Chapters 11, 12, & 13

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is more aggressive than modeling, more direct than casting, & is a subtractive process

The carving method

The Indian sculpture "Durga Fighting the Buffalo Demon" is an example of:

a high-relief sculpture

Four basic methods for making a sculpture are:

modeling, casting, carving, and assembling

The additive process of sculpture includes:

assembling and modeling

is not meant to be viewed in the round, not finished on all sides and often used to decorate architecture

relief sculpture

In sculpture, the most popular modeling material is:


Fired clay is sometimes called:

terra cotta

A process that dates back to the 3rd-millennium B.C.E.


Casting is known as:

a replacement method

Sculptors often create a "sketch" to test ideas before proceeding to their medium of choice by using


a sculptural process of bringing together individual pieces, segments, or objects to form a sculpture


A high-relief sculpture is different than low-relief sculpture in that:

high-relief projects boldly from the background and elements of high-relief may be in the round, unattached to the background

Contrapposto (meaning counter poise or counterbalance) was developed as a pose for sculptures of the human figure, by…

Ancient Greeks

intended to be temporary and transitory, as self-financing works, as works that have as the subject matter the entire process of the project and to bring together a temporary community of people focused on a particular idea

The artworks of Christo and Jeanne-Claude are

Serpent Mound and "Spiral Jetty" are known as…


Carved in a broad style of plain surfaces and subtle modeling, Colossal Head is thought to represent…

Olmec rulers

No definite line separates the

art object from the craft object

Wood is not very durable because:

cold and heat distort it, water rots it, and insects can eat it away

The principle ingredient of glass is:


Although the chemical composition of ______ changes when exposed to extreme heat, _______ doesn’t change chemically when its pliability is altered by heat

clay / glass

The most common way to _______ a hollow glass vessel is by blowing


The Arts and Crafts movement came about as a reaction to the…

Industrial Revolution

Islamic cultures have focused a great deal of aesthetic attention on:

carpets and rugs

Wood is a popular craft material because it is abundant and relatively

easy to work

Lacquer is made from

the sap of a tree

The Ancient Olmecs of Mesoamerica prized __________ for its translucence, which they associated with rainwater.


Forging is when metal is shaped by

hammer blows

The chair of Hetepheres was well preserved by Egypt’s ________ climate.

dry, desert

Using a steel framework with masonry sheathing, the ________, designed by Louis Sullivan, is thought by many to be the first genuinely modern building.

Wainwright Building

Two factors that decide the success of any structural system are:

weight and tensile strength

Stacking and piling is another term for:

arch and vault

The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian styles are known as the:

Greek orders

The Byodo-in, in Kyoto, Japan is an elegant example of:

post and lintel architecture

The ability of a material to span horizontal distances with a minimum of support is called:

tensile strength

Built for the World’s Fair in 1889, the ________ was an early experiment in iron construction.

Eiffel Tower

Most famous for his design of the geodesic dome:

Buckminster Fuller

Fallingwater (the Kaufmann House in Mill Run, Pennsylvania) is a prime example of the "organic" architecture of

Frank Lloyd Wright

A _______ is a horizontal form supported at only one end, Frank Lloyd Wright was among one of the first architects to use the ________ for domestic architecture


_______ rotated 360 degrees on its axis is called a dome.

An arch

The two basic families of structural systems in architecture are:

the shell and the skeleton and skin.

According to the author, a ________ is actually an arch extended in depth, as if there are "many arches placed flush one behind the other."

barrel vault

A _________ buttress is an arched exterior support system found on Gothic Cathedrals.


The Taj Mahal was built by the 17th-century Moslem emperor as a ________ for his wife.


The round opening in the dome of the Pantheon is called a(n)


The skeleton-and-skin structure, the Crystal Palace, was designed by ___________ in 1851.

Joseph Paxton

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