-down

In drawing conclusions about the relationship between imagery and perception, a notable dif-ference between them is that

it is harder to manipulate mental images than perceptual images.

Wilma is a famous chef. Since she does not like to share her secret family recipes, she does not write down her special creations, which makes it difficult to remember their ingredients. To aid her memory, she has created a unique "mental walk" that she takes to recall each recipe. For each one, she has a familiar "route" she can imagine walking through (e.g., from the end of her driveway to her living room) where she places each item in the recipe somewhere along the way (e.g., Tabasco sauce splattered on the front door). By doing so, Wilma is using _____ to organize her memories.

method of loci

The technique in which things to be remembered are placed at different locations in a mental image of a spatial layout is known as

method of loci.

The pegword technique is particularly suitable for use when you need to remember items based on their

order.

As described in your text, the pegword technique relies on all of the following EXCEPT

propositions.

The lesson to be learned from the imagery techniques for memory enhancement (for example, the pegword technique) is that these techniques work because

they showcase the fact that memory improvement requires a great deal of practice and perse-verance.

The mental simulation approach for solving mechanical problems is analogous to the idea that visual imagery involves ____ representations.

spatial

The water-pouring problem, in particular, shows that its solution using imagery cannot depend on

tacit-knowledge.

The rule-based approach to mechanical problem-solving is analogous to the idea that visual imagery involves ____ representations.

propositional

Cog Psych Quiz 3 - Subjecto.com

Cog Psych Quiz 3

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A task for determining how prototypical an object is would be

a task where participants rate the extent to which each member represents the category title.

Which of the following members would most likely be ranked highest in prototypicality in the "birds" category?

Sparrow

Items high on prototypicality have ____ family resemblances.

strong

Which of the following is an example of the sentence verification technique?

Indicate whether the following statement is true: An apple is a fruit. YES NO

Which of the following reaction time data sets illustrate the typicality effect for the bird cate-gory, given the following three trials?
(NOTE: Read data sets as RTs for Trial 1: Trial 2: Trial 3)

Trial 1: An owl is a bird.
Trial 2: A penguin is a bird.
Trial 3: A sparrow is a bird.

583: 653: 518 msec

According to the typicality effect,

items that are high in prototypicality are judged more rapidly as being in a group.

When a participant is asked to list examples of the category vegetables, it is most likely that

a carrot would be named before eggplant.

For the category "fruit," people give a higher typicality rating to "banana" than to "kiwi." Knowing that, we can also reason that

the word "fruit" will lead to a larger priming effect for banana than for kiwi.

Priming occurs when presentation of one stimulus

facilitates the response to another stimulus.

Rosch found that participants respond more rapidly in a same-different task when presented with "good" examples of colors such as "red" and "green" than when they are presented with "poor" examples such as "pink" or "light green." The result of this experiment was interpreted as supporting the _____ approach to categorization.

prototype

If you say that "a Labrador retriever is my idea of a typical dog," you would be using the _____ approach to categorization.

exemplar

_______ are actual members of a category that a person has encountered in the past.

Exemplars

An advantage of the prototype approach over the exemplar approach is that the prototype ap-proach provides a better explanation of the typicality effect.

False

Which approach to categorization can more easily take into account atypical cases such as flightless birds?

Exemplar

Imagine that a young child is just learning about the category "dog." Thus far, she has expe-rienced only two dogs, one a small poodle and the other a large German shepherd. On her third encounter with a dog, she will be LEAST likely to correctly categorize the animal as a dog if that animal

is a dog that does not bark.

Research suggests that the _____ approach to categorization works best for small categories (e.g., U.S. presidents).

exemplar

According to Rosch, the ____ level of categories is the psychologically "privileged" level of category that reflects people’s everyday experience.

basic

People playing the parlor game "20 Questions" often use hierarchical organization strategies. One player asks up to 20 yes/no questions to determine the identity of an object another player has selected. The player’s questions usually start as general and get more specific as the player approaches a likely guess. Initial questions asked by a player are often one of three questions: "Is it an animal?" "Is it a vegetable?" and "Is it a mineral?" Each of these three questions describes which level of categorization?

Superordinate

Which of the following would be in a basic level category?

Truck

According to the text, jumping from _______ categories results in the largest gain in information.

superordinate level to basic level

Which of the following represents a basic level item?

Guitar

Rosch and coworkers conducted an experiment in which participants were shown a category label, like car or vehicle, and then, after a brief delay, saw a picture. The participants’ task was to indicate as rapidly as possible whether the picture was a member of the category. Their results showed

the priming effect was most robust for basic level categories.

Your text describes cross-cultural studies of categorization with U.S. and Itza participants. Given the results of these studies, we know that if asked to name basic level objects for a catego-ry, U.S. participants would answer ____ and Itza participants would answer ____.

bird; sparrow

If we were conducting an experiment on the effect knowledge has on categorization, we might compare the results of expert and non-expert groups. Suppose we compare horticulturalists to people with little knowledge about plants. If we asked the groups to name, as specifically as possible, five different plants seen around campus, we would predict that the expert group would primarily label plants on the _____ level, while the non-expert group would primarily label plants on the _____ level.

subordinate; basic

In the semantic network model, a specific category is represented at a

node.

The _____ model includes associations between concepts and the property of spreading acti-vation.

semantic network

Which term below is most closely associated with semantic networks?

Cognitive economy

How is cognitive economy represented in the following example? The property _____ is stored at the _____ node.

can fly; bird

The semantic network model predicts that the time it takes for a person to retrieve information about a concept should be determined by

the distance that must be traveled through the network.

In evaluating retrieval rates for category information for a concept, Collins and Quillian’s semantic network approach would predict the slowest reaction times for which of the following statements using a sentence verification technique?

A field sparrow is an animal.

Which of the following is NOT associated with the semantic network model?

Family resemblance

According to Collins and Quillian’s semantic network model, it should take longest to verify which statement below?

A pig is an animal.

Collins and Quillian explained the results of priming experiments by introducing the concept of _____ into their network model.

spreading activation

Spreading activation

primes associated concepts.

In a lexical decision task, participants have to decide whether

a letter string is a word.

Collins and Quillian’s semantic network model predicts that the reaction time to verify "a canary is a bird" is _____ the reaction time to verify "an ostrich is a bird."

the same as

Collins and Loftus modified the original semantic network theory of Collins and Quillian to satisfy some of the criticisms of the original model. In their modification, Collins and Loftus ac-count for the typicality effect by

using shorter links to connect more closely related concepts.

Collins and Loftus modified the original semantic network theory of Collins and Quillian to satisfy some of the criticisms of the original model. People consider this to be a strong theory because it is powerful enough to explain just about any result.

False

Collins and Loftus modified the original semantic network theory of Collins and Quillian to satisfy some of the criticisms of the original model. However, their revised model was not im-mune to criticism. One criticism of Collins and Loftus’ semantic network theory is that it

is of little explanatory value because it can explain just about any result.

Good psychological theories must have all of the following properties EXCEPT being

too powerful to be refuted by empirical evidence.

Which of the following is most closely modeled on the way the nervous system operates?

Parallel distributed processing theory

Connectionist theory states that a particular object (like a canary) is identified by activity in the specific "canary" output unit of the network.

False

Connectionist networks are modeled after neural networks in the nervous system and incorporate all of the following features of the nervous system EXCEPT

concepts represented by activity in individual nodes.

One of the key properties of the _____ approach is that a specific concept is represented by activity that is distributed over many units in the network.

connectionist

Which of the following is NOT a property of the connectionist approach?

Before any learning has occurred in the network, the weights in the network all equal zero.

Learning takes place in a connectionist network through a process of _____ in which an error signal is transmitted from output units towards the input units.

back propagation

The process of back propagation is most closely associated with

connectionist networks.

The activity that represents a particular object is established in a connectionist network through a process of learning that involves

adjusting the weights of inhibitory and excitatory connections between units.

Learning in the connectionist network is represented by adjustments to network

weights

The connectionist network has learned the correct pattern for a concept when

the back propagated error signal is zero.

One beneficial property of connectionist networks is graceful degradation, which refers to the property that

damage to the system does not completely disrupt its operation.

If a system has the property of graceful degradation, this means that

damage to the system doesn’t completely disrupt its operation.

Research on the physiology of semantic memory has shown that the representation of different categories in the brain (like living and non-living things) is best described as being

distributed.

Which methodology is used to study categorization processes in very young infants?

Familiarization/novelty preference procedure

At what age do infants begin forming basic level categories?

3-4 months

Language consists of smaller components, like words, that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, to create sentences, which themselves can be components of a larger story. This property is known as

hierarchical structure.

Which property below is NOT one of the characteristics that makes human language unique?

Communication

Yoda, a central character of the Star Wars movies created by George Lucas, has a distinctive way of speaking. His statement, "Afraid you will be," violates which English language property?

Rules

Evidence that language is a social process that must be learned comes from the fact that when deaf children find themselves in an environment where there are no people who speak or use sign language, they are unable to develop any formal language skills.

False

In New Guinea, tribes that had been isolated for centuries were found that

had a large number of sophisticated language systems.

B.F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through

reinforcement.

Noam Chomsky proposed that

humans are genetically programmed to acquire and use language.

One of Chomsky’s most persuasive arguments for refuting Skinner’s theory of language acqui-sition was his observation that children

produce sentences they have never heard.

Ty has finished work on his doctoral dissertation. He studied how most adults understand words, specifically the priming effects of categorically related words and submitted a proposal to be included in a psychological conference to present his work to his peers. Presentation at the conference is segregated based on the particular topic in psychology under consideration. It is most likely that Ty’s work will be presented in a conference session on

psycholinguistics.

Lilo can’t wait for school to start. This year is the first time she gets to take a foreign language class, and she is taking Japanese. Dr. Nabuto is a professor interested in studying how people learn additional languages later in life, and he is including Lilo’s class in his research. Dr. Nabuto is most likely studying

language acquisition.

Ron is an avid reader. He has a large vocabulary because every time he comes across a word he doesn’t know, he looks it up in the dictionary. Ron encounters "wanderlust" in a novel, reaches for the dictionary, and finds out this word means "desire to travel." The process of looking up unfamiliar words increases Ron’s

lexicon.

A phoneme refers to

the shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word.

The word "bad" has ____ phoneme(s).

three

"Kitchen tables" consists of ____ morphemes.

three

An experiment on the phonemic restoration effect would most likely include

an extraneous cough.

In the phonemic restoration effect, participants "fill in" the missing phoneme based on all of the following EXCEPT

a mental "skimming" of the lexicon to find likely words.

You are conducting a study on how fluency influences the phonemic restoration effect. You study two groups of non-native English speakers, one with a year of English classes and the other with 10 years. All of your stimuli are in English. Who would you expect to show the greatest phonemic restoration effect?

The group with 10 years of English instruction

When we look at a record of the physical energy produced by conversational speech, we see that the speech signal

is continuous.

Pollack and Pickett’s experiment on understanding speech found that when participants were presented with individual words taken out of conversations (single words presented alone with no context), they could identify

50% of the words spoken by their own voices.

The word frequency effect refers to the fact that we respond more

slowly to low-frequency words than high-frequency words.

Which set of stimuli would be the best selection for having people perform a lexical decision task?

Words "pizza, history" and non-words "pibble, girk"

In the lexical decision task, participants are asked to

decide whether a string of letters is a word or a non-word.

A researcher had participants read each of the sentences below and measured the time it took to read each sentence.
Trial 1: The lamb ran past the cottage into the pasture.
Trial 2: The dog ran past the house into the yard.

The participants’ response times were longer for _____ because of the _____ effect

trial 1; word frequency

In an eye movement study, Rayner and coworkers had participants read sentences that contained either a high- or low- frequency target word. For example, the sentence "Sam wore the horrid coat though his ____ girlfriend complained," contained either the target word "pretty" or "demure." Results showed the participants’ _____ was shorter for the target word _____.

fixation; pretty

Within the realm of conversational speech, context refers to

the meaning of a conversation.

Swinney did an experiment in which he presented participants with the sentence, "The man was not surprised to find several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room." He found that immediately after hearing the word "bug," the participants accessed

both the "insect" and the "hidden listening device" meanings of the word.

Lexical ambiguity studies show that people initially access

multiple meanings of an ambiguous word.

In a study, participants listened to the following tape recording:

Rumor had it that, for years, the government building had been plagued with problems. The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room.

As participants heard the word "bugs," they completed a lexical decision task to a test stimulus flashed on a screen. Results showed that the participants responded most slowly to the test stimulus

SKY.

Swinney’s lexical priming studies using ambiguous words as stimuli show that context

exerts its influence after all meanings of the word have been briefly accessed.

Which of the following is NOT influenced by meaning?

Word frequency effect

Swinney’s research measuring response time to different words with either similar or different meanings is an example of which research methodology?

Lexical priming

Syntax is

the rules for combining words into sentences.

Brain imaging studies reveal that semantics and syntax are associated with ____ brain mech-anisms.

different

When the front part of a sentence can be interpreted more than one way, but the end of the sentence clarifies which meaning is correct, we say that the sentence is an example of

speech segmentation

The idea that the grammatical structure of a sentence is the primary determinant of the way a sentence is parsed is part of the _____ approach to parsing.

syntax-first

Consider the sentence, "Because he always jogs a mile seems like a short distance to him."
The principle of late closure states that this sentence would first be parsed into which of the fol-lowing phrases?

"Because he always jogs a mile"

Which of the following is the best example of a garden path sentence?

Before the police stopped the Toyota disappeared into the night.

The principle of late closure can be described as a(n) _____ since it provides a best guess about the unfolding meaning of a sentence.

heuristic

The interactionist approach to parsing states that

semantics is activated as a sentence is being read.

The crucial question in comparing syntax-first and interactionist approaches to parsing is ____ is involved.

when semantics

Tanenhaus and coworkers’ eye movement study presented participants with different pictures for interpreting the sentence, "Put the apple on the towel in the box." Their results showed the importance of _____ in how we understand sentences in real-life situations.

environmental context

Tanenhaus and coworkers’ eye movement study presented participants with different pictures for interpreting the sentence, "Put the apple on the towel in the box." Their results support

the interactionist approach to parsing.

Your research advisor asks you to create stimuli for a discourse processing experiment to be run in the lab. Most likely, you would create stimuli where each trial you present a(n)

paragraph of text.

Coherence refers to the

representation of the text in a reader’s mind, so that information in one part of the text is related to information in another part of the text.

Most of the coherence in text is created by

inference.

Consider the following sentences: "Captain Ahab wanted to kill the whale. He cursed at it." These two sentences taken together provide an example of a(n)

anaphoric inference.

Boxing champion George Foreman recently described his family vacations with the statement, "At our ranch in Marshall, Texas, there are lots of ponds and I take the kids out and we fish. And then of course, we grill them." That a reader understands "them" appropriately (George grills fish, not his kids!) is the result of a(n) _____ inference.

anaphoric

Chaz is listening to his grandma reminisce about the first time she danced with his grandpa 60 years ago. When his grandma says, "It seemed like the song would play forever," Chaz un-derstands that it is more likely his grandma was listening to a radio playing and not a CD. This understanding requires Chaz use a(n)

instrument inference.

Imagine you are interpreting a pair of sentences such as "The sidewalk was covered with ice" and "Ramona fell down." The kind of inference we use to link these sentences together would most likely be a(n) _____ inference.

causal

According to the situation model of text processing,

people create a mental representation of what the text is about in terms of people, objects, locations, and events.

According to the idea of _____, when we read a sentence like, "Carmelo grabbed his coat from his bedroom and his backpack from the living room, walked downstairs, and called his friend Gerry," we create a map of Carmelo’s apartment and keep track of his location as he moves throughout the apartment.

situation models

The given-new contract is a method for creating

coherence in people’s conversations.

When two people engage in a conversation, if one person produces a specific grammatical construction in her speech and then the other person does the same, this phenomenon is referred to as

syntactic priming.

The ____ states that the nature of a culture’s language can affect the way people think.

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

A psycholinguist conducts an experiment with a group of participants from a small village in Asia and another from a small village in South America. She asked the groups to describe the bands of color they saw in a rainbow and found they reported the same number of bands as their language possessed primary color words. These results

support the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Mental imagery involves

experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input.

One of Sarah’s friends asks her to describe her new house by asking her how many windows are on the front of it. After a minute, Sarah answers 12. She has most likely used _____ in an-swering the question.

visual imagery

Ira and his sister are playing "Name that Tune," the object of which is to name the title of the song when given the song’s first line. Ira suggests the line "Sleigh bells ring, are you listening?" His sister can’t come up with the answer at first, but realizing that the title is often embedded in the lyrics, she tries to sing them silently to herself. She then bursts out "Ah! It’s ‘Winter Wonder-land’!" It is most likely that Ira’s sister used _____ in playing the game.

inner audition

Examples like Paul McCartney’s composition of the song "Yesterday" and Jack Nicklaus’s improvement of his golf swing demonstrate a connection between imagery and

dreams.

Behaviorists branded the study of imagery as being unproductive because

visual images are invisible to everyone except the person experiencing them.

"Early" researchers of imagery (beginning with Aristotle until just prior to the dominance of be-haviorism) proposed all of the following ideas EXCEPT

imagery requires a special mechanism.

Which statement below is most closely associated with the early history of the study of imagery?

Thought is always accompanied by imagery.

Paivio proposed the conceptual peg hypothesis. His work suggests which of the following would be most difficult to remember?

Freedom

Peggy is participating in a paired-associate learning experiment. During the study period, she is presented with pairs of words such as boat-hat and car-house. While taking the test, she would be presented with

car.

The conceptual peg hypothesis would predict enhanced memory for which word pair?

Valley girl

Shepard and Metzler measured the time it took for participants to decide whether two objects were the same (two different views of the same object) or different (two different objects). The-se researchers inferred cognitive processes by using

mental chronometry.

Dominic is at a job interview sitting across from the company’s CEO, Ms. Bing. While she takes a phone call, Dominic tries to recall her first name. Her business card is on the desk, but its orientation is not facing Dominic straight on. The business card has the initial of Ms. Bing’s first name, so Dominic mentally rotates that initial letter into a straight-up orientation. For which angle (compared to the final straight-up orientation) would you predict Dominic would be fastest in identifying the initial?

30 degrees

Shepard and Metzler’s "image rotation" experiment was so influential and important to the study of cognition because it demonstrated

imagery and perception may share the same mechanisms.

Ben has had problems with the pipes in his apartment. First, he had a clog in his bathroom sink, and then two months later, his garbage disposal in the kitchen sink clogged. Ben’s superintendant told him he was not adequately flushing the debris from his pipes. She suggested that he run the water a little longer and visualize the debris (be it carrot peelings or toothpaste) traveling through the pipes all the way out to the sewer connection in the street. Using this technique, Ben has had no more clogs. The superintendant’s suggestion involved

mental scanning.

The scanning task used by Kosslyn involves

mental images.

Mental-scanning experiments found

a positive linear relationship between scanning time and distance on the image.

Luis is taking his girlfriend, Rosa, to a resort town neither one of them has visited. Luis wants to make a good impression on Rosa, so he spends the week before the trip reading about fun places to go while they are there. He also memorizes a map of the small resort town so he can lead her around without bothering to ask for directions. When they arrive, they first visit a botanical garden. When Rosa says, "Where to next?" Luis conjures a mental image of the map and says, "art museum." Let’s assume the garden was six inches due south on the map and that it took Luis four seconds to scan the map image between the two. After they visit the museum, Luis takes Rosa to a fancy restaurant. On the map, the restaurant was three inches northwest of the museum, so it is most likely that when Luis scanned the image to find the restaurant, the scan took approximately _____ seconds.

2

The "imagery debate" is concerned with whether imagery

is based on mechanisms related to language.

Kosslyn’s island experiment used the _____ procedure.

mental scanning

Kosslyn interpreted the results of his research on imagery (such as the island experiment) as supporting the idea that the mechanism responsible for imagery involves ____ representations.

spatial

Sometimes a behavioral event can occur at the same time as a cognitive process, even though the behavior isn’t needed for the cognitive process. For example, many people look toward the ceiling when thinking about a complex problem, even though "thinking" would likely continue if they didn’t look up. This describes a(n)

epiphenomenon.

OVER (MOON, MIAMI) is a _____ representation.

propositional

The propositional approach uses all of the following to describe the mechanism responsible for mental imagery EXCEPT

spatial layouts.

Carly is an interior design student. As part of her internship, she is redesigning a small kitchen for a client. She would like to expand the kitchen and add a dining area. Before creating sketches for the client, she imagines the new layout in her mind, most likely using

a depictive representation.

Which of the following has been used as an argument AGAINST the idea that imagery is spatial in nature?

The tacit-knowledge explanation

In their imagery study, Finke and Pinker presented a four-dot display briefly to participants. Af-ter a two-second delay, participants then saw an arrow, and their task was to indicate whether the arrow would have pointed to any of the dots in the previous display. The significance of their results was they called into question the ____ explanation of imagery.

tacit-knowledge

Suppose we asked people to form simultaneous images of two or more animals such as a rabbit alongside an elephant. Then, we ask them basic questions about the animals. For example, we might ask if the rabbit has whiskers. Given our knowledge of imagery research, we would expect the fastest response to this question when the rabbit is imagined alongside

a fly.

Kosslyn concluded that the image field is limited in size. This conclusion was drawn from the _____ experiment.

mental walk

Suppose that, as a participant in an imagery study, you are asked to memorize the four outside walls of a three-story rectangular house. Later, you are asked to report how many windows are on the front of the house. You will probably be fastest to answer this question if you create an image as though you were standing

at the far side of the front yard, away from the house.

Perky’s imagery study from the early 1900s had participants describe images of objects that were dimly projected onto a screen. The significance of Perky’s results was that

people were unconsciously influenced by the projected images when forming their mental im-ages.

Perky’s experiment, in which participants were asked to "project" visual images of common objects onto a screen, showed that

imagery and perception can interact with one another.

Imagery neurons respond to

visual images as well as objects in a specific category.

Suppose we ask people to perform the following cognitive tasks. Which is LEAST likely to strongly activate the visual cortex?

Imagine the meaning of the word "ethics."

Suppose you were conducting a brain imaging experiment to investigate the overlap between brain areas activated by perceiving an object and those activated by imagining it. Which of the following best describes your investigation’s baseline condition?

The baseline condition is needed for determining imagery activation and for determining per-ception activation.

Ganis and coworkers used fMRI to measure brain activation for perception and imagery of objects. Their results showed that

perception and imagery activate the same areas of the frontal lobe, but perception activates more of the back of the brain than imagery does.

Amedi and coworkers used fMRI to investigate the differences between brain activation for perception and imagery. Their findings showed that when participants were ____, some areas associated with non-visual sensation (such as hearing and touch) were ____.

creating images; deactivated

Transcranial magnetic stimulation is used to

temporarily disrupt the functioning of a brain area.

Kosslyn’s transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment on brain activation that occurs in response to imagery found that the brain activity in the visual cortex

plays a causal role in both perception and imagery.

Your text describes the case of M.G.S. who underwent brain surgery as treatment for severe epilepsy. Testing of M.G.S. pre- and post-surgery revealed that the right visual cortex is involved in the

size of the field of view.

Your text describes imagery performance of a patient with unilateral neglect. This patient was asked to imagine himself walking in a familiar plaza and to report the objects he saw. His beha-vior shows

neglect always occurred on the left side of the image, with "left side" being determined by the direction in which the patient imagined he was walking.

A circular plate rests at the center of a small square table. Around the table are a total of four chairs, one along each side of the square table. A person with unilateral neglect sits down in one of the chairs and eats from the plate. After he is "finished," he moves to the next chair on his right and continues to eat from the plate. Assuming he never moves the plate and he continues with this procedure (moving one chair to the right and eating) how many chairs will he have to sit in to eat all the food on the plate?

3

To explain the fact that some neuropsychological studies show close parallels between perceptual deficits and deficits in imagery, while other studies do not find this parallel, it has been proposed that the mechanism for imagery is located at _____ visual centers and the mechanism for perception is located at _____ visual centers.

higher; both lower and higher

In explaining the paradox that imagery and perception exhibit a double dissociation, Behrmann and coworkers suggested that perception necessarily involves _____ processing and imagery starts as a _____ process.

bottom-up; top-down

In drawing conclusions about the relationship between imagery and perception, a notable dif-ference between them is that

it is harder to manipulate mental images than perceptual images.

Wilma is a famous chef. Since she does not like to share her secret family recipes, she does not write down her special creations, which makes it difficult to remember their ingredients. To aid her memory, she has created a unique "mental walk" that she takes to recall each recipe. For each one, she has a familiar "route" she can imagine walking through (e.g., from the end of her driveway to her living room) where she places each item in the recipe somewhere along the way (e.g., Tabasco sauce splattered on the front door). By doing so, Wilma is using _____ to organize her memories.

method of loci

The technique in which things to be remembered are placed at different locations in a mental image of a spatial layout is known as

method of loci.

The pegword technique is particularly suitable for use when you need to remember items based on their

order.

As described in your text, the pegword technique relies on all of the following EXCEPT

propositions.

The lesson to be learned from the imagery techniques for memory enhancement (for example, the pegword technique) is that these techniques work because

they showcase the fact that memory improvement requires a great deal of practice and perse-verance.

The mental simulation approach for solving mechanical problems is analogous to the idea that visual imagery involves ____ representations.

spatial

The water-pouring problem, in particular, shows that its solution using imagery cannot depend on

tacit-knowledge.

The rule-based approach to mechanical problem-solving is analogous to the idea that visual imagery involves ____ representations.

propositional

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