Chp.25 Digestive System

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The digestive system processes food, extracts nutrients, and eliminates the residue.


The enteric nervous system regulates much of the digestive activity, but its action depends on the central nervous system.


Odor, sight, and taste stimulate salivatory nuclei in the cerebral cortex.


Enamel is found in the crown of a tooth, whereas dentin is part of both the crown and the root.


Both chemical and mechanical digestion start in the mouth and continue in the stomach.


Gastric juice consists entirely of water and hydrochloric acid.


Absorption of many nutrients starts in the stomach.


The liver is the body’s largest gland.


Both pancreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum.


The small intestine begins with the duodenum, which is its longest segment.


The brush borders of intestinal absorptive cells contain numerous goblet cells.


Most fat is digested by pancreatic lipase.


Chylomicrons are secreted from the basal surface of the absorptive cells and taken into the lacteal in the villus.


The large intestine absorbs water, fats, and salts.


The large intestine is longer than the small intestine.


The physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside of the body to the inside is called __________.


The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called __________.


The layer that is responsible for the motility that propels food and residue through the digestive tract is called the __________.

muscularis externa

The outermost layer of the digestive tract, which is composed of a thin layer of areolar tissue and simple squamous epithelium, is called the __________.

serosa (mesentery)

Which of the following nutrients must be digested in order to be absorbed?


Which of the following is not an accessory organ of digestion?


Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?

Lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by the ___________.


An example of chemical digestion is the break down of __________ into __________.

nucleic acids; nucleotides

The __________ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow. Its neurons are found in the __________.

enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa

The surface of the tongue is covered with __________ stratified squamous epithelium, and has bumps called __________, where many taste buds can be found.

nonkeratinized; lingual papillae

Infants have __________ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have __________ permanent teeth.

20; 32

Which of the following is the correct list of tooth anatomy from the most superficial to the deepest?

Enamel, dentin, pulp

Which of the following is not normally found in saliva?


The __________ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the __________ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland.

submandibular; lingual

The swallowing center is located in the __________.

medulla oblongata

The oral phase of swallowing is under __________ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is __________.

central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes

Acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by __________.

the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

The __________ regulates the flow of contents from the stomach to the duodenum.

pyloric sphincter

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is secreted by __________ cells.


Necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption, __________ is/are secreted by __________ cells.

intrinsic factor; parietal

Pepsinogen is produced by __________ and is activated by __________, which is secreted by __________.

chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCl); parietal cells

Several digestive enzymes are secreted as zymogens because __________.

they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins

The enterogastric reflex serves to __________.

inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine

__________ is a hormone, whereas __________ is an enzyme.

Secretin; pepsin

The __________ phase is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions.


The __________ stores excess glucose and releases it into the blood when needed.


A hepatic triad consists of __________.

a bile ductule, a branch of the hepatic artery, and a branch of the hepatic portal vein

Of the following components of bile, only __________ has/have a digestive function.

bile salts

The __________ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing __________.

liver; cholesterol

Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to a hormone called __________.

cholecystokinin (CCK)

Which of the following is not a component of the pancreatic juice?


Which of the following nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?


Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?


Contact digestion takes place in/at the __________.

brush border of the small intestine

Which of the following is not associated with the large absorptive surface of the small intestine?0-2013


Which of the following statements regarding the migrating motor complex is true?

It milks the chyme toward the colon.

The __________ of the small intestine is/are similar to the __________ of the stomach.

intestinal crypts; gastric pits

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the __________, whereas protein digestion begins in the __________.

mouth; stomach

The enzyme(s) called __________ break(s) down the substrate called __________.

peptidases; proteins

Which of the following statements is true regarding the sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLP)?

It transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells.

Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the __________, and fatty acids are absorbed in the __________.

small intestine; small intestine

Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming __________.

emulsification droplets

Which of the following is the proper sequence by which proteins are digested by different enzymes?

Pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase

Lipids are transported to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells by __________, and are then processed into __________.

micelles; chylomicrons

The three most abundant classes of nutrients are __________.

fats, proteins, and carbohydrates

The muscle tone of the __________ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called __________.

taeniae coli; haustra

Which of the following is not a process carried out by bacterial flora?

Digestion of most of the proteins we get in the diet

Bacteria constitute about __________% of the dry weight of the feces.


Defecation is stimulated by __________.

stretching of the rectum

The enzyme that catalyzes the first step reaction in HCl production by gastric parietal cells is called __________.

carbonic anhydrase

Which of the following is not a function of gastric hydrochloric acid (HCl)?

Emulsify lipids

Which of the following is true regarding the difference between the mucosa of the small and large intestines?

The small intestine has deeper intestinal crypts than the large intestine.

Which of the following is not a trigger for mass movements of the colon?

The colorectal reflex

The movement of colonic contents from one puckered section to another is called __________.

haustral contraction

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