# Chemistry Chapter 4 and 5

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 According to Coulomb’s law, what happens to the potential energy of two oppositely charges particles as they get closer together? A.) Their potential energy decreases. B.) Their potential energy increases. C.) Their potential energy does not change. Their potential energy increases. Since the charges are opposite, the potential energy of the interaction is negative. As the charges get closer together, r becomes smaller and the potential energy decreases (it becomes more negative). Which statement is true? A.) An orbital that penetrates into the region occupied by core electrons is more shielded from nuclear charge than an orbital that does not penetrate and will therefore have a higher energy. B.) An orbital that penetrates into the region occupied by core electrons is less shielded from nuclear charge than an orbital that does not penetrate and will therefore have a higher energy. C.) An orbital that penetrates into the region occupied by core electrons is less shielded from nuclear charge than an orbital that does not penetrate and will therefore have a lower energy. D.) An orbital that penetrates into the region occupied by core electrons is more shielded from nuclear charge than an orbital that does not penetrate and will therefore have lower energy. C.) An orbital that penetrates into the region occupied by core electrons is less shielded from nuclear charge than an orbital that does not penetrate and will therefore have a lower energy (Penetration results in less shielding from nuclear charge and therefore lower energy.) What are the four quantum numbers for each of the two electrons in a 4s orbital? n=4, l=0, ml=0, ms=1/2 n=4, l=0, ml=0, ms=-1/2 Which electrons experience the greatest effective nuclear charge? A.) The valence electrons in Mg B.) The valence electrons in Al C.) The valence electrons in S C.) The valence electrons in S. Since Zeff increases from left to right across a row in a periodic table, the valence electrons in S experience a greater effective nuclear charge than the valence electrons in Al or Mg. In the previous sections, we have seen how the number of electrons and the number of protons affect the size of an atom or an ion. However we have not considered how the number of neutrons affects the size of the atom. Why not? Would you expect isotopes- for example, C-12 and C-13- to have different atomic radii? The isotopes of an element all have the same radii for two reasons: 1.) neutrons are highly negligibly small compared to the size of an atom and therefore extra neutrons do not increase atomic size. 2.) Neutrons have no charge and therefore do not attract electrons in the way that protons do. Based on what you just learned about ionization energies, explain why valence electrons are more important than core elements in determining the reactivity and bonding in atoms. As you can see from the successive ionization energies of any element, valence electrons are held most loosely and can therefore be transferred or shared most easily. Core electrons on the other hand, are held tightly and are not easily transferred or shared. Consequently, valence electrons play a central role in chemical bonding. Use the trends in ionization energy and electron affinity to explain why sodium chloride has the formula NaCl and not Na2Cl2. The 3s electron in sodium has a relatively low ionization energy (496 kJ/mol) because it is a valence electron. The energetic cost for sodium to lose a second electron is extraordinarily high (4560 kJ/mol) because the next electron to be lost is a core electron (2p). Similarly, the electron affinity of chlorine to gain one electron (-349 kJ/mol) is highly exothermic since the added electron completes chlorine’s valence shell. The gain of a second electron by the negatively charged chlorine anion is not so favorable. Therefore, we expect sodium and chlorine to combine in a 1:1 ratio. Write an electron configuration for each element. A.) Mg B.) P C.) Br D.) Al A.) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 or [Ne] 3s2 B.) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 or [Ne] 3s2 3p3 C.) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p6 4s2 3d10 4p5 or [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5 D.) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 or [Ne] 3s2 3p1 Write the orbital diagram for sulfur and determine its number of unpaired electrons. Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4. Orbital diagram: 1s= 1 up 1 down. 2s= 1 up 1 down. 2p= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down. 3s= 1 up 1 down. 3p= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 up. Two unpaired electrons. Write the electron configuration for Ge. Identify the valence electrons and the core electrons. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p2. 4 valence electrons and 28 core electrons. Write the electron configuration for Se. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4 or [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p4 Predict the charges of the monoatomic (single atom) ions formed by these main- group elements. A.) Al B.) S Aluminum is a main- group metal and tends to lose electrons to form a cation with the same electron configuration as the nearest noble gas. The electron configuration of aluminum is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1. The nearest noble gas is neon, which has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6. Therefore, aluminu loses three electrons to form the cation Al3+. Sulfur is a nonmetal and tends to gain electrons to form an anion with the same electron configuration as the nearest noble gas. The electron configuration of sulfur is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4. The nearest noble gas is argon, which has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6. Therefore, sulfur gains two electrons to form the anion S2-. On the basis of periodic trends, choose the larger atom in each pair (if possible). Explain your choices. A.) N or F B.) C or Ge C.) N or Al D.) Al or Ge A.) N atoms are larger than F atoms because, as you trace the path between N and F on the periodic table, you move to the right within the same period. As you move right across a period, the effective nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons increases, resulting in smaller radius. B.) Ge atoms are larger than C toms because, as you trace the path between C and Ge on the periodic table, you move down a column. Atomic size increases as you move down a column because the outermost electrons occupy orbitals with a higher principal quantum number that are therefore larger, resulting in a larger atom. C.) Al atoms are larger than N atoms because as you trace the path between N and Al on the periodic table, you move down a column (atomic size increases) and then to the left across a period (atomic size increases). These effects add together for an overall increase. D.) Based on the periodic trends alone, you cannot tell which atom is larger, because as you trace the path between Al and Ge you go to the right across a period (atomic size decreases) and then down to a column (atomic size increases.) These effects tend to counter each other, and it is not easy to tell which will predominate. Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for each ion and determine whether each is diamagnetic or paramagnetic. A.) Al3+ B.) S2- C.) Fe3+ Al: [Ne] 3s2 3p1 Al 3+: [Ne] or [He] 2s2 2p6 Orbital diagram: [He] 2s= 1 up 1 down. 2p= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down. Diamagnetic S: [Ne] 3s2 3p4 S2-: [Ne] 3s2 3p6 Orbital Diagram: [Ne] 3s= 1 up 1 down. 3p= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down. Diamagnetic Fe: [Ar] 4s2 3d6 Fe3+: [Ar] 4s0 3d5 Orbital Diagram: [Ar] 4s= none. 3d= 5 ups. Paramagnetic Choose the larger atom or ion from each pair. A.) S or S2- B.) Ca or Ca2+ C.) Br- or Kr A.) S2- B.) Ca C.) Br- On the basis of periodic trends, determine which element in each pair has the higher first ionization energy (if possible) A.) Al or S B.) As or Sb C.) N or Si D.) O or Cl A.) S B.) As C.) N D.) not possible On the basis of periodic trends, chose the more metallic element from each pair (if possible) A.) Sn or Te B.) P or Sb C.) Ge or In D.) S or Br A.) Sn B.) Sb C.) In D.) Not possible Write electron configurations for each element. A.) Cl B.) Si C.) Sr D.) O Cl: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 or [Ne] 3s2 3p5 Si: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 or [Ne] 3s2 3p2 Sr: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 or [Kr] 5s2 O: 1s2 2s2 2p4 or [He] 2s2 2p4 Write the orbital diagram for Ar and determine its number of unpaired electrons. 1s= 1 up 1 down 2s= 1 up 1 down 2p= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 3s= 1 up 1 down 3p= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down. No unpaired electrons Write an electron configuration for phosphorus. Identify the valence electrons and core electrons. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 or [Ne] 3s2 3p3. Valence electrons: 5 Core electrons: 10 Refer to the periodic table to determine the electron configuration of bismuth (Bi). [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p3 Refer to the periodic table to write the electron configuration for iodine (I). [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p5 Predict the charges of the monoatomic ions formed by these main- group elements. A.) N B.) Rb A.) N3- B.) Rb+ On the basis of periodic trends, choose the larger atom in each pair (if possible) A.) Sn or I B.) Ge or Po C.) Cr or W D.) F or Se A.) Sn B.) not possible C.) W D.) Se Arrange the elements in order of decreasing radius: S, Ca, F, Rb, Si. Rb> Ca> Si> S> F Write the electron configuration and orbital diagram for each ion and predict whether each will be paramagnetic or diamagnetic. A.) Co2+ B.) N3- C.) Ca2+ A.) [Ar] 4s0 3d7. Paramagnetic. Orbital diagram: [Ar] 4s= none. 3d= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 up 1 up. B.) [He] 2s2 2p6. Diamagnetic. Orbital diagram: [He] 2s= 1 up 1 down. 2p= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down. C.) [Ne] 3s2 3p6. Diamagnetic. Orbital diagram= [Ne] 3s= 1 up 1 down. 3p= 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down 1 up 1 down. Choose the larger atom or ion from each pair. A.) K or K+ B.) F or F- C.) Ca2+ or Cl- A.) K B.) F- C.) Cl- Arrange the following in order of decreasing radius: Ca2+, Ar, Cl-. Cl-> Ar> Ca2+ On the basis of periodic trends, determine the element in each pair with the higher first ionization energy (if possible). A.) Sn or I B.) Ca or Sr C.) C or P D.) F or S A.) I B.) Ca C.) not possible D.) F Arrange the following elements in order of decreasing first ionization energy: S, Ca, F, Rb, Si. F>S>Si>Ca>Rb On the basis or periodic trends, choose the more metallic element for each pair (if possible). A.) Ge or Sn B.) Ga or Sn C.) P or Bi D.) B or N A.) Sn B.) not possible C.) Bi D.) B Arrange the following elements in order of increasing metallic character: Si, Cl, Na, Rb. ClO>H Which ratio can be correctly derived from the molecular formula for water (H2O)? A.) 2g H: 1g H2O B.) 2mL H: 1mL H20 C.) 2 mol H: 1 mol H20 C Write the empirical formulas for the compounds represented by the molecular formulas. A.) C4H8 B.) B2H6 C.)CCL4 A.) CH2 B.) BH3 C.) Remains the same Write the empirical formulas for the compounds represented by the molecular formulas. A.) C5H12 B.) Hg2Cl2 C.) C2H402 A.) C5H12 B.)HgCl C.) CH20 Use the Lewis model to predict the formula for the compound that forms between calcium and chlorine. CaCl2 Use the Lewis model to predict the formula for the compound that forms between magnesium and nitrogen. Mg3N2 Write the formula for the ionic compound that forms between aluminum and oxygen. Al2O3 Write the formula for the ionic compound that forms between potassium and sulfur. K2S Write the formula for the ionic compound that forms between calcium and oxygen. CaO Write the formula for the ionic compound that forms between Aluminum and Nitrogen. AlN Name the compound CaBr2. calcium bromide Name the compound Ag3N. Silver nitride Write the formula for rubidium sulfide. Rb2S Name the compound PbCl4. lead(IV) chloride Name the compound FeS. Iron(II) Sulfide Write the formula for ruthenium(IV) oxide. RuO2 Name the compound Li2Cr2O7. lithium dichromate. Name the compound Sn(ClO3)2. tin(II) chlorate Write the formula for cobalt(II) phosphate. Co3(PO4)2 Name each compound. A.) NI3 B.) PCl5 C.) P4S10 A.) nitrogen triiodide B.) phosphorus pentachloride C.) tetraphosphorus decasulfide Name the compound N205. dinitrogen pentoxide Write the formula for phosphorus tribromide. PBr3 Calculate the formula mass of glucose, C6H12O6. 180.16amu Calculate the formula mass of calcium nitrate. 164.10 amu An asprin tablet contains 225 mg of acetylsalicylic acid (C9H8O4). How many acetylsalicylic acid molecules does it contain? 1.09E21 C9H8O4 molecules Find the number of ibuprofen molecules in the tablet containing 200.0 mg of ibuprofen (C13H1802). 5.839E20 What is the mass of a sample of water containing 3.55E22 H2O molecules? 1.06 g H2O Calculate the mass percent of Cl in Freon-112 (C2l4F2), a CFC refrigerant. 69.58% Acetic acid (C2H4O2) is the active ingredient in vinegar. Calculate the mass percent composition of oxygen is acetic acid. 53.29% Calculate the mass percent composition of sodium in sodium oxide. 74.19% Na The FDA recommends that a person consume less than 2.4 g of sodium per day. What mass of sodium chloride (in grams) can you consume and still be within the FDA guidelines? Sodium chloride is 39% sodium by mass. 6.2 NaCl What mass (in grams) of iron(III) oxide contains 58.7g of iron? Iron (III) oxide is 69.94% iron by mass. 83.9 g Fe2O3 If someone consumes 22g of sodium chloride per day, what mass in grams of sodium does that person consume? Sodium chloride is 39% sodium by mass. 8.6 g Na What mass of hydrogen (in grams) is contained in 1.00 gallon of water? (The density of water is 1.00 g/mL.) 4.23E2g H Determine the mass of oxygen in a 7.2-g sample of Al2(SO4)3. 4.0 g O Butane (C4H10) is the liquid fuel in lighters. How many grams of carbon are present within a lighter containing 7.25 mL of butane? (The density of liquid butane is 0.601 g/mL). 3.60 g C A compound containing nitrogen and oxygen is decomposed in the laboratoory and produces 24.5 g nitrogen and 70.0 g oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound. N2O5. A sample of a compound is decomposed in the laboratory and produces 165 g carbon, 27.8 g hydrogen, and 220.2 g oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound. CH20 A laboratory analysis of asprin determined the following mass percent composition: C 60.00% H 4.48% O 35.52% Fine the empirical formula. C9H8O4. The empirical formula of butanedione is C2H30 and its molar mass is 86.09 g/mol. Find its molecular formula. C4H6O2 A compound with the percent composition shown here has a molar mass of 60.10 g/mol. Determine its molecular formula. C, 39.97% H, 13.41% N, 46.62% C2H8N2 A compound has the empirical formula CH and a molar mass of 78.11 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? C6H6 Upon combustion, a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen produces 1.83 g CO2 and 0.901 g H20. Determine the empirical formula of the compound. C1H2.4 Upon combustion, a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen produced 1.60 g CO2 and 0.819 g H20. Find the empirical formula of the compound. C2H5 Upon combustion, a 0.8233-g sample of a compound containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen produces 2.445 g CO2 and 6.003 g H20. Determine the empirical formula of the compound. C10H12O1 Upon combustion, a 0.8009-g sample of a compound containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen produced 1.6004 g CO2 and 0.6551 g H2O. Find the empirical formula of the compound. C2H40 What is the empirical formula of a compound with the molecular formula C10H8? A.) C5H3 B.) C2H4 C.) C5H4 D.) CH c Which substance is an ionic compound? A.) SrI2 B.) N204 C.) He D.) CCl4 a What is the correct formula for the compound formed between calcium and sulfur? A.) CaS B.) Ca2S C.) CaS2 D.) CaS3 a Name the compound SrI2. A.) Strontium iodide B.) strontium diiodide C.) strontium (II) iodide D.) strontium (II) diiodide a What is the formula for manganese (IV) oxide? A.) Mn4O B.) MnO4 C.) Mn2O D.) MnO2 d Name the compound Pb(C2H3O2)2. A.) lead (II) carbonate B.) lead (II) acetate C.) lead bicarbonate D.) lead diacetate b Name the compound P2I4. A.) Phosphorus iodide B.) Phosphorus diiodide C.) Phosphorus (II) iodide D.) diphosphorus tetraiodide d What is the correct Lewis symbol for S? How many CH2Cl2 molecules are there in 25.0g of CH2Cl2? A.) 0.294 molecules B.) 1.77×10^23 molecules C.) 1.28×10^27 molecules D.) 1.51×10^25 molecules b List the elements in the compound CF2Cl2 in order of decreasing mass percent composition. A.) C>F>Cl B.) F>Cl>C C.) Cl>C>F D.) Cl>F>C d Determine the mass of potassium in 35.5 g of KBr. A.) 17.4g B.) 0.298g C.)11.7g D.) 32.9g c A compound is 52.14% C, 13.13%H, and 34.73% O by mass. What is the empirical formula of the compound? A.) C2H8O3 B.) C2H6O C.) C4HO3 D.) C3HO6 b A compound has the empirical formula CH2O and a formula mass of 120.10 amu. What is the molecular formula of the compound? A.) CH2O B.) C2H4O2 C.)C3H6O3 D.) C4H8O4 d Combustion of 30.42g of a compound containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen produces 35.21g of CO2 and 14.42g H2O. What is the empirical formula of the compound? A.) C4H8O6 B.) C2H4O3 C.) C2H2O3 D.) C6HO12 b chemical bond The sharing or transfer of electrons to attain stable electron configurations for the bonding atoms. ionic bond A chemical bond formed between two oppositely charged ions, generally a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion, that are attracted to one another by electrostatic forces. ionic compound A compound composed of cations and anions bound together by electrostatic attraction. covalent bond A chemical bond in which two atoms share electrons that interact with the nuclei of both atoms, lowering the potential energy of each through electrostatic interactions. molecular compound A compound composed of two or more covalently bonded nonmetals. chemical formula A symbolic representation of a compound that indicates the elements present in the compound and the relative number of atoms of each. empirical formula A chemical formula that shows the simplest whole- number ratio of atoms in the compound. molecular formula A chemical formula the shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound. structural formula A molecular formula that shows how the atoms in a molecule are connected or bonded to each other. ball-and-stick molecular model A representation of the arrangement of atoms in a molecule that shows how the atoms are bonded to each other and the overall shape of the molecule. space- filling molecular model A representation of a molecule that shows how the atoms fill the space between them. Lewis model A simple model of chemical bonding, which uses diagrams to represent bonds between atoms as lines or pairs of dots. In this model, atoms bond together to abstain stable octets (eight valence electrons). lewis electron- dot structure A drawing of a molecule that represents chemical bonds between atoms as shared or transferred electrons; the valence electrons are represented as dots. Lewis symbol A symbol of an element in which dots represent valence electrons. octet A Lewis symbol with eight dots, signifying a filled outer electron shell for s and p block elements. duet A Lewis structure with dots, signifying a filled outer electron shell for the elements H and He. octet rule The tendency for most bonded atoms to possess or share eight electrons in their outer shell in order to obtain stable electron configurations and lower their potential energy. formula unit The smallest, electrically neutral collection of ions in an ionic compound. lattice energy The energy associated with forming a crystalline lattice from gaseous ions. common name A traditional name of a compound that gives little or no information about its chemical structure. systematic name An official name based on well- established rules for a compound, which can be determined by examining its chemical structure. binary compound A compound that contains only two different elements. polyatomic ion An ion composed of two or more atoms. oxyanion A polyatomic anion containing a nonmetal covalently bonded to one or more oxygen atoms. hydrate An ionic compound that contains a specific number of water molecules associated with each formula unit. bonding pair A pair of electrons shared between two atoms. lone pair pair of electrons associated with only one atom. double bond The bond that forms when two electrons are shared between two atoms. triple bond The bond that forms when three electron pairs are shared between two atoms. formula mass The average mass of a molecule of a compound in amu. mass percent composition An element’s percentage of the total mass of a compound containing the element. empirical formula molar mass The sum of the masses of all the atoms in an empirical formula. combustion analysis A method of obtaining empirical formulas for unknown compounds, especially those containing carbon and hydrogen, by burning a sample of the compound in pure oxygen and analyzing the products of the combustion reaction. organic compound A compound containing carbon combined with several other elements including hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. hydrocarbon An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen. Formula for formula mass (# atoms of 1st element in chemical formula x atomic mass of first element)+(# atoms of 2nd element in chemical formula x atomic mass of 2nd element)+… Formula for Mass Percent Composition Mass % of element X= mass of X in 1 mol compound/ mass of 1 mol compound x 100% Formula for Empirical Formula Molar Mass Molecular formula= n x (empirical formula) n= molar mass/ empirical formula molar mass Chemical bonds, the forces that hold atoms together in compounds arise from the interactions between __ and __ in atoms. nuclei/electrons In an ___ bond, one more electrons are transferred from one atom to another, forming a cation and an anion. The two ions are then drawn together by the attraction between the opposite charges. ionic In a ___ bond, one or more electrons are shared between two atoms. The atoms are held together by the attraction between their nuclei and the shared electrons. covalent A compound is represented with a ___, which indicates the elements present and the number of atoms of each. chemical formula An empirical formula gives only the __ number of atoms, while a molecular formula gives the __ number of atoms present in the molecule. relative/actual ___ formulas show how the atoms are bonded together while __ models portray the geometry of the molecule. structural/molecular In the ___ model, chemical bonds are formed when atoms transfer (ionic bonding) or share (covalent bonding) valence electrons to attain noble gas electron configurations. Lewis The ____ represents valence electrons as dots surrounding the symbol for an element. When two or more elements bond together, the dots are transferred or shared so that every atom gets eight dots, an octet. Lewis model In a __ Lewis structure involving main group metals, the metal transfers its valence electrons (dots) to the nonmetal. ionic The formation of most ionic compounds is ___ because of ___, the energy released when metal cations and nonmetal anions coalesce to form the solid. exothermic/lattice energy In a ___ Lewis structure, neighboring atoms share valence electrons to attain octets (or duets). covalent A single shared electron pair constitutes a ___ bond while two or three shared pairs constitute ___ or ___ bonds, respectively. single/double/triple The ___ of a compound is the sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms in the chemical formula. Like the atomic masses of elements, the ___ characterizes the average mass of the molecule ( or formula unit). formula mass The mass of one mole of a compound is its ___ and equals its ___ (in grams). molar mass/formula mass The ___ of a compound indicates that each element’s percentage of the total compound’s mass. We can determine this from the compound’s ___ and ___ of its elements. mass percent composition/chemical formula/molar mass The ___ of a compound provides the relative number of atoms or moles of each element in a compound, and therefore we can use it to determine numerical relationships between moles of the __ and moles of its ___. chemical formula/numerical relationships/constituent elements If we know the mass percent composition and molar mass of a compound, we can determine its ___ and ___ formulas. empirical/molecular ___ are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and a few other elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Organic compounds The simplest organic compounds are ___, compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. hydrocarbons Classify each compound as ionic or molecular A.) CO2 B.)NiCl2 C.) NaI D.) PCL3 A.) molecular B.) ionic C.) ionic D.) molecular Determine the number of each type of atom in each formula. A.) Mg3(PO4)2 B.) BaCl2 C.) Fe(NO2)2 D.) Ca(OH)2 A.) 3 Mg, 2 P, 8 O B.) 1 Ba 2 Cl C.) 1 Fe, 2 N, 4 O D.) 1 Ca, 2 O, 2 H Write an electron configuration for N. Then write a Lewis symbol for N and show which electrons form the electron configuration are included in the Lewis symbol. 1s2 2s2 2p3 Use Lewis symbols to determine the formula for the compound that forms between each pair of elements. A.) Sr and Se B.) Ba and Cl C.) Na and S D.) Al and O a.) SrSe b.)BaCl2 c.)Na2S d.)Al2O3 The lattice energy of CsF is -744 kJ/mol, whereas that of BaO is -3029 kJ/mol. Explain this large difference in lattice energy. One factor of lattice energy is the product of the charges of the two ions. The product of the ion charges for CsF is +1, while that for BaO is +4. Because this product is four times greater, the lattice energy is also four times greater. Write a formula for the ionic compound that forms between each pair of elements. A.) Calcium and Oxygen B.) Zinc and Sulfur C.) Rubidium and bromine D.) Aluminum and Oxygen a.) CaO b.) ZnS c.)RbBr d.) Al2O3 Name each ionic compound. A.) Mg3N2 B.) KF C.) Na2O D.) Li2S E.) CsF F.) KI a.) magnesium nitride b.) potassium fluoride c.) sodium oxide d.) lithium sulfide e.) cesium fluoride f.) potassium iodide Use covalent Lewis structures to explain why each element (or family of elements) occurs as diatomic molecules. A.) hydrogen B.) the halogens C.) Oxygen D.) Nitrogen a.) H:H, filled duets . . . . b.):Cl:Cl:, filled octets . . . . . . . . c.) O=O, filled octets . . . . d.) :N (triple bond) N:, filled octets Name each molecular compound. A.) CO B.) NI3 C.) SiCl4 D.) N4Se4 a.) carbon monoxide b.) nitrogen triiodide c.) silicon tetrachloride d.) tetranitrogen tetraselenide Write a formula for each molecular compound. A.) phosphorus trichloride B.) chlorine monoxide C.) disulfur tetrafluoride D.) phosphorus pentafluoride a.) PCl3 b.) ClO c.) S2F4 d.) PF5 Name each compound. a.) SrCl2 b.) SnO2 c.)P2S5 a.) strontium chloride b.) Tin (IV) oxide c.) Diphosphorus pentasulfide Calculate the formula mass for each compound. a.) NO2 b.) C4H10 c.) C6H12O6 d.) Cr(NO3)3 a.) 46.01 amu b.) 58.12 amu c.) 180.16 amu d.) 238.03 amu Calculate the number of moles in each sample. a.) 72.5 g CCL4 b.) 12.4 g C12H22O11 c.) 25.2 kg C2H2 d.) 12.3 g of dinitrogen monoxide a.) 0.471 mol b.) 0.0362 mol c.) 968 mol d.) 0.279 mol Calculate the mass (in g) of each sample. A.) 5.94E20 SO3 molecules B.) 2.8E22 H2O molecules C.) 1 glucose molecule (C6H12O6) a.) 0.0790 g b.) 0.84 g c.) 2.922E-22 g Calculate the mass percent composition of carbon in each carbon containing compound. a.) CH4 b.) C2H6 c.) C2H2 d.) C2H5Cl a.) 74.87% b.) 79.88% c.) 92.24% d.)37.23% Copper (II) fluoride contains 37.42% F by mass. Calculate the mass of fluorine in grams contained in 55.5 g of copper (II) fluoride. 20.8 g F Calculate the empirical formula for each compound. a.) 1.651 g Ag, 0.1224 g O b.) 0.672 g Co, 0.569 g As, 0.486 g O c.) 1.443 g Se, 5.841 g Br a.) Aag2O b.) Co3As2O8 c.) SeBr4 Classify each compound as organic or inorganic. a.) CaCO3 b.) C4H8 c.) C4H6O6 d.) LiF a.) inorganic b.) organic c.) organic d.) inorganic Determine whether each compound is a hydrocarbon. a.)H3C—CH2OH b.)H3C—CH3 O l l c.) H3C—C—CH2—CH3 d.)H3C—NH2 a.) functionalized hydrocarbon, alcohol b.) hydrocarbon c.) functionalized hydrocarbon, ketone d.) functionalized hydrocarbon, amine Rules for writing an organic compound placing C first in the formula, followed by H, followed by the remaining symbols in alphabetical order. Rules for writing a molecular inorganic compound placing elements of groups 13 to 15 first (in that order), followed by the rest of the symbols starting with those furthest to the left in the periodic table. Elements in the same column are listed alphabetically.

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