chp 15 homework

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What are the temperatures for freezing water on the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales? For boiling water?

Freezing: 0°C, 32°F; boiling: 100°C, 212°F

What are the temperatures for freezing water and boiling water on the Kelvin temperature scale?

273 K, 373 K

What is meant by "translational" kinetic energy?

Kinetic energy of motion that carries a molecule from one place to another

Which forms of energy determine temperature: translational kinetic energy, rotational kinetic energy, vibrational kinetic energy, or all of these?

Translational only

What is meant when we say that a thermometer is in thermal equilibrium with another object?

Heat no longer flows between the object and thermometer when both are at the same temperature.

Is there a distinction between thermal energy and internal energy? Which term do physicists prefer?

Thermal energy emphasizes heat flow, whereas internal energy is the grand total of all energies inside a substance. Physicists prefer internal energy.

In which direction does heat flow spontaneously between hot and cold objects?

From high temperature to low temperature

Does a hot object contain internal energy or does it contain heat?

Internal energy

How is heat similar to and different from internal energy?

They are both forms of energy, but heat flows, whereas internal energy does not.

What role does temperature have in the direction of heat flow?

Heat flows spontaneously from high temperature to low temperature.

How is the energy value of foods determined?

The food is burned and the energy released is measured.

Distinguish between a calorie and a Calorie

A Calorie is 1000 calories.

Distinguish between a calorie and a joule.

1 calorie = 4.19 joules

How many joules (J) are needed to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C?

4.19 J

At what temperature do the combined effects of contraction and expansion produce the smallest volume for water?


Which warms up fastest when heat is applied: water, iron, or silver?

Silver warms up faster than iron. Iron warms up faster than water.

Does a substance that heats up quickly have a high or a low specific heat capacity?

A low specific heat capacity

Does a substance that cools off quickly have a high or a low specific heat capacity?

A low specific heat capacity

How does the specific heat capacity of water compare with the specific heat capacities of other common materials?

Water has a higher specific heat capacity than most common materials.

Northeastern Canada and much of Europe receive about the same amount of sunlight per unit area. Why, then, is Europe generally warmer in the winter?

The gulf stream carries warm, high heat capacity water past the west coast of Europe.

According to the law of conservation of energy, if ocean water cools, then something else should warm. What is it that warms?

The cooling ocean warms the air.

Why is the temperature fairly constant for landmasses surrounded by large bodies of water?

Water has a high specific heat capacity.

Why do substances expand when their temperature is increased?

Higher-temperature substances have greater molecular motion.

Why does a bimetallic strip bend with changes in temperature?

The two metals expand at different rates.

Which generally expands more for an equal increase in temperature: solids or liquids?

Liquids generally expand more than solids.

When the temperature of ice-cold water is increased slightly, does it undergo a net expansion or a net contraction?


Why is ice less dense than water?

Ice crystallizes with an open structure, and the gaps that form between the water molecules in ice increase its volume.

Does "microscopic slush" in water tend to make it more dense or less dense?

Less dense

What happens to the amount of "microscopic slush" in cold water when its temperature is increased?

The amount of microscopic slush decreases as the temperature increases.

Why does all the water in a lake have to be cooled to 4°C before the surface water can be cooled below 4°C?

When water is cooled to 4°C, it sinks and deeper, warmer, water rises to the surface.

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