Chemistry – Chapter 2

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Dalton’s Atomic Theory

• Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. • All atoms of a given element are identical to one another in mass and other properties, but the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. • Atoms of an element are not changed in to atoms of a different element by chemical reactions; atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. • Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine; a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms.

What are the subatomic particles?

Proton (+1) Neutron (neutral) Electron (-1)

Proton

2 up 1 down quark; hadron

Neutron

2 down 1 up quark; hadron

Electron

Fundamental particle; lepton

Charge of a Proton

1.602×10^-19 C

Charge of a Neutron

0 C

Charge of an Electron

-1.602×10^-19 C

Location of Subatomic Particles

Rutherford experiment (1910) When an alpha particle hits the nucleus, it deflects. However, they can easily pass through the electron cloud.

Angstrom

1×10^-10 m

Nucleus

Made of protons and neutrons

Electron Cloud

Comprised of electrons

If you change the atom, you change…

the element.

Atomic Number

Number of protons

Number of Protons

Number of electrons (for an atom, not an ion)

Number of Neutrons

Mass number – Number of protons

Ions

Charged particles

Complete Atomic Symbol

Example: 26=atomic number 56 protons 56 electrons 30 neutrons

Isotopes

Atoms of an element in which the number of the neutrons vary.

How is atomic mass standardized?

By dividing the actual mass by 1/12 of the mass of a single carbon-12 atom. The units on the relative mass are atomic mass units or (amu).

Average Atomic Mass

• dependent on the number of isotopes present • dependent on the relative abundance of each isotope • dependent on the atomic mass of each isotope AAM = Σ (mass of isotope)(abundance of isotope) Σ=sum

Cl has two isotopes

^35 Cl= 75.78% ^37 Cl= 24.22% * 35 and 37 are the atomic mass of than element AAM= (0.7578)(35) + (0.2422)(37) = 35.48

Group (Family)

Columns

Period

Rows

Which two elements are liquid at room temperature?

Mercury and Bromine

Alkali Metals

Group 1A (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) They are all base formers.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group 2A (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) Form bases. All found naturally on the earth.

Chalcogens

Group 6A. Oxygen family. Greek for "born from Copper". (O, S, Se, Te, Po)

Halogens

Group 7A. "Salt forming". (F, Cl, Br, I, At)

Noble Gases

Group 8A. (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)

Transition Elements

Group 3B-2B x Period 4-6

Bromine is a…

Halogen

Ionic Compounds

Composed of metals and nonmetals.

Molecular Compounds

Composed of only nonmetals.

Ionic or molecular?
H20

Molecular

Ionic or molecular?
NaCl

Ionic

Ionic or molecular?
HCl

Molecular

Ionic or Molecular?
C6H12O6 (glucose)

Molecular

Ionic or Molecular?
FeCl3

Ionic

Molecular Formula

Provides the elements present in the compound and the actual number of atoms of each element in the compound. Ex: H2O and C6H12O6

Empirical Formula

Provides the elements present in the compound and the relative number of atoms of each element in the compound. This is the reduced form. Ex: CH2O. There are twice as many H atoms as C atoms; twice as many H atoms as O atoms; equal numbers of C and O atoms.

Structural Formula

Provides the elements present in the compound, the actual number of atoms of each element in the compound, and the connectivity of the atoms.

Mono

1 atom

Di

2 atom

Tri

3 atom

Tetra

4 atom

Penta

5 atom

Hexa

6 atom

Hepta

7 atom

Octa

8 atom

Nona

9 atom

Deca

10 atom

Cations

Positively charged ions; have more protons than electrons.

Anions

Negatively charged ions; have more electrons than protons.

Use prefixes to describe the number of _______ of each element present in the compound.

atoms

Do not use mono- for the _________ element in the compound.

first

Use the -ide ending if the compound is __________.

binary

If the metal in the compound of a known charge is in Group1, Group 2, or if it is aluminum, then…

Name the metal and then the nonmetal. Use the -ide ending if the compound is binary. Use the appropriate ending if the compound has a polyatomic anion.

If the metal in the compound if NOT of a known charge from Group 1, Group 2, or if it is aluminum, then…

Name the metal. Designate the charge on the metal ion by putting the charge in Roman numerals in parenthesis. Name the nonmetal. Use the -ide ending if the compound is binary. Use the appropriate ending if the compound has a polyatomic anion.

Polyatomic Cations

NH4+ (ammonium); acts a lot like a metal

Acetate

Azide

Cyanide

Hydroxide

Permanganate

Thiocyanate

Dichromate

Peroxide

Chlorate

Nitrate

Carbonate

Chromate

Sulfate

Phosphate

Removing/adding one oxygen from/to chlorate

ClO4- = Perchlorate ClO3- = Chlorate ClO2- = Chlorite ClO- = Hypochlorite

Na+,Cl-

NaCl

Fe3+,Br-

FeSO4

Mg2+,N3-

Mg3N2

True or False? Transition metals get the roman numerals.

True.

FeSO4

iron (II) sulfate

Name this compound: SO2

Sulfur dioxide

Name this compound: SO3

Sulfur trioxide

Give the systematic name of this compound:
CuI (s)

Copper(I) Iodide

Give the systematic name of this compound:
Fe2O3 (s)

Iron (III) Oxide

Give the systematic name of this compound:
CoF2 (s)

Cobalt (II) Fluoride

Give the systematic name of this compound:
FeO (s)

Iron (II) Oxide

What is the formula for this ionic compound?
copper(I) bromide

CuBr

What is the formula for this compound?
copper(II) bromide

CuBr2

What is the formula for this compound?
iron(III) bromide

FeBr3

What is the formula for this compound?
lead(IV) bromide

PbBr4

What is the formula for this compound?
copper(I) oxide

Cu2O

What is the formula for this compound?
copper(II) oxide

CuO

What is the formula for this compound?
iron (III) oxide

Fe2O3

What is the formula for this compound?
lead (IV) oxide

PbO2

What is the chemical formula for sodium sulfite?

Na2SO3

What is the chemical formula for potassium phosphate?

K3PO4

What is the chemical formula for silver sulfate?

Ag2SO4

What is the chemical formula for ammonium nitrate?

NH4NO3

What is the chemical formula for barium phosphate?

Ba3(PO4)2

What is the chemical formula for sodium oxide?

Na2O

What are the charges for Mg and N in the compound Mg3N2? Name the compound.

Mg: +2 N: -3 Magnesium nitride

What are the charges for Al and S in the compound Al2S3? Name the compound.

Al: +3 S: -2 Aluminum sulfide

What are the charges for Li and O in the compound Li2O? Name the compound.

Li: +1 O: -2 Lithium oxide

What are the charges for Ca and S in the compound CaS? Name the compound.

Ca: +2 S: -2 Calcium sulfide

A potassium atom loses how many electrons for form a +1 ion?

one

A sulfur atom gains two electrons to form an ion of what charge?

-2

What is the charge of the most common ion in F?

-1

What is the charge of the most common ion in Na?

+1

What is the charge of the most common ion in S?

-2

What is the charge of the most common ion in Al?

+3

Are MgO, NaI, and NH4Cl molecular or ionic compounds?

ionic

In 1911, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden (working under Ernest Rutherford) conducted an experiment involving alpha particles and gold foil that led to the discovery of the nucleus in atoms. What does the nucleus of an atom accounts for?

Most of the atom’s mass but very little of its size.

How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are there in a neutral atom of iodine-131?

protons: 53 neutrons: 78 electrons: 53

How many protons are in an ion with 10 electrons and a -1 charge?

9 protons

How many total electrons are in a Cu2+ ion? (Copper has an atomic number of 29)

27 electrons.

What is the charge on a hypothetical ion with 85 protons and 82 electrons?

+3

Give the nuclear symbol for the isotope of gallium, Ga, that contains 40 neutrons per atom.

71 31 Ga

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