chem 100 chap 2 study guide

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A biological cell is best described as___


Gravity on the moon is only 1/6 as strong as gravity on the earth. What is the MASS of a 10 kg object on the moon and on the earth?

The mass of a 10 kg object anywhere is 10 kg.

How would you describe the volume of the following object?


How did Lavoisier define an element?

a material that can’t be broken down into simpler components

When water freezes, it expands. What does this say about the density of ice compared with the density of water?

Ice is less dense than water because it has more volume for the same mass.

What is the difference between mass and weight?

Weight is the observed effect of gravity on mass.

Which of the following represents the largest quantity of mass?

24 kilograms

Chemistry is the study of

The submicroscopic, microscopic, and macroscopic, because almost everything is made of atoms and molecules.

What happens to the density of a gas as the gas is compressed into a smaller volume?

the density increases

On planet Earth, which weighs more: a pound of gold or a kilogram of gold?

A kilogram of gold weighs more.

Why is the concept of weight more complicated than is the concept of mass?

Weight changes based on gravitational force, whereas mass is constant.

According to this video lesson, what is volume?

a given amount of space

rank the following in order of increasing volume

Bacterium, Virus, Water Molecule

The following three boxes represent the number of submicroscopic particles within a given volume of a particular substance at different temperatures. Which box represents the greatest density? Which box represents the greatest temperature?

A&C (solid and gas)

Which of the following is not a measurement of volume?

5.5 milligrams 33 square meters (because of the units)

Which of the following does not describe volume?

the weight of a given object the number of apples in the bag

Density is a measure of what?

an object’s mass divided by its volume

Which of the following units of measurement could be used to describe density?

pound per liquid ounce grams per milliliter kilograms per liter

If the density of mercury is 13.6 g/mL and the density of lead is 11.3 g/mL, which has the larger volume: 1 g of mercury or 1 g of lead?


Why is the value of pi the same NO MATTER the size of the circle?

As the circumference gets bigger, so does the diameter.

What happens to the density of the fluid within a thermometer as the thermometer registers a higher temperature?

The density decreases

Why is the density of a material the same NO MATTER the size of the material?

As the mass of a material gets bigger, so does the volume it occupies.

Based on the Law of Mass Conservation, Lavoisier hypothesized that ________.

an element is made of a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down into anything else

Hardwoods reproduce using flowers and have broad leaves, such as MANGO, ELM, MAPLE

mango, elm, maple

evergreen are plants that maintain their leaves in all seasons and include trees such as PINE, CEDAR, MANGO


Deciduous trees lose their leaves seasonally and include trees such as MAPLE and ELM


Conifer leaves are generally thin and needle-like, while seeds are contained in cones. Conifers include PINE and CEDAE


Rank the following in order of increasing molecular kinetic energy?
cup full of boiling water
swimming pool full of boiling water
block of ice in tree

Block of ice in tree < cup full of boiling water < swimming pool full of boiling water

What principle is a typical thermometer based upon?

that a liquid expands as it is heated to higher temperatures

why does the Fahrenheit have 212 degrees as the boiling point of water?

originally, 100 Fahrenheit was the temperature of the human body, and water boils 112 hotter.

what two liquid are commonly used to make a thermometer

mercury and colored alcohol

Heat is a measure of the _______.

flow of energy between two substances

Which of the following best describes temperature?

Temperature is the measure of the average amount of kinetic energy in a substance.

Which of the following is an example of something best described as having kinetic energy?
a ball falling through the air
a log of wood in a fireplace that has not been lit
a boulder at the bottom of a cliff
a dart stuck into a dart board
a candy bar with 230 kilocalories

a ball falling through the air

Rank the following in order of increasing force of attraction among its submicroscopic particles:
water, air, sugar

sugar > water > air

Which of the following is something that is best described as having potential energy?

food. section 2.5–food contains mostly potential energy (contained within its chemical bonds); the other choices involve a great deal of motion and hence would be described as having more kinetic energy.

Does a car burn more gasoline when its lights are turned on? Defend your answer.

Yes, a car burns more gasoline when its lights are on. Lights and other electric devices are run off the battery, which "runs down" the battery. The energy used to recharge the battery ultimately comes from the chemical potential energy from the gasoline.

Which has stronger attractions among its submicroscopic particles: a solid at 25° C or a gas at 25° C? Explain.

A solid has stronger attractions than a gas, assuming all else (including temperature) is equal. If the gas had stronger attractions, its particles would be in contact with each other. It’s not just a more-massive/less-massive thing; although iodine (I2, molecular mass 254) is a solid at -5° C while nitrogen (N2, molecular mass 28) is a gas, water (H2O, molecular mass 18) is also a solid at -5° C. Obviously there must be more going on in water than just the mass…


The molecules are moving quickly and are widely spaced.


a constant volume but its shape is not defined

Which would have the most kinetic energy? The same mass of ________.

a hot gas

Would you or the gas company gain by having gas warmed before it passed through your gas meter?

the gas company. they fill the tank to a predetermined pressure,PSI. If the gas is warm it has greater volume and pressure. When the gas cools and contracts the PSI is lower in the tank. They charge you according to how much pressure has been lost in the tank.


wood burning in a fireplace makes the room warmer. ice cream while melting in ones mouth. tires become warm after burnout on a race track. geothermal hot springs involve warm rocks contracting cooler water.


a very cold day in winter. freezing point of water. a 70 degrees iron rod.

Why do aerosol cans explode if heated?

An increase in temperature will increase the pressure inside the aerosol can. When the pressure inside the can exceeds the pressure limit of the can, it explodes

The value of absolute zero can be most easily inferred from _______.

Charles’s Law

What four interrelated quantities can be used to describe the properties of a gas?

pressure, temperature, number of molecules, and volume

You are playing with a helium balloon on a typically warm California day. Suddenly, the Celsius temperature doubles. Which of the following is true?

The volume of the balloon will increase.

Would you or the gas company gain by having gas warmed before it passed through your gas meter?

The gas company benefits.

What happens to the size of the bubbles of boiling water as they rise to the surface?

The bubbles of boiling water expand to larger volumes as they rise to the surface. by Boyle’s Law.

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