chemistry chp 4

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homogeneous mixture

solid, liquid, or gas that contains two or more substances blended evenly throughout

solvent

a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem

solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

eletrolyte

a substance (such as NaCl) whose aqueous solutions contain ions

noneletrolyte

substance that does not ionize in water and cannot conduct electricity. such as (C2H22O11)

dissolution

the breaking up or dissolving of something into parts; disintegration

cations

positive ions

anions

negative ions

acids

-Compounds that form hydrgen ions when dissolved in water are called…

acids

Properties of _____: Taste sour, Dissolve Metals, and Conduct electricity

acids

a few molecular substances, have aqueous solutions that contain ions,_______are the most important of these solutions.

strong electrolytes

Any compound of which all or almost all of the dissolved solute exists as ions in aqueous solutions. Example: HCl

weak electrolytes

A compound of which a relatively small amount of the dissolved solute exists as ions in an aqueous solution. Example: Acetic acid, CH3COOH (vinegar)

chemical equilibrium

a state of balance in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal; no net change in the amount of reactants and products occurs in the chemical system

soluble ionic compounds

________________are strong electrolytes

soluble and insoluble compounds chart

solvation

process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by solvent molecules

precipitation reactions

reactions taking place between two ionic compounds and resulting in two new ionic compounds that form a solid when the two solutions are mixed.

precipitate

a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction

25 C

1.2×10^-5mol of PbI2 desolvels at what temperature? "this is an exsample of solubility"

soluble in water

all commmon ionic compounds of the alkai metal ions (group 1A of the periodic table) and of the ammonium ion (NH4+) are_____________.

solution: according to table 4.1 most carbonates are insoluble. but carbonates of the alkali matal cations (such as sodium ion) are an exception to this rule and are soluble. Thus, Na2CO3 is soluble in water.

4.2 sample exercise; classify the following ionic compounds as soluble or insoluble in water: (a) sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

solution: table 4.1 indicates that although most sulfates are water soluble, the sulfate of Pb2+ is an exception. Thus, PbSO4 is insoluble in water.

4.2 sample exercise; classify the following ionic compounds as soluble or insoluble in water:(b) lead sulfate (pbSO4).

insoluble

Classify the following compounds as soluble or insoluble in water: cobalt(II) hydroxide

soluble

Classify the following compounds as soluble or insoluble in water:barium nitrate

soluble

Classify the following compounds as soluble or insoluble in water:ammonium phosphate

To predict whether a precipitate forms when we mix aqueous solutions of two strong electrolytes, we must

1)noter the ions present in the reactants, 2)consider the possibel combinatins of the cations and anions, and 3) use table 4.1 to determine if any of these combinations is insoluble.

exchange reactions or metathesis reactions

Parts of the reactant molecules change partners producing different product molecules (AB+C–>AC+B).

(a) The reactants contain Ba2+, Cl-, K+ and SO4^(2-) ions. (b)From part (a) we know the chemical formulas of the products, BaSO4 and KCl. the blanced eqution with phase labels shown is BaCl2+K2SO4–> BaSO4+2KCl

4.3 (predicting a metathesis reaction) (a) predict the id of the precipite that forms when solutions of BaCl2 and K2SO4 are mixed (b) write the balanced chemical equations for the reaction.

(a) Fe(OH)3; (b) Fe2(SO4)3+6 LiOH–> 2Fe(OH)3+3 Li2SO4; (c) no (both possible producs are water soluble)

4.3 (a)what compounds precipitates when solutions of Fe2(SO4)3 and LiOH are mixed? (b)write a balanced equation for the reaction. (c) will a precipitate form when solutions of Ba(NO3)2 and KOH are mixed?

exchange reactions

Parts of the reactant molecules change partners producing different product molecules (AB+C–>AC+B).

metathesis reactions

A reaction in which two substances react through an exchange of their component ions: AX + BY → AY + BX. Precipitation and acid-base neutralization reactions are examples of metathesis reactions

complete ionic equation

an equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions

spectator ions

ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction

net ionic equation

includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution

steps for writing net ionic equations

1. write a balanced molecular equation for the reaction. 2. rewrite the equation to show the ions that form in solution when each soluble strong electrolyte dissociated into its components ions."Only strong electrolytes dissolved in aqueous solution are written in ionic form."

answers (a) 6, (b) 12, (c) 2, (d) 9

Practice Exercise 4.1 If you were to draw diagrams (such as that shown on the left of p. 116) representing aqueous solutions of each of the following ionic compounds, how many anions would you show if the diagram contained six cations? a) NiSO4 b) Ca(NO3)2 c) Na3PO4 d) Al2(SO4)3

according to table 4.1 a. soluble in water b. insoluble in water

Sample Exercise 4.2 (p. 118) Classify the following ionic compounds as soluble or insoluble in water: a) sodium carbonate (Na2SO4) b) lead sulfate (PbSO4)

answers: (a) insoluble, (b) soluble, (c) soluble

Practice Exercise 4.2 Classify the following compounds as soluble or insoluble in water: a) cobalt (II) hydroxide b) barium nitrate c) ammonium phosphate

carbonates and bicarbonates

react with acids to form CO2 gas.

precipitation reactions

cations and anions come together to form an insoluble ionic compound.

neutralization reactions

H+ ions and OH- ions come together to form H2O molecules

oxidation-reduction

any chemical change in which one species loses electrons and another gains electrons also called redox reaction.

oxidation

loss of electrons

oxidation number

the degree of oxidation of an atom or ion or molecule

elemental form

for an atom in its_________, the oxidation number is always zero.

monatomic ion

For any___________ the oxidation number equals the charge on the ion.

nonmetals

___________usually have negative oxidation numbers, although they can sometimes be positive.

oxygen

the oxidation number of _________ is usually -2 in both ionic and molecular compounds.

hydrogen

the oxidation number of __________ is usually +1 when bonded to nonmetals and -1 when bonded to metals

fluorine

The oxidation number of_________is -1 in all compounds.

the sum of the oxidation numbers

_______________of all atoms in a neutral compound is zero. the sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion.

molarity

moles of solute/liters of solution

dilution

_____________is the weakening (reducing the concentration) by the addition of water or a thinner

titration

a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration is added to a known volume of a second solution until the reaction between them is just complete

activity series

a list of elements in order of decreasing activity

process of dilution

the______ ___ _______ decreases the concentration of the solute without changing the number of moles of solute in the solution[M(conc)xV(conc)=M(dil)xV(dil)]

standard solution

the solution of known concentration

equivalence point

The point during a titration when the number of H+ ions and OH- ions are equal. This is at the middle of the steepest part of the titration curve.

indicator

(chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance

dilution equation

C1xV1=C2xV2 Where: C1 = Concentration/molarity 1 V1 = Volume 1 C2 = Concentration/molarity 2 V2 = Volume 2

1. convert the given to moles 2. multiply the amount of moles by Avogadro’s number

what are the steps to convert moles to atoms/molecules

name ionic compounds

in order to _______ ____ ______, positive ions comes before negaive ions. if the negative ions is not a polyatomic ion, add-ide to the end of the name.

1. id the ions present 2. cross the charges 3. divide subscripts by lowest common denominator

what are the steps to in writing compound formulas?

1. convert 2. find the molar mass of the element/compound 3. divide the given mass (in grams) by the molar mass.

what are the steps to convert mass<–>moles?

1. dissect the compound into its respective elements 2. look up each element’s mass on the periodic table 3. multiply each element’s mass by the amount of that elements in the compound 4. add

what are the steps Molecular/Formula Mass?

remember the series of alkanes

"My Enormous Penguin Bounces Pretty High" to remember the series of alkanes : Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, Pentane, Hexane

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