Chemical Pathways 9-1 Biology

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What is a calorie?

the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius

How many calories make up 1 Calorie

1,000 calories = C

Cellular respiration begins with a pathway called—–


Glycolysis releases a great amount of energy.

False- Glycolysis releases only a small amount of energy.

What is cellular respiration?

The process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.

What is the equation for cellular respiration?

The Chemical formula is 6O₂ + C₆H₁₂O₆ → 6CO₂ + 6H₂O + Energy

What would be the problem if cellular respiration took place in just one step?

All of the energy from glucose would be released at once, and most of it would be lost in the form of light and heat.

Three Main Stages of Cellular respiration

Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain

Where does glycolysis take place?

In the Cytoplasm

Where do the Krebs cycle and electron transport take place?

In the Mitochondria

What is Glycolysis?

The process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound.

How does the cell get Glycolysis going?

The cell needs to put in a little energy to get things going.

If the cell uses 2ATP molecules at the beginning of glycolysis, how does it end up with a net gain of 2 ATP molecules?

The cell puts 2 ATP molecues into its "account" to get glycolysis going, when glycolysis is complete, 4 ATP molecules have been produces. Thus a 2 net gain of ATP molecules.

What is NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

What is the function of NAD+ in glycolysis?

NAD⁺ is an electron carrier that accepts a pair of high energy electrons. NAD⁺ helps to pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell.

Why can glycolysis supply energy to cells when oxygen is not available?

Glycolysis does not require oxygen. Glycolysis can supply chemical energy to cells when oxygen is not available.

What problem does a cell have when it generates large amounts of ATP from glycolysis?

The problem is that all of the cell’s available NAD⁺ molecules are filled up with electrons. Without NAD⁺, the cell cannot keep glycolysis going, and ATP production stops.

What is fermentation?

Releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen.

How does fermentation allow glycolysis to continue?

by converting NADH back into the electron carrier NAD⁺, glycolysis will continue to produce a steady supply of ATP

Because fermentation does not require oxygen, it is said to be ________.


What are the two main types of fermentation?

1. Alcoholic fermentation 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation

What organisms use alcoholic fermentation?

Yeast and a few microorganisms

What is the equation for alcoholic fermentation after glycolysis?

pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO₂ + NAD⁺

What happens to the small amount of alcohol produced in alcoholic fermentation during the baking of bread?

it evaporates

What does lactic acid fermentation convert into lactic acid?

pyruvic acid

What is the equation for lactic acid fermentation after glycolysis?

pyruvic acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD⁺

During rapid exercise, how do you muscle cells produce ATP?

The muscle cells produce ATP by lactic acid fermentation.

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