Chem ch 10-11

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according to the kinetic molecular theory, particles of matter

are in constant motion

according to the kinetic molecular theory, gases condense into liquids because of

forces between molecules

the kinetic molecular theory explains the behavior of

solids, liquids, and gases

an ideal gas is a hypothetical gas

that conforms to all of the assumptions of the kinetic theory

according to the kinetic molecular theory, which is the most significant difference between gases and liquids?

the distance between the particles

according to the kinetic molecular theory, particles of an ideal gas

neither attract or repel each other but collide

what determines the average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas?

temperature

example of gas diffusion

the odor of perfume spreading throughout a room

the density of a subject undergoes the greatest change when the substance changes from a

liquid to gas

according to the kinetic-molecular theory, how does a gas expand?

its particles move greater distances apart

diffusion between two gases occurs most rapidly if the gases are at

high temperature and the molecules are small

example of effusion

air slowly escaping from a pinhole in a tire

why does the air pressure inside the tires of a car increase when the car is driven?

the air particles inside the tire increase their speed because their temperature rise

two gases with unequal molar masses are injected into opposite ends of a long tube at the same time and allowed to diffuse toward the center. they should begin to mix

closer to the end that holds the heavier gas

the compressibility of a liquid is generally

less than that of a gas

the particles in a liquid are usually

closer together and lower in energy than those in a gas

which term best describes the process by which particles escape from the surface of a non boiling liquid and enter the gas state

evaporation

which of the following causes particles in a liquid to escape into a gas state

high kinetic energy

particles within a solid

vibrate about fixed positions

forces holding particles together are strongest in a

solid

the energy of the particles in a solid is

lower than the energy of the particles in liquids and gases

in general, most substances are

most dense in the solid state

the rate of diffusion in solids is very low because the

particles are not free to move about

which of the following properties do solids share with liquids

definite volume

which causes the high density of solids

the particles are packed closely together

the difference between crystalline and amorphous solids is determined by

amount of order in particle arrangement

compared with a crystalline solid, the particles in an amorphous solid

occur in a random pattern

what material is an amorphous solid

glass

if the rate of evaporation from the surface of a liquid exeeds the rate of condensation

the concentration of the vapor is increasing

molecules at the surface of a liquid can enter the vapor phase only if

their energy is high enough to overcome the attractive forces in the liquid

when does the concentration of a vapor decrease

when the rate of condensation exceeds the rate of evaporation

at its triple point, water can

exist in equilibrium in three different phases

above the critical temperature, a substance

cannot exist in the liquid state

what is the critical pressure?

the lowest pressure under which a substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature

whenever a liquid changes to a vapor

it absorbs energy from its surroundings

what is the process of a substance changing from a solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid phase?

sublimation

at pressures greater than 1 atm, water will boil at

a higher temperature than 100*C

why would a camper near the top of mt everest find that water boils at less than 100*C?

there is less atmospheric pressure than at sea level.

during boiling, the temperature of a liquid

remains constant

how does the molar enthalpy of fusion of ice compare with the molar enthalpy of fusion of other solids?

it is relatively large

pressure is the force per unit

surface area

if force is held constant as surface area decreases,

pressure increases

which instrument measures atmospheric pressure?

barometer

standard pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of mercury exactly

760 mm high

at constant temperature and pressure, gas volume is directly proportional to the

number of moles of gas

the expression V=kn is a statement of

Avogadro’s law

in the expression V=kn, n represents

the number of moles of gas

the standard molar volume of a gas at STP is

22.4 L

when pressure, volume, and temperature are known, the ideal gas law can be used to calculate

number of moles

according to Graham’s law, the rates of effusion of two gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to

the square roots of their molar masses

according to Graham’s law, two gases at the same temperature and pressure will have different rates of effusion because they have different

molar masses

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