CJ Ch. 4-6

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Which of the following police officers is involved in the proactive approach of crime prevention?

A. Mike, who arrests a burglar after a two-day search.
B. Salma, who is gathering evidence against a suspect as part of an ongoing investigation of a murder case.
C. Fred, who writes a ticket for a traffic violation.
D. Mia, who takes part in a program that teaches the public how to safeguard their belongings while using public transport.

D. Mia, who takes part in a program that teaches the public how to safeguard their belongings while using public transport.

Dilan, a sergeant, increases the number of patrol officers in a particular neighborhood where the rate of criminal activity is reported to be high. In this scenario, which of the following crime prevention techniques has Dilan most likely used?

A. Hot spot policing
B. Access control
C. Crime prevention through environmental design
D. Predictive policing

A. Hot spot policing

Which of the following statements is true of sheriffs in county law enforcement agencies?

A. They are not authorized to run county jails unlike city police chiefs.
B. Their departments’ jurisdictions are limited to certain townships within a county.
C. They are typically appointed by a mayor or selected by a city council.
D. Their departments are generally responsible for serving court papers.

D. Their departments are generally responsible for serving court papers.

According to the definition of the government accounting office (GAO), who among the following is least likely to be a law enforcement officer employed by a nonmilitary federal agency?

A. Rachel, who conducts a criminal investigation to determine who is responsible in a burglary case.
B. Zoya, who interprets law.
C. Philip, who searches a suspect’s residence to gather evidence.
D. Mario, who arrests a suspect in a murder case.

B. Zoya, who interprets law.

Which of the following is a primary function of ASIS international?

A. Developing certification programs for security professionals
B. Offering security services to governmental bodies
C. Recruiting personnel for public law-enforcement agencies
D. Recruiting private security professionals for corporates and individuals

A. Developing certification programs for security professionals

Stefan runs an agency that promises to arrange profitable employment opportunities for young women in foreign countries. However, after obtaining exorbitant fees from them, he illicitly sends them to other countries using fake documents where they are forced into prostitution. In this scenario, Stefan is likely to be charged with _________.

A. identity theft
B. trafficking in persons (TIP)
C. committing a quality-of-life offense
D. committing a hate crime

B. trafficking in persons (TIP)

In the context of police organization and structure, which of the following activities is most likely to be carried out by support personnel?

A. Apprehending offenders
B. Patrolling
C. Training
D. Investigating a crime scene

C. Training

In the context of police administration, line operations primarily involve ________.

A. routine field or supervisory duties
B. media relations management
C. training duties
D. budgeting and financial management

A. routine field or supervisory duties

Which of the following statements is true of watchman style of policing?

A. It focuses on citizen involvement.
B. It emphasizes the strict enforcement of law.
C. It is marked by a concern for order maintenance.
D. It is actively involved in meeting the needs of the community.

C. It is marked by a concern for order maintenance.

Ricardo works for a police department that emphasizes the maintenance of order in communities. He primarily sees his role as controlling unlawful behavior especially in the lower-class communities and does not hesitate to use informal intervention techniques. In this case, Ricardo’s department is most likely following the _________.

A. legalistic style of policing
B. laissez-faire style of policing
C. service style of policing
D. watchman style of policing

D. watchman style of policing

Which of the following is a characteristic of community policing?

A. It increases police accountability to the public.
B. It eliminates the use of civilians at all levels of police decision making.
C. It involves the reorientation of patrol activities to emphasize the importance of emergency services.
D. It involves the centralization of command.

A. It increases police accountability to the public.

According to police expert Jerome H. Skolnick, which of the following is not one of the four elements of community policing?

A. Community-based crime prevention
B. Centralization of command
C. Increased police accountability to the public
D. Reorientation of patrol activities on nonemergency services

B. Centralization of command

In 1968, with the passage of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, the U.S. Congress created the _________.

A. Office of Security and Law Enforcement (OSLE)
B. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
C. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
D. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)

D. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)

Juanita, a sergeant, doubles the number of duty officers who keep watch in a particular neighborhood after 8:00 pm. This is because crime is reported to be high based on the scientific analysis of crimes in that area. Which of the following is indicated in this scenario?

A. Chain of command
B. General deterrence
C. Span of control
D. Directed patrol

D. Directed patrol

Heather, a law enforcement officer, decides not to ticket a person for driving a car at 46 mph in a 40 mph zone. In this case, Heather is __________.

A. using her discretion
B. practicing the legalistic style of policing
C. violating her law enforcement duties
D. abusing her authority

A. using her discretion

Which of the following statements best describes police discretion?

A. It is a style of policing marked by a strict concern with enforcing the precise letter of the law.
B. It is the opportunity of the law enforcement officers to exercise choice in their daily activities.
C. It is the application of social sciences techniques to the study of police administration of the purpose of increasing effectiveness and enhancing the efficient use of available resources.
D. It is the strategy designed to increase the productivity of patrol officers through the scientific analysis and evaluation of patrol techniques.

B. It is the opportunity of the law enforcement officers to exercise choice in their daily activities.

Which of the following is not an example of a community-based crime-prevention program?

A. Neighborhood watch program
B. CompStat
C. Crime Stoppers Internationals
D. Crime Stoppers USA

B. CompStat

Louis, a police officer, holds a session with the residents of a neighborhood on using CCTV cameras as a security measure to reduce burglary. In this scenario, Louis is most likely _____________.

A. using the hot spot policing technique
B. conducting a quality-of-life program
C. using the predictive policing technique
D. conducting a crime-prevention program

D. conducting a crime-prevention program

Who among the following is committing a quality-of-life offense?

A. Ameen, who uses the identity of his business rival to obtain confidential information in a business dealing
B. Brian, who attempts burglary
C. Adam, a gang member who robs tourists at gun point
D. Adrienne, who is involved in prostitution

D. Adrienne, who is involved in prostitution

Which local law enforcement official is responsible for serving court papers, maintaining security within courtrooms, and running the county jail?

A. Sheriff
B. Precinct captain
C. Prosecutor
D. Police chief

A. Sheriff

Which federal agency is responsible for managing the database of DNA profiles of offenders?

A. U.S. Secret Service
B. Federal Bureau of Investigation
C. Drug Enforcement Administration
D. U.S. Customs and Border Protection

B. Federal Bureau of Investigation

__________, a federal law enforcement agency, runs a national academy program that is part of its training division.

A. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
B. The Office of Mission Operations
C. The U.S. Secret Service (SS)
D. The Defense Criminal Investigative Service

A. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

The U.S. Interpol unit is called the __________.

A. U.S. National Institute of Justice (NIOJ)
B. U.S. National Central Bureau (USNCB)
C. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
D. U.S. Secret Service (SS)

B. U.S. National Central Bureau (USNCB)

Perry, with the help of an agent, prepared fake documents and enters a new country in a covert manner. If Perry and his agent are arrested for this act, they are most likely to be charged with _____________.

A. human smuggling
B. committing a quality-of-life offense
C. human trafficking
D. committing a hate crime

A. human smuggling

Which of the following law enforcement officials is involved in a line operations duty?

A. Brad, who is preparing a budget for his department
B. Sean, who patrols a certain neighborhood
C. Jacob, who is in charge of infrastructure management of a law enforcement facility
D. Chan, who is responsible for training new recruits in his department

B. Sean, who patrols a certain neighborhood

Bob is recently promoted as a sergeant. He is in charge of six officers. Bob in turn reports to Richard, the chief of police. In this case, which of the following statements is true?

A. Bob’s span of control is six.
B. In this scenario, the chain of command has only one level.
C. Bob’s span of control is one.
D. In this scenario, the chain of command has six levels.

A. Bob’s span of control is six.

Which of the following law enforcement officials is involved in a line operation?

A. Fred, who handles the scientific analysis of crime scene evidence
B. Sam, who is reviewing the financial statements of the past year
C. Dennis, who is the first responding officer at the scene of a homicide
D. Barry, who is holding a press conference regarding an ongoing criminal investigation

C. Dennis, who is the first responding officer at the scene of a homicide

Which of the following styles of policing offers little scope for police officials to exercise their discretionary authority?

A. The watchman style of policing
B. Neighborhood-oriented policing
C. Team policing
D. The legalistic style of policing

D. The legalistic style of policing

Ken is a law enforcement officer in a wealthy community. He volunteers to counsel those who have committed minor offenses and helps alcohol and drug addicts enroll in rehabilitation programs. In this case, Ken is most likely following the ___________.

A. service style of policing
B. watchman style of policing
C. legalistic style of policing
D. laissez-faire style of policing

A. service style of policing

Which of the following eras was characterized by pride in professional crime fighting?

A. The new era
B. The reform era
C. The community policing era
D. The political era

B. The reform era

Roberto is a police officer. His department adopts a professional crime-fighting approach. It employs advanced technology to target criminals responsible for phishing and other internet-based crimes. Which of the following types of policing is indicated in this scenario?

A. Problem-solving policing
B. Strategic policing
C. Community policing
D. Neighborhood-oriented policing

B. Strategic policing

Which police strategy emphasizes an increased capacity to deal with crimes that are not well controlled by traditional methods?

A. Team policing
B. Strategic policing
C. Problem-solving policing
D. Community policing

B. Strategic policing

Which policing strategy recognizes conventional patrol strategies into integrated and versatile police teams assigned to a fixed district?

A. Strategic policing
B. Problem-solving policing
C. Team policing
D. Community policing

C. Team policing

Which of the following was the focus of Kansas City experiment?

A. Designing a quick grievance-redressal system
B. The effect of the legalistic style of policing
C. Identifying measures to fight terrorism
D. The practice of preventive patrol

D. The practice of preventive patrol

Which of the following scenarios best illustrates the concept of split-force patrol?

A. Gary, the chief of patrol, increases the number of patrolling officers working on night shifts in a certain neighborhood based on a report that 70 percent of the crimes in that area took place after 7:00 pm.
B. Mike, the chief of patrol, assigns half his patrol team to patrol certain neighborhoods and the rest of his team to conduct criminal investigations.
C. Wang, the chief of patrol, doubles the number of patrolling officers in a certain neighborhood based on reports of a high crime rate.
D. Bianca, the chief of patrol, assigns a team of patrol officers permanently to certain neighborhoods and instructs the team to engage with the community.

B. Mike, the chief of patrol, assigns half his patrol team to patrol certain neighborhoods and the rest of his team to conduct criminal investigations.

Which of the following examples best illustrates the use of police discretion by law enforcement officials?

A. Richard, a police officer, investigates a crime scene under the order of his sergeant.
B. Sam, a police officer, plants evidence in the house of a suspect in order to incriminate her.
C. Zainab, a police officer, reads the Miranda warning to a suspect before he arrests and interrogates her in a murder case.
D. Warren, a police officer, chooses not to arrest a 16-year-old for consuming alcohol and lets him go with a warning.

D. Warren, a police officer, chooses not to arrest a 16-year-old for consuming alcohol and lets him go with a warning.

Which of the following statements is true of the Warren Court rulings?

A. Warren Court rulings modified the exclusionary law to allow evidence that officers seize in "reasonable good faith," even if the search was later ruled illegal.
B. Warren Court rulings held that the good-faith exception should be extended to approve a warrantless search supported by state law even though the state statute was later found to violate the Fourth Amendment.
C. Warren Court rulings adhere to the principle that criminal defendants who claim violations of their due-process rights should prove their claims.
D. Warren Court rulings bound the police to strict procedural requirements in the areas of investigation, arrest, and interrogation.

D. Warren Court rulings bound the police to strict procedural requirements in the areas of investigation, arrest, and interrogation.

Which of the following scenarios illustrates the violation of the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution?

A. Sean, a suspect in a murder case, is denied his right to hire a lawyer.
B. Linda is tried a second time by a state court for the same crime that she was acquitted of earlier.
C. Sara is penalized with an excessive fine of $500 for a minor traffic violation.
D. Mark, a suspect in a rape case, is arrested, and his house is searched without a warrant.

D. Mark, a suspect in a rape case, is arrested, and his house is searched without a warrant.

Which of the following statements is true of the due-process requirements?

A. Judicial interpretations of the constitutional requirement of due process are set in stone.
B. The due-process requirements are applicable only during a suspect’s arrest.
C. Justice system officials are exempted from following the due-process requirements.
D. The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution include due process clause.

D. The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution include due process clause.

A landmark case is best defined as a(n) ___________.

A. understanding, based on U.S. Supreme Court precedent, that incriminating information must be seized according to constitutional specifications of due process, or it will not be allowed as evidence in a criminal trial
B. legal principle that excludes from introduction at trial any evidence later developed as a result of an illegal search or seizure
C. precedent-setting court decision that produces substantial changes both in the understanding of the requirements of due process and in the practical day-to-day operations of the justice system
D. set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime

C. precedent-setting court decision that produces substantial changes both in the understanding of the requirements of due process and in the practical day-to-day operations of the justice system

You are a state university college student living in the university dormitory. There is a knock at the door and two police officers state that there have been allegations of illegal drug use in the dormitory. They request to search your room. You deny the request, stating that they will have to get a warrant to search your room. The police tell you that a warrant is not necessary and enter the room. Is this search legal?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

C. It depends

Which of the following searches conducted by police officers is a violation of the exclusionary rule?

A. Charlotte enters a private home to save a rape victim and seizes incriminating evidence.
B. Naomi opens a door in a suspect’s house and collects evidence without obtaining a warrant and produces it during a trial.
C. Pamela chases a murder suspect who fled into a building and seizes important evidence without a warrant.
D. Susan recovers a blood-stained knife lying on the front passenger side carpet while searching a car in a road accident case.

B. Naomi opens a door in a suspect’s house and collects evidence without obtaining a warrant and produces it during a trial.

Philip, a patrol officer, stops a car for speeding and notices blood stains on the driver’s side door. He examines the exterior of the car and discovers evidence of a hit-and-run case. Which of the following principles will be used to validate the evidence during trial?

A. The plain-view doctrine
B. The hands-off doctrine
C. The fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
D. The hearsay rule

A. The plain-view doctrine

The police receive a call about a neighborhood house party. The caller expresses concern that there may be underage drinking going on at the party. The police go to the apartment and knock on the front door. An individual opens the door. The police ask for the individual’s identification. When the individual turns to go and get his wallet, police see a number of college-aged individuals inside the room. The police also see numerous bottles of alcohol. The individual returns with identification that shows he is not old enough to legally drink. The police then walk into the house and tell all individuals to put down their drinks, line up, and produce identification. Do the police have the right to walk into the house and detain all party attendees?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

A. Yes

You are walking home from the local tavern. A police officer begins a polite conversation with you. You say you have nothing to say to the police. The officer tells you that you are not free to go. Are you under arrest?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

C. It depends

The police stop you for speeding. They pull you over, you roll down your window, and they ask for your license, registration, and proof of insurance. They ask if you are willing to open up the trunk and let them see inside. You tell them no. Do the police have the right to search your trunk?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

B. No

The police stop you for running a stop sign. They pull you over, you roll down your window, and they ask for your license, registration, and proof of insurance. The police notice a half-empty liquor bottle in the backseat. They ask to search your car. You tell them no. Do the police have the right to search your car?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

A. Yes

Which of the following Supreme Court cases led to the ruling that officers may not stop or question an unwilling citizen who they have no reason to suspect of a crime?

A. U.S. v. Arvizu (2002)
B. U.S. v. Sokolow (1989)
C. Brown v. Texas (1979)
D. Minnesota v. Dickerson (1993)

C. Brown v. Texas (1979)

Which of the following scenarios represents an unconstitutional suspicionless search?

A. David, a police officer, conducts a thorough search of all participants attending a national seminar on police brutality.
B. Jane, a patrol officer, arrests a woman and conducts a search incident to arrest.
C. Andrew, a police officer, without obtaining permission for search, searches the sealed containers and the glove compartment of a vehicle.
D. Jacob, a patrol officer, notices a woman lying unconscious in her car in a dark street and searches the car.

A. David, a police officer, conducts a thorough search of all participants attending a national seminar on police brutality.

A store owner was robbed and killed. The local deputy sheriff arrested suspects in the case and took them to jail. The deputy sheriff laid each suspect over a chair and whipped them with a belt until they confessed to the murder. Is this tactic constitutional?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

B. No

A man is arrested for the murder of his wife. He is arrested on a Saturday night and interrogated Monday morning. During questioning, he faced a blinding light but was not physically mistreated. Is this tactic constitutional?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

B. No

An individual is under investigation for selling drugs. The police bring the individual in for questioning. The police minimize the moral seriousness of selling drugs and cast blame on society for the individual’s need to participate in illegal activity. Is this tactic constitutional?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

A. Yes

A woman is arrested for shoplifting. The arresting officer is driving her to the county jail for booking. The police officer notices that she is wearing a college football jersey. The officer asks the woman if it is her favorite team and begins chatting with her about the upcoming season. The woman claims that the officer interrogated her even when she requested an attorney. Was the officer engaging in interrogation?

A. Yes
B. No
C. It depends

B. No

Which of the following statements is true of Miranda Rights?

A. They do not protect illegal immigrants living in the United States.
B. They cannot be waived by suspects voluntarily.
C. They are applicable only in situations involving both custody and interrogation.
D. They should be read to a suspect even when public security is at stake.

C. They are applicable only in situations involving both custody and interrogation.

Which of the following acts of police officers is likely to be considered illegal during interrogation?

A. Richard, a police officer, creates a video-tape of a suspect’s responses during interrogation.
B. Marcus, a police officer, sends an informant to pose as a fellow inmate to trick a suspect to confess. The informant threatens the suspect with a knife to get the truth from the suspect.
C. Luke, while interrogating a rape suspect, seeks a medical practitioner’s opinion.
D. Cody, a police officer interrogating an illegal immigrant, allows the immigrant to make a voluntary knowing and intelligent waiver of his Miranda rights.

B. Marcus, a police officer, sends an informant to pose as a fellow inmate to trick a suspect to confess. The informant threatens the suspect with a knife to get the truth from the suspect.

Eric, while working in his garage, is arrested by two police officers. Eric is unaware of the charges against him and wants to hire a lawyer to represent him and demand a speedy trial. Which of the following Constitutional Amendments can support Eric in this case?

A. Eighth Amendment
B. Fourth Amendment
C. Fifth Amendment
D. Sixth Amendment

D. Sixth Amendment

Which of the following scenarios illustrates the violation of the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution?

A. Matthew, arrested and convicted for minor crime is sentenced to 6 months in county jail. While in jail, one of the jailors beat him for spitting on the floor.
B. Daniel, arrested for murdering his brother, wants to have a jury trial for his case; but, his jury trial request is rejected.
C. Jane is a neighbor of George, a suspect in a robbery attempt case; Jane is arrested by the police without probable cause.
D. Judith, a suspect in a sensational murder case, is not allowed to hire a lawyer for her case.

A. Matthew, arrested and convicted for minor crime is sentenced to 6 months in county jail. While in jail, one of the jailors beat him for spitting on the floor.

Jose, a prosecutor, based on the uncovering of new evidence of guilt proposes to try a suspect for the same crime that he was acquitted of in an earlier trial. Which of the following Constitutional Amendments is violated in Jose’s case?

A. Eighth Amendment
B. Fourth Amendment
C. Sixth Amendment
D. Fifth Amendment

D. Fifth Amendment

Which of the following is a precedent-setting court decision that produces substantial changes both in the understanding of the requirements of due process and in the practical day-to-day operations of the judicial system?

A. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
B. writ of certiorari
C. Landmark case
D. Warrant

C. Landmark case

Which of the following is a legal principle that excludes from introduction at trial any evidence derived from a prior illegal search or seizure?

A. Exclusionary rule
B. Probable cause
C. Good-faith exception
D. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine

D. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine

Jake and Mary are married and own their home. The police come to the house and ask permission to search the house for drugs. Jake gives his consent to the search, but Mary says no because she has hidden some drugs in the kitchen. The police come in and search, over Mary’s objection, since Jake said it was okay. They find Mary’s drugs. Which of the following is legally correct in the ensuing trial?

A. The drugs cannot be used at Mary’s trial because the police violated the plain-view doctrine.
B. The drugs cannot be used at Mary’s trial because she did not consent to the search.
C. The drugs can be used at Mary’s trial because the police had Jake’s consent to search the house.
D. The drugs can be used at Mary’s trial because the exclusionary rule does not apply in drug cases.

B. The drugs cannot be used at Mary’s trial because she did not consent to the search.

The 1984 U.S. Supreme Court case U.S. v. Leon established __________.

A. the plain-view doctrine
B. emergency search of properties
C. the good-faith exception
D. warrantless searches

C. the good-faith exception

Which of the following Supreme Court cases made the exclusionary rule applicable to criminal prosecution at the state level?

A. Chimel v. California (1969)
B. Minnesota v. Crater (1998)
C. Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. U.S. (1920)
D. Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

D. Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

Which Supreme Court ruling applied the exclusionary rule developed in Weeks v. U.S. to trials in state courts?

A. Illinois v. Gates
B. U.S. v. Leon
C. Horton v. California
D. Mapp v. Ohio

D. Mapp v. Ohio

Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. U.S. is responsible for describing what principle of Fourth Amendment processes?

A. Good-faith exception
B. Clerical errors exception
C. Emergency searches of property
D. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine

D. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine

Taylor, a police officer, gets a tip from a confidential informant about a robbery-suspect hiding in a nearby dwelling. Taylor wants to proceed with searching the dwelling and possessions. Which of the following acts of Taylor in this scenario is required?

A. Taylor must arrest the suspect and then request the warrant for searching his dwelling from a magistrate.
B. Taylor can call a high-level judge to obtain approval for warrant over the phone.
C. Taylor must satisfactorily demonstrate the facts and circumstances about the case in a written affidavit to a magistrate.
D. Taylor can search the suspect’s dwellings without any warrant, as he has the tip from a confidential informant, and can get a warrant later.

C. Taylor must satisfactorily demonstrate the facts and circumstances about the case in a written affidavit to a magistrate.

Stephanie, a police officer, notices a man loading heavy luggage in his car. Stephanie thinks that the man matches the description of an armed robber and asks him for personal identification. Which of the following court precedents supports the investigative power of Stephanie in this scenario?

A. Arizona v. Johnson (2009)
B. Oliver v. U.S. (1984)
C. Arizona v. Fulminate (1991)
D. Herring v. U.S. (2009)

A. Arizona v. Johnson (2009)

Which of the following statements is true of the exclusionary rule?

A. It unconditionally approves evidence collected during emergency searches.
B. It derives its basic principle from the case of Arizona v. Miranda.
C. It disqualifies evidence gathered by officers in reasonable good faith if the search is later ruled illegal.
D. It does not allow any evidence collected to be used in court which was obtained without regard for the principles of due process.

D. It does not allow any evidence collected to be used in court which was obtained without regard for the principles of due process.

Which of the following scenarios illustrates the legal collection of evidence during an emergency search?

A. Maya, a patrol officer, searches an overturned truck on a highway and retrieves contraband.
B. John arrests a suspect and seizes a gun while performing a pat-down search on the suspect.
C. The police storm into a terrorist’s hideout to release hostages and find a cache of weapons hidden among the hostages.
D. The police search the house of a suspect in a murder case after obtaining a search warrant.

C. The police storm into a terrorist’s hideout to release hostages and find a cache of weapons hidden among the hostages.

The visitors entering a highly secured national museum are informed about security concerns and subjected to a full-body search. Which of the following searches does this scenario illustrate?

A. An exigent circumstance search
B. A search incident to arrest
C. A suspicionless search
D. An emergency search

C. A suspicionless search

Carlos, a police officer, obtains a warrant and searches a gang house for dangerous weapons. During the search, he detains the two occupants of the house in handcuffs to minimize the risk of harm to himself and his team of officers. In this scenario, which of the following decisions could be used by Carlos to justify his act?

A. Terry v. Ohio (1968) case
B. Rodriguez v. U.S. (2015) case
C. Payton v. New York (1980) case
D. Muehler v. Mena (2005) case

D. Muehler v. Mena (2005) case

Which of the following actions of police officers illustrates the use of inherent coercion?

A. Jane detains a suspect in a lightless room for two days during interrogation.
B. Rupert continues to interrogate a suspect without the presence of an attorney even after the suspect invokes her right to counsel.
C. Rebecca tricks a suspect into confessing to a crime by posing as a fellow inmate.
D. Michael punches a suspect in a murder case during interrogation.

A. Jane detains a suspect in a lightless room for two days during interrogation.

In which of the following situations is issuing a Miranda warning mandatory?

A. Jean, a police officer, questions a suspect before making an arrest.
B. The police arrest a suspect in an assault case and record his freely given confession before the custodial interrogation begins.
C. Patrick, a detective, arrests a suspect in a murder case and initiates interrogation.
D. The police question a suspect who claims to have planned bombs in train stations.

C. Patrick, a detective, arrests a suspect in a murder case and initiates interrogation.

One of the first and best known U.S. Supreme Court cases involving electronic communications was _________.

A. Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)
B. Weeks v. U.S. (1914)
C. Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. U.S. (1920)
D. Carroll v. U.S. (1925)

A. Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)

Stephen, a police officer, arrests a suspect without a warrant and conducts a "sneak and peek" search of the suspect’s dwelling. In this scenario, which of the following Acts gives the authority for Stephen’s action and issuance of a "sneak and peek" warrant?

A. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001
B. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) of 1986
C. The Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA) of 2015
D. The Communications Decency Act (CDA)

A. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001

Socialization into the police subculture commences _________.

A. with recruit training
B. when police recruits become rookie officers
C. with recruit’s first arrest
D. when rookie officers become streetwise cops

A. with recruit training

Researchers have concluded that police subculture in the United States is unlikely to change __________.

A. from within the police department
B. with new hiring practices
C. through external pressures such as investigations into police corruption
D. due to commission reports that expose questionable practices

A. from within the police department

Garry, a police officer, confiscates the marijuana at a suspect’s house. He then illegally sells the confiscated marijuana at $100 per ounce. Which of the following types of police corruption is indicated in this scenario?

A. Role malfeasance
B. Criminal enterprise
C. Major bribe
D. Bias crime

B. Criminal enterprise

Kathrine, a police officer, is often reported to drive well over the permissible speed limit. Which of the following types of political corruption does this scenario indicate?

A. Engaging in a criminal enterprise
B. Engaging in role malfeasance
C. Denying civil rights
D. Being above inconvenient laws

D. Being above inconvenient laws

Erin had a difficult day at work. She argued with her partner and a number of arrestees were problematic. In addition, she did not get her requested vacation time. Which of the following would be considered a useful technique for Erin to reduce stress?

A. Subliminal conditioning
B. Boredom
C. Moral dilemmas
D. Macho attitude

A. Subliminal conditioning

A study by the FBI found that slain officers generally were __________.

A. more likely to be suffering from depression
B. abusing their power of police authority
C. increasingly more physically aggressive than other officers
D. conservative in their use of physical force

D. conservative in their use of physical force

Who among the following law enforcement officers is taking the recommended precaution to defend against exposure to infectious substances?

A. Sasha, who leaves a victim’s wound uncovered when administering CPR.
B. Salma, who physically examines a body before removing it from a crime scene.
C. Philip, who carries a suspicious looking box to an open space.
D. Dennis, who milks the wound in his arm after being bitten by a suspect.

D. Dennis, who milks the wound in his arm after being bitten by a suspect.

Mel was part of the team that developed the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP). Which of the following statements is true?

A. She could not have been a tribal law enforcement officer, as tribal representatives did not have a voice in the development of the plan.
B. She was likely to state that every agency has the staff of resources needed to create a formal intelligence unit.
C. She was likely to have been given authoring rights to the plan by the Department of Defense.
D. She was likely to have helped formulate specific steps to share terrorism prevention information.

D. She was likely to have helped formulate specific steps to share terrorism prevention information.

Roy, a law enforcement officer, prepares a report outlining the likelihood of a terrorist attack in a city based upon information culled from surveillance and financial records of certain terrorist suspects. In this case, the report prepared by Roy is most likely to be a product of ____________.

A. the Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTF)
B. team policing
C. criminal intelligence
D. the International Justice and Public Safety Information Sharing Network (NLETS)

C. criminal intelligence

Which of the following statements is true of the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP)?

A. It was authored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
B. It does not involve tribal law enforcement representatives in the development of the plan.
C. It has established or authorized Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs).
D. It was developed under the auspices of the Department of Justice’s Global Justice Sharing Initiative.

D. It was developed under the auspices of the Department of Justice’s Global Justice Sharing Initiative.

Lucy, an employee at a jewelry store, observed two men conversing and suspected that they were planning to rob the store. She stopped a police car outside the store and told the officer of her suspicion. The police officer dismissed her claims and drove away. Ten minutes later, the store was robbed by the two men. Lucy filed a civil suit against the police officer for __________.

A. failure to prevent a foreseeable crime
B. malicious prosecution
C. failure to protect property in police custody
D. inappropriate use of deadly force

A. failure to prevent a foreseeable crime

The 1983 lawsuits are associated with ___________.

A. protecting law enforcement personnel against termination citing drug or alcohol addictions
B. securing the civil rights of people of all races
C. granting qualified immunity against lawsuits to federal officials
D. tightening homeland security measures and the fight against terrorism

B. securing the civil rights of people of all races

Which of the following police officers is likely to be charged with police civil liability?

A. Zac does not read the Miranda warning when questioning a suspect at her house.
B. Laura does not read the Miranda warning while arresting a suspect because she has not begun questioning him yet.
C. Lucy detains Gia for questioning in a murder case without just cause.
D. Jamal engages in identity theft as part of an undercover assignment to capture a terrorist.

C. Lucy detains Gia for questioning in a murder case without just cause.

Which of the following is likely to be an acceptable method of identifying potential offenders before they can act, based on specific predefined, observable criteria?

A. Racial profiling
B. Geographic profiling
C. Behavioral profiling
D. Genetic profiling

C. Behavioral profiling

Karen, a law enforcement officer, pulls over Alejandro, a young Hispanic, on a highway. Which of the following justifications provided by Karen is likely to be based on behavioral profiling?

A. Karen suspects that Alejandro is likely to possess drugs as she had arrested three Hispanic teenagers for drug abuse the previous week.
B. Karen suspects that Alejandro does not have insurance as he is Hispanic.
C. Alejandro was driving through a wealthy neighborhood.
D. Alejandro increased his speed as soon as he noticed Karen in the vicinity.

D. Alejandro increased his speed as soon as he noticed Karen in the vicinity.

Which of the following statements best describes the use of excessive force by police officials?

A. It is the phenomenon of force being used within reasonable means on a department-wide basis.
B. It is the use of force by police under conditions that violate a law or statute.
C. It is the use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public.
D. It is the application of frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a subject.

D. It is the application of frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a subject.

Matthew, a law enforcement officer, uses pepper spray to bring a mob under control. Which level of the police use-of-force continuum is indicated in this scenario?

A. The first level
B. The third level
C. The fifth level
D. The fourth level

B. The third level

Recruiting educated police officials is least likely to result in _________.

A. wiser use of discretion
B. reduced sensitivity to racial and ethnic issues
C. enhanced communications with the public
D. fewer citizen complaints

B. reduced sensitivity to racial and ethnic issues

According to the early survey of police departments by Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), who among the following is least likely to be an educated police officer?

A. Liam often requests reassignment of projects.
B. Sofia is highly sensitive to issues of racial discrimination.
C. Lilly uses discretion loosely while carrying out her official duties.
D. Joshua often questions his supervisor’s orders.

C. Lilly uses discretion loosely while carrying out her official duties.

Female officers are less likely to _________ than their male counterparts.

A. defuse and de-escalate potentially violent confrontations
B. communicate effectively
C. facilitate the trust required to implement a community policing model
D. be accused of using excessive force

D. be accused of using excessive force

Sasha, a law enforcement officer, approaches her sheriff and states that their department is underrepresented by women. When making a case for hiring more women, which of the following statements is more likely to help her gain the sheriff’s approval?

A. Female officers are more satisfied when working in uniformed capacities.
B. Female officers are more likely to be accused of using excessive force.
C. Female officers are better at gaining the trust required to implement a community policing model.
D. Female officers are better at escalating potentially violent confrontations with citizens.

C. Female officers are better at gaining the trust required to implement a community policing model.

Who coined the phrase "working personality" of police officers?

A. Jerome Skolnick
B. Kenneth Adams
C. O.W. Wilson
D. Carl B. Klockars

A. Jerome Skolnick

Officers who have adopted the police working personality are often all of the following, EXCEPT _________.

A. racial profiling
B. authoritarian
C. conservative
D. suspicious

A. racial profiling

Darren, a law enforcement officer, becomes embroiled in a bar fight that he started, which is viewed as an isolated event. This case is an example of ___________.

A. police deviance
B. police working personality
C. police corruption
D. role malfeasance

A. police deviance

Peter, a politician, is accused or murder. Saul, a police officer, destroys inculpatory evidence that would incriminate Peter in exchange for $500,000. Which of the following types of police corruption is indicated in this scenario?

A. Criminal enterprise
B. Denial of civil rights
C. Property crime
D. Role malfeasance

D. Role malfeasance

Due to external pressure, Jenna, a police officer, plants illicit drugs in a suspect’s house in order to incriminate him. Which of the following types of police corruption is indicated in this scenario?

A. Denial of civil rights
B. Gratuity
C. Criminal enterprise
D. Role malfeasance

A. Denial of civil rights

According to the authors of the Knapp Commission report, a police official involved in grass eating is most likely to ___________.

A. commit property crimes
B. accept major bribes
C. accept gratuities
D. be engaged in criminal enterprises

C. accept gratuities

According to the authors of the Knapp Commission report, which of the following statements is true of meat eating?

A. It involves the act of not refusing to accept bribes that are offered.
B. It is the most common for of police corruption.
C. It is a legitimate activity that occurs from time to time in the normal course of police work.
D. It involves the active seeking of illicit moneymaking opportunities by officers.

D. It involves the active seeking of illicit moneymaking opportunities by officers.

Which of the following law enforcement officials is most likely to be part of the internal affairs division?

A. Lorraine, who is the head of the Office of Field Operations.
B. Richard, who investigates a role malfeasance charge against a senior police official.
C. Mia, who is primarily involved in staff operations.
D. Lorenzo, who is responsible for resource allocation in the law and order division of a state.

B. Richard, who investigates a role malfeasance charge against a senior police official.

__________ addresses the requirement of police officials to be trained in measures to combat the threat of diseases caused by infectious agents.

A. The Knapp Commission
B. The Bloodborne Pathogens Act
C. The Wickersham Commission
D. The Federal Rehabilitation Act

B. The Bloodborne Pathogens Act

Who among the following is more likely to report job-related stressors?

A. Hayley, who undergoes guided imaging.
B. Nicola, who has a more laid-back approach to life.
C. Hector, who does not differentiate between dangerous situations and benign ones.
D. Farah, who can stay focused by not responding to unnecessary stimuli.

C. Hector, who does not differentiate between dangerous situations and benign ones.

The collection and analysis of information to produce an end product designed to inform police decision making at both the tactical and strategic levels is associated with ___________.

A. broken windows theory of policing
B. team policing
C. the legalistic style of policing
D. intelligence-led policing (ILP)

D. intelligence-led policing (ILP)

The Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) is associated with __________.

A. safeguarding women’s rights in the United States
B. the concept of sovereign immunity
C. regulations limiting authority of federal employees
D. the protection of civilians against racial discrimination

B. the concept of sovereign immunity

Who among the following is most likely to face a civil liability suit?

A. An officer who mingles and forms close associations with those who are involved in human trafficking as part of his undercover assignment.
B. An officer who shoots an escaping convict who held an innocent bystander at gunpoint.
C. An officer who drives at a speed well over the legally permissible limit while chasing an escaping offender.
D. An officer who fails to provide adequate medical assistance to an offender in police custody.

D. An officer who fails to provide adequate medical assistance to an offender in police custody.

Profiling in the United States was originally intended to __________.

A. estimate the number of immigrants living in the United States
B. study shared behavioral patterns of criminal offenders
C. help catch drug couriers attempting to enter the country
D. secure the country from the entry of foreign terrorist groups

C. help catch drug couriers attempting to enter the country

Who among the following is most likely a victim of racial profiling?

A. Adrian, a black man, is arrested for rash driving and over speeding.
B. Mia, a Hispanic woman, is arrested as a suspect in the murder of a 35-year-old white male questioned.
C. Daniel, a black man, is arrested because of his involvement in human trafficking.
D. Kelly, a black woman, is questioned because she is found driving in a predominantly white neighborhood.

D. Kelly, a black woman, is questioned because she is found driving in a predominantly white neighborhood.

In the context of the police use-of-force continuum, which of the following is the first of five levels?

A. Soft techniques
B. Officer presence
C. Hard techniques
D. Verbal commands

B. Officer presence

Which of the following federal government agents does not adhere to the federal deadly force policy?

A. Claude fires a warning shot when a suspect tries to escape after robbing a department store.
B. Nadia refuses to shoot at the tires of a fleeing suspect’s moving vehicle as the suspect does not pose any imminent danger to anyone.
C. Maria refuses to shout out a verbal warning when aiming to shoot at a suspect in a murder case as she believes it would endanger the other agents on the field.
D. Carlos shoots at an escaping suspect who tries to hold an innocent bystander at gunpoint.

A. Claude fires a warning shot when a suspect tries to escape after robbing a department store.

Police work is guided by an ethical code that was originally developed in 1956 by the __________.

A. Peace Officer’s Research Association of California
B. Fraternal Order of Police (FOP)
C. Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies
D. International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP)

A. Peace Officer’s Research Association of California

According to the early survey of police departments by Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), who among the following is more likely to be an educated police officer?

A. Rick, who has a high number of citizen complaints lodged against him.
B. Nancy, who often requests to be reassigned to different cases.
C. Jones, who is relatively insensitive to racial and gender discrimination.
D. Elisa, who avoids using discretion in her day-to-day police duties.

B. Nancy, who often requests to be reassigned to different cases.

It has been observed that female police officers are less likely to __________ than their male counterparts.

A. avoid excessive use of force
B. facilitate the practice of a community policing model
C. be dissatisfied working in non-uniformed capacities
D. possess better communication skills

C. be dissatisfied working in non-uniformed capacities

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