Chp 42 practice questions

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Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body’s cells are likely to have _____.

a closed circulatory system

In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

frogs

The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the _____.

fishes

To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n) _____.

four-chambered heart

An anthropologist discovers the fossilized heart of an extinct animal. The evidence indicates that the organism’s heart was large, was well-formed, and had four chambers, with no connection between the right and left sides. A reasonable conclusion supported by these observations is that the _____.

animal was endothermic and had a high metabolic rate

In an open circulatory system, blood is _____.

not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems

Circulatory systems compensate for _____.

the slow rate at which diffusion occurs over large distances

Which of the following develops the greatest pressure on the blood in the mammalian aorta?

systole of the left ventricle

Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds and mammals?

vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary artery

A patient with a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 70 beats/minute, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat (milliliters per beat), and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/minute will have a cardiac output of _____.

4,900 mL/minute

Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans _____.

would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions

A stroke volume of 70 mL/cycle in a heart with a pulse of 72 cycles per minute results in a cardiac output of about _____.

5 liters per minute

Atria contract _____.

during systole

The greatest difference in the concentration of respiratory gases is found in which of the following pairs of mammalian blood vessels?

the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein

A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery to the thumb and then back to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through _____.

two capillary beds

If a molecule of carbon dioxide released into the blood in your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of the following EXCEPT _____.

the pulmonary vein

Among the following choices, which organism likely has the highest systolic pressure?

giraffe

The velocity of blood flow is the lowest in capillaries because _____.

the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system

A species that has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of greater than 260 mm Hg is likely to be _____.

an animal that has a very long distance between its heart and its brain

Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with _____.

increased activity of the immune system

What will be the long-term effect of blocking the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed?

the accumulation of more fluid in the interstitial areas

Which of the following conditions would most likely be due to high blood pressure in a mammal?

bursting of blood vessels in capillary beds

Which of the following mechanisms are used to regulate blood pressure in the closed circulatory system of vertebrates?

I, II, and III

Refer to the paragraph on lymph hearts. What effect would increasing lymph heart pressure have first?

Blood volume would increase.

If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then _____.

fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues

Large proteins such as albumin remain in capillaries rather than diffusing out, resulting in the _____.

development of an osmotic pressure difference across capillary walls

The production of red blood cells is stimulated by _____.

erythropoietin

To become bound to hemoglobin for transport in a mammal, atmospheric molecules of oxygen must cross _____.

five membranes—in and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining an alveolar capillary, and into the red blood cell—to bind with hemoglobin

The diagnosis of hypertension in adults is based on the _____.

blood pressure being greater than 140 mm Hg systolic and/or greater than 90 mm Hg diastolic

Cyanide poisons mitochondria by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. Human red blood cells placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide are likely to _____.

be unaffected

A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the _____.

activation of prothrombin to thrombin

You cut your finger, and after putting pressure on the wound for several minutes, you notice that it is still bleeding profusely. What may be the problem?

Platelets are not functioning properly, or there are too few to be effective.

The hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, and the organ where this hormone is synthesized, are _____.

erythropoietin and kidney, respectively

Countercurrent exchange is evident in the flow of _____.

water across the gills of a fish and the blood within those gills

Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize _____.

diffusion

Flying insects typically _____.

utilize high numbers of mitochondria in flight muscles

The sun shining on a tidal pool during a hot day heats the water. As some water evaporates, the pool becomes saltier, causing _____.

a decrease in its oxygen content

An oil-water mixture works as an insecticidal spray against mosquitoes and other insects because it _____.

blocks the openings into the tracheal system

Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure because of _____.

lung collapse due to inadequate production of surfactant

Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these muscle cells in arteries has a _____.

higher

Under identical atmospheric conditions, freshwater _____.

has more oxygen than seawater

How has the avian lung adapted to the metabolic demands of flight?

Gas exchange occurs during both inhalation and exhalation.

Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect pH. This enables the organism to sense a disturbance in gas levels as _____.

the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing

During most daily activities, the human respiration rate is most closely linked to the blood levels of _____.

carbon dioxide

The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in _____.

pH

An decrease from pH 7.4 to pH 7.2 causes hemoglobin to _____.

increase its binding of H+

Most of the carbon dioxide produced by humans is _____.

converted to bicarbonate ions by an enzyme in red blood cells

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