CHM 2211L

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dye molecules are chromophores. A compound that is highly conjugated. Ex: N=N, N=02 (nitro). conjugation allows the dye to interact with various wavelengths of light. All Reflection= white All light absorption=black

Azo dye, which fibers seemed to interact best with the dye?

The wool intreated best. It contains an amino group and a carbonyl group.

Did you notice any significant changes when Congo red fabric was treated with acid?

Acid protonates the dye changing the color to blue.

Blue indigo and white indigo. How can you tell the white indigo is the reduced form? what chemical process happens as the fabric dries?

The white indigo is the reduced form b/c it contains 2 alcohol groups compared to its oxidized form that has two carbonyl groups. As the fabric dries it undergoes oxidation.

What happened to the fabric strip when it was treated with Test identification Stain? How might this dye be used?

Stain turned many different colors. This can be used to identify different fabrics since it reacts specifically to each fabrics functional groups

Which fabric were most resistant to dyeing?

Creslan, Orlon 75 and polypropylene all did not react well. Looking at the structures,there are few areas for the dye to react. Some fivers don’t dry blc lack functional groups necessary to interact with polar dyes


is a vat dye- applied, reduced, colorless form and is oxidized.


large molecule that is made up from monomers. Repeating units of monomers are chemically linked together.


2 monomers react to form a larger unit with H20 or HCl is lost. Ex. Polyamides (Nylon 10,6) and polyesters

Sebacoyl cholide + hexamethylene diamine= Nylon 10,6

Acid Halid is used more reactive and NaOH is added to neutralize HCl when released when new amide bond is formed.

Chain addition Polymerization (styrene)

-used benzoyl peroxide (initiates forms of reactive species w/ heat) -monomers and radicals begin process until all monomers are used up. – they have simply hydrocarbon backbone -empirical formula of chain addition polymer is identical to that of monomer.


crossed-linked polymer that is form the rxn of poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, borax

Describe the practical reasons behind the direction of flow through the condenser of the distillation apparatus

vapors formed in heated distillation flask. condeser cools the vapor condensing them back to liquid droplets that flows down the condenser into the cylinder. A filled condenser into the cylinder. a filled condenser provides max cooling allowing max reovery of purified liquid during distillation

catalytic hydrogenation

Ammonium formate decomposes into hydrogen, CO2, ammonia in presence of Pd/c

EAS rxn

allow functional groups to be placed on aromatic rings. Ex Friedel- Crafts Acylation using acetic anhydride making asylum ion


techniques for separating, analyzing and identifying compounds. -TLC, GC, HPLC


least polar will elute first

Iodine is least reactive

requires an oxidizing agent


use to remove selected components from a mixture based on solubility differences or chemical reactivity.

organic solvents frequently used for extraction are immiscible with water They tend to absorb water during the mixing that occurs during extractions

therefore, need to dry the solution before organic solvent is evaporated


remove majorITY of dissolved water

anhydrous magnesium

absorb water that is dissolved in organic solvent

Difference between extraction and washing

extraction- remove desired components from a mixture usually based on solubility or chemical reactivity. washing removes unwanted compounds from a mixture using solvent.

steam distillation

herb is suspended in water, water boiled vaporizes and extracts essential oils.

CO2 extraction

advantage: nontoxic and nonflammable CO2 also is cheaper and requires lower temperatures. disadvantage: CO2 is polar and is a poor solvent. difficult to maintain pressure Advantage for distillation:purer extraction, better yield disadvantage: takes more time, requires more equipment and heating


After the ether evaporates the left over solid was dissolved in cole ligroin which removes byproduct.


purify organic solids


lower melting points

solvent for recrystallization

will completely dissolve both the desired compound and organic impurities when the solvent is hot. desired compound is insoluble at cold temps and organic impurities must remain soluble at cold temps.

p-phenetidine is dissolved in HCl instead of DI water

used to protonate the amine group, and H2o is unable to do this

what is the purpose of sodium acetate solution in the amide synthesis of acetophenetidin?

needed to deprotonate p- acteomidophenol

IR OH and NH

3300 alcohol: broad 2nd amine: one peak 1 amine: 2 peaks 3rd: none


1700 ether:1200 alkene:1600 alkyne: 2200 aromatic 1500-1700

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