Chapters 1-8

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The first French explorations of the New World:

were intended to locate the Northwest Passage.

A significant difference between the Vikings and Columbus was that:

Columbus received much more publicity for his voyages.

People from ________ were most likely to go to other European countries or rival colonies before settling in one of their own ________ colonies.

France; French

The Zuni, Hopi, and their earlier ancestors were dependent on canals and irrigation for farming.


Which indigenous group formed the Great League of Peace?


Exploring the North American interior in the 1500s, ________ was the first European to encounter the immense herds of buffalo that roamed the Great Plains.

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado

Where did mound-building tribes flourish?

In the Ohio River Valley.

After exploring the Atlantic Coast in the late sixteenth century, an Englishman writes in his journal about untouched wilderness. What could this description mean to a European?

The Native Americans never used this area, so the land now belonged to the English.

A substantial difference between the Spanish colonies in Mexico and Santa Fe was that:

Mexico had more Spanish settlers because of gold.

The Spanish empire in America:

was, unlike the French and English New World empires, a mostly urban civilization.

The Spanish were the first to sail down the western coast of Africa, establishing trading posts called factories.


Patroonship in New Netherland:

meant that shareholders received large estates for transporting tenants for agricultural labor.

The Black Legend described:

Spain as a uniquely brutal colonizer.

The Dutch and French were unaware of each other’s settlements in North America.


The first permanent European settlement in the Southwest, established in 1610, was:

Santa Fe.

The catastrophic decline in the native populations of Spanish America was mostly due to the fact that they were not immune to European diseases.


In 1776, Adam Smith observed what fact about the Western Hemisphere?

Indians had suffered great misfortunes.

In Europe on the eve of colonization, one conception of freedom, called "Christian liberty,"


As early as 1615, the ________ people of present-day southern Ontario and upper New York State forged a trading alliance with the French, and many of them converted to Catholicism.


Inspired by tales of golden cities, the Spanish mounted explorations of the present-day Southwest in the United States.


Acoma was an Indian city in present-day ________ that the Spanish destroyed.

New Mexico

Portuguese trading posts along the western coast of Africa were called factories because:

the merchants were known as factors.

The actions of Bartolomé de las Casas can best be described in modern-day terminology as that of a(n):


Which of the following statements about Spanish America is true?

Over time, Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture—part Spanish, part Indian, and, in some areas, part African.

The mound builders were a sophisticated ancient peoples living in the American Southwest.


Most, although not all, Indian societies were matrilineal.


Native American religious ceremonies:

were related to the Native American belief that sacred spirits could be found in living and inanimate things.

African society did not practice slavery before Europeans came.


In New Netherland, the Dutch were intolerant of diverse religious practices and issued an edict that all had to convert to the Dutch Reformed Church.


When Europeans arrived, many Native Americans:

tried to use them to enhance their standing with other Native Americans.

Which one of the following statements is true of Spanish emigrants to the New World?

Many of the early arrivals came to direct Native American labor.

The actions of the Pueblo Indians at Santa Fe in 1680 can best be described as:

being assertive.

Under English law, women held many legal rights and privileges.


As governor of New Netherland, Petrus Stuyvesant:

refused the open practice of religion by Quakers and Lutherans.

Agriculture did not come to the American continents in Mexico and Peru until approximately one thousand years ago.


Henry Hudson:

hoped to find the Northwest Passage to Asia.

In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded:


An example of a freedom that most Native Americans would hold in high esteem would be:

the chance to work with other tribe members to build a house.

In their relations with Native Americans, the Dutch:

concentrated more on economics than religious conversion.

The French established the first permanent European settlement in what would become New York City.


In colonial America, what was an example of a borderlands area?

The Great Lakes.

The Columbian Exchange was:

the transatlantic flow of plants, animals, and germs that began after Christopher Columbus reached the New World.

Pre-Columbian Native Americans lacked metal tools:

so Europeans felt they were superior.

When European clergy read to Native Americans from the Bible about God creating the world in six days, was there anything relatable for Native Americans?

Many Native Americans concurred with the idea of a single supreme being creating the world.

Like the Spanish, the French often intermarried with the Indians, resulting in mixed-race children.


By 1550, the Spanish empire in the New World exceeded the ancient Roman Empire in size.


Where did the first peoples to the Americas come from?


How did French involvement in the fur trade change life for Native Americans?

The French were willing to accept Native Americans into colonial society.

Portuguese seafarers initially hoped to locate African gold.


The Spanish reconquista required that all Muslims and Jews convert to Catholicism or leave Spain immediately.


What geographic error did Columbus make?

He grossly underestimated the size of the earth.

A commonality shared between the Asians who crossed the Bering Strait and the Europeans who crossed the Atlantic Ocean thousands of years later was:

the search for food items.

Zheng He’s voyages sparked Chinese interest in directly trading with Europe.


Columbus established the first permanent settlement on Hispaniola in 1502.


The New Laws of 1542:

stated that Indians would no longer be enslaved in Spanish possessions.

Columbus first sailed to what is now Venezuela.


Which of the following is true of Spain’s explorations of the New World?

Florida was the first region in the present-day continental United States that Spain colonized.

Europeans arrived in North America and South America with the attitude that their culture was superior to the various indigenous groups.


In approximately 7000 BCE, agriculture developed in the Americas in:

Mexico and Peru.

The Spanish aim was to exterminate or remove the Indians from the New World.


In the fifteenth century, a big impetus for European exploration was:

a sea route to Asia to obtain luxury goods.

What was Virginia’s "gold," which ensured its survival and prosperity?


The Puritans believed that male authority in the household was:

to be unquestioned.

The 104 settlers who remained in Virginia after the ships that brought them from England returned home:

were all men, reflecting the Virginia Company’s interest in searching for gold as opposed to building a functioning society.

Why did King Henry VIII break from the Catholic Church?

He wanted a divorce, and the Pope refused to grant it.

The Virginia Company accomplished its goals for the shareholders and for its settlers.


During the reign of ________, the English government turned its attention to North America by granting charters to Humphrey Gilbert and Walter Raleigh for the establishment of colonies there.

Elizabeth I

Just as the reconquest of Spain from the Moors established patterns that would be repeated in Spanish New World colonization, the methods used in which of the following countries anticipated policies England would undertake in America?


In early seventeenth-century Massachusetts, freeman status was granted to adult males who:

were landowning church members.

When comparing English colonies to Spanish ones:

England sent more people to the Americas in the seventeenth century.

The Mayflower Compact established:

a civil government for Plymouth Colony.

Puritans believed that the Church of England was not in need of reform.


Which of the following best describes how the English viewed Native American ties to the land?

Although they felt the natives had no claim since they did not cultivate or improve the land, the English usually bought their land, albeit through treaties they forced on Indians.

Early settlers of Jamestown preferred gold to farming.


Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the impact on Maryland of seventeenth-century England’s Protestant-Catholic conflict?

The English government temporarily repealed Calvert’s ownership of Maryland and the colony’s policies of religious toleration.

Who would most admire today’s America with its constitutional protections of equal rights for all?


Oliver Cromwell’s Parliament passed the first Navigation Act, aimed to wrest control of world trade from the Dutch.


In the 1650s, who pushed England toward a policy of expanding territory and commercialism?

Oliver Cromwell

What benefited the Pilgrims when they landed at Plymouth?

Native Americans, decimated by disease, had left behind cleared fields for farming.

During the seventeenth century, indentured servants:

had a great deal of trouble acquiring land.

As the sixteenth century progressed in New England, the growing commerce:

brought religious and economic values into conflict.

For Native Americans along the Atlantic Coast, disease and:

environmental factors dramatically altered their way of life.

Believing that tobacco was harmful to one’s health, King James I warned against its use.


Religious dissension in England during the first half of the seventeenth century resulted in:

Civil War

In England, the idea of working for wages:

was associated with servility and the loss of liberty.

Who was most likely to build the best relationships with the Native Americans?


Which colony adopted the Act concerning Religion in 1649, which institutionalized the principle of religious toleration?


In what way was Puritan church membership a restrictive status?

Full membership required demonstrating that one had experienced divine grace.

When Roger Williams established the colony of Rhode Island:

he made sure that it was more democratic than Massachusetts Bay.

The romance between Pocahontas and John Smith led to their marrying in England, where she then died.


Which of the following lists these colonies in the proper chronological order by the dates they were founded, from the earliest to the latest?

Jamestown, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island.

The Virginia Company can be called a failure primarily because:

it ultimately did not make money.

Why did Puritans decide to emigrate from England in the late 1620s and 1630s?

The Church of England was firing their ministers and censoring their writings.

To solidify control of Virginia, what did the English do?

They put the colony under the control of the crown.

Indians mostly traded furs and animal skins for European goods.


It can be argued that conflict between the English settlers and local Indians in Virginia became inevitable when:

the Native Americans realized that England wanted to establish a permanent and constantly expanding colony, not just a trading post.

How did Pocahontas play a key role in Jamestown society?

She served as an intermediary between Powhatan and English leaders.

In regard to conflicts, which European power was most thorough at removing Indians from the land?


Even Jewish people enjoyed religious freedom under Maryland’s Act concerning Religion.


Why did many women in Virginia not start a family until their mid-twenties?

Women mostly came to Virginia as indentured servants.

Maryland was established as a refuge for which group?


In the seventeenth century, New England’s economy:

centered on family farms and also involved the export of fish and timber.

A central element in the definition of English liberty was:

the right to a trial by jury.

Growing connections with Europeans lessened warfare between Indian tribes.


The English increasingly viewed America as a land where a man could control his own labor and thus gain independence.


In what way was Puritan church membership a restrictive status?

Full membership required demonstrating that one had experienced divine grace.


mounted a surprise attack against Plymouth in the 1620s.

Puritans viewed individual and personal freedom as:

dangerous to social harmony and community stability.

Like the first Jamestown settlers, the settlers of Massachusetts were mostly families.


A Discourse concerning Western Planting argued that English settlement of North America would strike a blow against Spain.


As leader of the Jamestown Colony, John Smith:

used rigorous military discipline to hold the colony together.

The Pilgrims intended to set sail for Cape Cod in 1620.


How did most Puritans view the separation of church and state?

They allowed church and state to be interconnected by requiring each town to establish a church and levy a tax to support the minister.

Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the impact on Maryland of seventeenth-century England’s Protestant-Catholic conflict?

The English government temporarily repealed Calvert’s ownership of Maryland and the colony’s policies of religious toleration.

Women in the early Virginia colony consisted of about half the white population.


How did indentured servants display a fondness for freedom?

Some of them ran away or were disobedient to their masters.

The headright system led to fewer people from England coming to Virginia.


Most seventeenth-century migrants to North America from England:

were lower-class men

How did Richard Hakluyt explain his claim that there was a connection between freedom and colonization? .

English colonization would save the New World from Spanish tyranny.

Which of the following is true of the Puritans’ dealings with Quakers?

Their officials in Massachusetts punished Quakers financially and physically, even hanging several of them.

The Virginia House of Burgesses:

was created as part of the Virginia Company’s effort to encourage the colony’s survival.

In Puritan marriages:

reciprocal affection and companionship were the ideal.

For most New Englanders, Indians represented:


Anne Hutchinson:

opposed Puritan ministers who distinguished saints from the damned through church attendance and moral behavior rather than through focusing on an inner state of grace.

What did Mary Rowlandson’s book demonstrate?

The strong pull of being part of the Puritan society

Intermarriage between English colonists and Native Americans in Virginia: .

was very rare before being outlawed by the Virginia legislature in 1691

Why did Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh fail in their attempts to colonize the New World? .

The government provided insufficient financial support.

Maryland’s founder, Cecilius Calvert:

wanted Maryland to be like a feudal domain, with power limited for ordinary people.

At the heart of the English Civil War was:

a question of sovereignty in who would make decisions for the government.

The Massachusetts General Court:

reflected the Puritans’ desire to govern the colony without outside interference.

In British America, unlike other New World empires, Indians performed most of the labor in the colonies.


In regard to geography, English colonies:

were in colder climates than Spanish colonies.

Religious toleration violated the Puritan understanding of moral liberty.

Who received most of the profits from trade between Native Americans and colonists?

Colonial and European merchants.

Jamestown was originally settled only by men.


Maryland was similar to Virginia in that:

tobacco proved crucial to its economy and society.

The English Civil War was a bloodless war that restored Catholicism to England.


In the 1640s, leaders of the House of Commons:

accused the king of imposing taxes without parliamentary consent.

The Half-Way Covenant of 1662:

did not require evidence of conversion to grant a kind of church membership.

As a result of British landowners evicting peasants from their lands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries:

efforts were made to persuade or even force those who had been evicted to settle in the New World, thereby easing the British population crisis.

Of the half million people who left England between 1607 and 1700, which area in the Western Hemisphere received the most settlers?

West Indies.

Which of the following statements is true of Queen Mary of England, who reigned from 1553 to 1558?

She temporarily restored Catholicism as the state religion of England.

When comparing the Chesapeake colonies to the New England settlements:

there were more indentured servants in the Chesapeake region.

Anne hutchinson’s trial demonstrated that:

church elders lacked tolerance.

Which English group did the most to reshape Native American society and culture in the seventeenth century?

Settlers farming the land.

________ described best the actions of the Puritan leaders in Massachusetts Bay.


Why was the death rate in early Jamestown incredibly high?

It lay beside a malarial swamp.

In contrast to the Chesapeake region, the population in New England:

did not stress family-based activities.

To solidify control of Virginia, what did the English do?

They put the colony under the control of the crown.

Which of the following fits the description of a person most likely to have been accused of witchcraft in seventeenth-century New England?

a woman beyond childbearing age who was outspoken, economically independent, or estranged from her husband

What was the Covenant Chain?

An alliance made by the governor of New York and the Iroquois Confederacy.

In "Voices of Freedom," the writer of "Memorial against Non-English Immigration" might find some common ground with the Swiss-German who wrote a letter home to his family in 1769. What could they have in common?

If the Swiss-German was Protestant, he might share a fear of Catholicism with the other writer.

The German migration to the English colonies:

was to frontier areas as farmers.

If Massachusetts Bay’s Jonathan Winthrop had been present at the start of the Pennsylvania colony, he would have:

praised the idea of religion serving as a model for the colony.

What inspired the 1715 uprising by the Yamasee and Creek peoples against English colonists in Carolina?

High debts incurred by the Yamasee and Creek in trade with the English settlers.

The English Bill of Rights of 1689:

Listed parliamentary powers over such individual rights as trial by jury.

In its early years, Carolina was the "colony of a colony" because its original settlers included many:

landless sons of wealthy planters in Barbados.

Captain Jacob Leisler, the head of the rebel militia that took control of New York in 1689:

was overthrown and killed in so grisly a manner that the rivalry between his friends and foes polarized New York politics for years.

Which of the following is true of slave resistance in the colonial period?

Some slaves were the offspring of white traders and therefore knew enough English to turn to the legal system, at least until Virginia lawmakers prevented them from doing so.

Which colony had its charter revoked because of mismanagement, according to King William?


The first English Navigation Act, adopted during the rule of Oliver Cromwell:

aimed to wrest control of world trade from the Dutch.

The Scottish and Scotch-Irish immigrants to the colonies:

were often physicians, merchants, and teachers

Which of the following was true of poverty in the colonial period?

Limited supplies of land, especially for inheritance, contributed to poverty.

William Penn believed in equality and liberty, but not for Indians or blacks.


Many perceived Pennsylvania to be "the best poor man’s country."


English and Dutch merchants created a well-organized system for "redemptioners." What was this system for?

For carrying indentured German families to America, where they would work off their transportation debt.

Most colonists did not complain about the British regulating trade through the Navigation Acts.


What happened to Jamestown during Bacon’s Rebellion?

It burned to the ground

Who finally ended the Salem witch trials?

The Massachusetts governor

In the eighteenth century, efforts began to stop emigration from England, except that convicts were still sent to bolster the Chesapeake labor force.


The Glorious Revolution in England was bloody and violent.


From 1700 to 1776, who was the largest group of people that came to England’s mainland colonies?


Anglicization meant that the colonial elites rejected all things British


Charleston was the richest city in British North America.


To Quakers, liberty was:

a universal entitlement.

Which of the following is true of slavery?

The English word "slavery" derives from "Slav," reflecting the slave trade in Slavic peoples until the fifteenth century.

As English colonial society became more structured in the eighteenth century, what were the effects on women?

Women’s work became more clearly defined as tied closely to the home.

Slavery developed more slowly in North America than in the English West Indies because:

The high death rate among tobacco worker made it economically unappealing to pay more for a slave likely to die within a short time.

For an eighteenth-century middle-class colonial woman, what would have been the top priority in daily life?

Cooking the family meals.

The immigrant group that was primarily Presbyterian was:


Why did Massachusetts have its charter revoked by Charles II?

Charles did not approve of Massachusetts’s violation of Navigation laws.

According to the economic theory known as mercantilism:

the government should regulate economic activity so as to promote national power.

The ultimate goal for the English in gaining New Amsterdam and New Netherland from the Dutch was to:

control trade.

The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina:

proposed a feudal society in the New World, complete with hereditary nobility.

How did the Dutch lose New Netherland to England?

The Dutch saw New York as being on the periphery of its empire,so they didn’t protect it.

A West African captured and sold into slavery in 1650 most likely ended up in:

The West Indies.

By the end of the seventeenth century, who was most successful at using diplomacy in securing rights to use land?


The Indians entered into the Walking Purchase in good faith, but they were taken advantage of by the Pennsylvania governor.


Some colonial towns would "warn out" victims of poverty, meaning these poor people were expelled from the town.


In seventeenth-century England, the main lines of division focused on:


What historical evidence demonstrates that blacks were being held as slaves for life by the 1640s?

Property registers list white servants with the number of years they were to work, but blacks (with higher valuations) had no terms of service associated with their names.

Rice was Carolina’s major cash crop, leading to a very wealthy elite.


What ironic consequence did William Penn’s generous policies, such as religious toleration and inexpensive land, have?

They contributed to the increasing reliance of Virginia and Maryland on African slave labor.

The freedom William Penn valued the most dealt with the right to worship freely.


According to New England Puritans, witchcraft:

resulted from pacts that women made with the devil to obtain supernatural powers or interfere with natural processes.

Once Massachusetts became a royal colony in 1691:

it was required to abide by the English Act of Toleration, which displeased many Puritan leaders.

Bacon’s Rebellion was caused by a conflict between blacks and whites in Virginia.


How did the colonial elite view their role in society?

It meant the power to rule—the right of those blessed with wealth and prominence to dominate others.

Unlike slavery in America, slavery in Africa:

was more likely to be based in the household than on an agricultural plantation.

Slavery flourished in Brazil and the West Indies in the seventeenth century because of tobacco.


Which of the following best sums up population diversity in colonial English America?

England originally promoted emigration to the colonies as a means of ridding itself of excess population but cut back in the eighteenth century.

According to laws in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake:

free blacks had the right to sue and testify in court.

The Virginia slave code of 1705:

embedded the principle of white supremacy in law.

Bacon’s Rebellion contributed to which of the following in Virginia?

The replacing of indentured servants with African slaves on Virginia’s plantations.

Who in the Pennsylvania colony was eligible to vote?

A majority of the male population.

In an English colony, a person was less likely than someone in Europe to be a landowner and voter.


The Charter of Liberties and Privileges in New York:

reflected in part an effort by the British to exert their influence and control over the Dutch.

Father Junípero Serra established the first mission in California and converted many Indians to Christianity, but his missions also relied on forced Indian labor and brought devastating diseases.


More slave uprisings occurred in the Caribbean than on mainland North America.


Which of these steps was/were most important to the Spanish when establishing their presence in California?

the creation of missions and presidos

Based on earlier conversions to Christianity such as the Pueblo at Santa Fe, how would slaveowners in the British colonies feel about some of their slaves becoming Christian?

The slave owners would disagree with the slave idea of combining traditional African religion with Christianity.

John Peter Zenger’s libel trial:

probably would not have ended in his acquittal if he had attacked someone other than the colonial governor.

The British concept of liberty:

included both formal restraints on authority and a collection of specific rights.

What did Neolin tell his people they must reject?

European technology and material goods

Northern colonial ports in New York and Massachusetts actively participated in the slave trade.


The majority of slaves during the Middle Passage died on the ship transporting them across the Atlantic.


It is estimated that between ________ percent of adult white men could vote in eighteenth-century colonial British America.

50 and 80

Most Britons believed that the king was above the law.


The French and Indian War began because some American colonists felt that:

France was encroaching on land claimed by the Ohio Company.

John Locke believed that slaves could not be considered part of civil society


Religious fundamentalism was on the rise throughout the world in the eighteenth century.


In eighteenth-century Chesapeake, race took on greater importance over time, and whites increasingly considered free blacks dangerous and undesirable.


What was the significance of Ashanti and Dahomey?

These African states became powerful through the slave trade.

Why did the English government support the establishment of the Georgia colony?

The English government wanted Georgia to serve as a buffer between South Carolina and Spain’s Florida.

The participants in South Carolina’s Stono Rebellion:

included some who apparently had been soldiers in Africa.

As the slave society consolidated in the Chesapeake region, what happened to free blacks?

They lost many of their rights

Who drafted the Albany Plan of Union?

Benjamin Franklin

In the early eighteenth century, only one-quarter of the northern urban elite owned at least one slave.


Recent scholarship has suggested that Olaudah Equiano may have been born in the New World rather than in Africa.


What was a potential criticism from slaveowners about the task system?

Slaves would have too much autonomy.

The French in North America:

were greatly outnumbered by the British on the continent.

What would be a good representation of Enlightenment principles?

a botanist who studied nature to uncover why a certain plant kept dying

During the eighteenth century, colonial assemblies:

became more assertive.

The development of rice plantations in South Carolina:

led to a black majority in that colony by the 1730s.

Most slaves in eighteenth-century British America were born in the colonies.


The religious emotionalism of the Great Awakening was confined to the American colonies in the mid-eighteenth century.


In the northern colonies the law did not prohibit blacks from voting but local custom did.


The early South Carolina economy focused on the export of deerskins and furs to England as well as on:

the export of Indian slaves to the Caribbean.

The most famous Great Awakening revivalist minister was:

George Whitefield.

Three distinct types of slavery developed in the thirteen colonies.


What would be an example of John Locke’s views on liberalism?

a person who has the right to choose what church he or she will attend

Which of the following is a true statement about the Atlantic slave trade’s effect in West Africa?

It helped lead to the rise of militarized states in West Africa, whose large armies preyed upon their neighbors in order to capture slaves.

Why were colonial assemblies critical of the Albany Plan of Union?

They felt their respective colonial assemblies would lose power.

What would most likely be the reason why there were few slave rebellions in the original English colonies?

Slaves were outnumbered in most regions.

Pontiac’s Rebellion was an Indian revolt against British rule.


Which of these factors contributed to a lower number of French immigrants to North America?

the feeling that the Americas were meant for exile

Deists shared the ideas of eighteenth-century European Enlightenment thinkers, namely that:

science could uncover God’s laws that governed the natural order.

On the rice plantations of South Carolina and Georgia, the birthrate of slaves was high.


What helped spread knowledge and ideas in eighteenth century colonial cities?

start of more libraries

Property qualifications for holding office:

meant that the landed gentry wielded considerable power in colonial legislatures.

Deists concluded that the best form of religious devotion was to devoutly worship in organized churches.


"Republicanism" in the eighteenth-century Anglo-American political world emphasized the importance of ________ as the essence of liberty.

active participation in public life by property-owning citizens

In the eighteenth century how was freedom of the press viewed?

Governments in both England and the colonies viewed it as dangerous.

Who pioneered an extremely emotional style of preaching?

George Whitefield

Who would southern colonists have seen as the best candidate for serving as the town’s judge?

A wealthy Planter

The transatlantic slave trade was not a vital part of world commerce.


How did colonial politics compare with British politics?

Colonists tended to agree with the British that owning property was related to having the right to vote

Which of the following is true of eighteenth-century slavery in South Carolina and Georgia? .

Plantation slaves enjoyed far more autonomy than they did in other colonies, allowing them to maintain more of their African culture.

Guns made the West African slave kingdoms more powerful. What happened as a result?

Europeans rarely ventured into the interior of West Africa.

The 1741 panic in New York City that led to thirty-four executions was sparked by:

a series of fires.

The idea of liberalism in eighteenth-century British politics:

was compatible with inequalities in wealth and well-being.

Why was slavery less prevalent in the northern colonies?

The small farms of the northern colonies did not need slaves.

Some contemporaries spoke of British America as a "rising empire" that would one day eclipse the mother country in population and wealth.


In the Chesapeake region, slavery:

rapidly became the dominant labor system after 1680.

Which of the following was a consequence of the Seven Years’ War?

strengthened pride among American colonists about being part of the British empire

What did the British acquire from the Netherlands in the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713?

the right to transport slaves from Africa to Spain’s New World colonies

Which of the following was true of Georgia?

Colonists sought self-government to gain the right to introduce slavery.

After what major event did the British government make the colonies bear part of the cost of the empire?

The Seven Years’ War.

Ultimately, what led to the colonies’ victory in the American Revolution?

Washington’s ability to keep an army together.

Although a few were outraged by the Stamp Act, most politically active colonists actually supported it.


Homespun clothing became a symbol of American resistance during the American boycott on British goods.


Both North Carolina and South Carolina had Regulator movements.


The Stamp Act created such a stir in the colonies because:

it was the first direct tax Parliament imposed on the colonies.

John Wilkes was expelled from his seat in Parliament for his scandalous writings about the king; this caused many colonists to rally to his side with the call "Wilkes and Liberty."


Why did colonists object to the Tea Act?

By paying it, they would be acknowledging Great Britain’s right to tax the colonists.

What prevents something like the Intolerable Acts from occurring in the United States today?

The Bill of Rights.

The French played a significant role in the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown.


American colonists widely believed that Britain had no authority to tax the colonists since the colonists had no elected representative in Parliament.


Crispus Attucks:

has been called the first martyr of the American Revolution.

Which of the following was associated with the Intolerable Acts?

The Massachusetts Charter of 1691 was changed to curtail town meetings.

British commanders were never able to consolidate their hold on the South.


Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense as a response to Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence.


In today’s world, more than ________ of the countries have issued declarations of independence.


When the Second Continental Congress created an official army, how did the British respond?

They declared that the colonies were in a state of rebellion.

Which armed group, motivated by deep frustrations with the corruption of North Carolina’s county officials, was defeated by the colony’s militia at the 1771 Battle of Alamance?

The Regulators.

The attack by Massachusetts colonists on the home of lieutenant governor and chief justice Thomas Hutchinson:

led Hutchinson to believe that effective British rule would require the loss of some liberties for the colonists.

Why did George Washington eventually allow African-Americans to serve in the Continental army?

The British started offering freedom to slaves who signed up to fight for their army.

Poor communication between generals contributed to the British defeat at the Battle of Saratoga.


The negotiation of the Treaty of Paris of 1783:

began only after the Battle of Yorktown.

Common Sense sold 150,000 copies, making Thomas Paine wealthy.


The Olive Branch Petition:

was addressed to King George III and reaffirmed American loyalty to the crown.

During the eight years of war, approximately how many Americans bore arms in the Continental army and state militias?


What strategy worked well for the colonists in fighting the British during the American Revolution?

The Continental army and militias deployed hit-and-run tactics.

Violent social turmoil in rural areas during the 1760s:

involved events in both northern and southern colonies.

The Quebec Act:

granted religious toleration to Catholics in Canada.

Who wrote the following: "One of the strongest natural proofs of the folly of hereditary right in kings is that nature disapproves it, otherwise she would not so frequently turn it into ridicule, by giving mankind an ass for a lion"?

Thomas Paine

In the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson’s biggest influence with regard to natural rights came from?

John Locke

Ethan Allen led the Hudson Bay Boys in New York to protect the liberties of small farmers.


Siding with the British offered slaves far more opportunities for liberty than did siding with the pro-independence Americans.


Who argued that "true liberty" could only be achieved by remaining in the British Empire?

Joseph Galloway

A key consequence of the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777 was:

France becoming an ally to the United States.

The Sons of Liberty enforced a boycott of British goods.


What impact did the Committees of Correspondence have in America?

Colonial leaders were able to spread ideas and information of resistance to taxes more quickly.

The main point of The American Crisis is:

to inspire American soldiers to continue to fight despite demoralizing military losses.

The Committees of Safety:

were part of a series of efforts by the Continental Congress to promote unity and to take action against enemies of liberty.

Washington’s army was demoralized by repeated failures early in the war, and many soldiers simply went home.


Thomas Paine’s Common Sense:

argued that America would become the home of freedom and "an asylum for mankind."

Paul Revere created an engraving that distorted the Boston Massacre.


Virtual representation was the idea:

that each member of Britain’s House of Commons represented the entire empire, not just his own district.

John Adams recommended George Washington as commander of the Continental army because:

the fact that Washington was from Virginia could help unify the colonists.

What best describes representation within the United States’ national political structure today?

Actual representation.

In what ways was Thomas Paine’s Common Sense similar to Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence?

Both showed how a king can be a tyrant.

Cornwallis was defeated at Yorktown because:

he had no land or water escape route.

Which of the following is true of the soldiers who fought for American independence?

During the war’s later years, the Continental army relied increasingly on young men with limited economic prospects.

The Sugar Act alarmed colonists, in part because it:

threatened the profits of colonial merchants already in economic trouble.

Unlike the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts focused on:

taxing goods imported into the colonies.

To resist the Intolerable Acts, a Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia.


The expulsion of the journalist John Wilkes from his seat in Parliament:

symbolized the threat to liberty for many in both Britain and America.

During the American Revolution, Canada was eager to join the American independence movement.


What idea did both the Regulators and Stamp Act Congress share?

Colonists wanted to be represented in the government.

The American victory at Trenton convinced the French to join the American cause.


During the Revolutionary War, tensions between backcountry farmers and wealthy planters:

gave the British hope that they might be able to enlist the support of southern Loyalists.

In the winter of 1776-1777, Washington won important victories that improved American morale. These battles were at:

Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey.

Why did Jefferson address the Declaration of Independence to the "opinions of mankind"?

He wanted to reach a worldwide audience.

In the late nineteenth century, what significantly increased freedoms and rights for Americans?

Indentured servitude had declined.

At the time of independence, the nation was largely urban, with most of its population residing in the large seacoast cities.


The three-fifths clause in the U.S. Constitution:

gave the white South greater power in national affairs than the size of its free population warranted.

How did the Articles of Confederation compare to the Constitution in regard to sovereignty?

Under the Articles, states had more autonomy, while the Constitution gave some powers to the states.

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 did not acknowledge that the Indians owned their land.


Thomas Jefferson believed Indians could be the equal of whites if they abandoned their communal ideas of land ownership.


James Madison argued in The Federalist that the large size and diversity of the United States was a source of political stability, not a weakness.


During the early years of the republic, African-Americans:

made up about 20 percent of the total population

Which of the following was a characteristic of the federal government under the Articles of Confederation?

Congress could not levy taxes or regulate commerce.

Crèvecoeur’s Letters from an American Farmer described America as a melting pot of Europeans.


How did southern states react to the Constitution’s provisions regarding slavery?

South Carolina and Georgia immediately began importing increased numbers of Africans, because in twenty years, the international slave trade could be constitutionally prohibited.

Congress nearly passed a clause in the Ordinance of 1784 that would have prohibited slavery throughout the West.


The Somerset case:

ruled that slavery was unlawful in England.

Which right was heavily influenced by the American Revolutionary period?

Freedom from cruel and unusual punishment.

Why was the original House of Representatives so small, with only 65 members?

The founders assumed that only prominent individuals could win elections in large districts, and that is what the founders wanted.

Battles over Indian territory continued after ratification of the Constitution.


The U.S. Constitution of 1787 provided a clear definition of U.S. citizenship that excluded blacks.


What was the significance of the Empress of China?

It was the first American-flag-flying ship to trade with China.

How would slaveowners in the late eighteenth century have explained a slave’s repeated stealing and drinking of alcohol?

The alcohol should have been better hidden from slaves.

In The History of the American Revolution, David Ramsay:

praised American state constitutions for allowing future amendments.

Which state would have been pleased by both the New Jersey Plan and the three-fifths clause?


The New Jersey Plan:

was mainly supported by the smaller, less populated states.

Thomas Jefferson believed that African-Americans:

should eventually be able to enjoy their natural rights, but they would have to leave the United States to do so.

Which of the following scenarios can potentially be seen as a violation of the First Amendment?

A woman is arrested for organizing a peaceful meeting to protest the federal government’s actions.

During the process of ratifying the Constitution:

two states, Rhode Island and North Carolina, voted against ratification.

Alexander Hamilton proposed in the Constitutional Convention that the president and senators serve life terms.


Who took detailed notes of the Constitutional Convention, which were published more than 50 years after the proceedings?

James Madison.

States called out militias to stop foreclosures on the homes of debtors.


As designed by the Constitution:

federal judges were appointed by the president, not elected by the people.

Anti-Federalists were concerned that the Constitution severely limited liberty.


The relationship between the national government and the states is called:


By the 1790s, the phrase "we the people" had come to mean what?

Rights were increasing for white Americans.

The Constitution is a lengthy, wordy document that outlines the structure of government in great detail.


Hector St. John Crèvecoeur’s Letters from an American Farmer:

popularized the idea of the United States as a melting pot of ethnicities.

Under the Treaty of Greenville of 1795:

twelve Indian tribes ceded most of Ohio to the federal government.

George Washington made a significant statement about slavery when he freed his slaves before taking the presidential office.


In the U.S. Constitution, the fugitive slave clause kept the condition of bondage for a slave even if he or she escaped to a free state.


Which of the following is true of American national identity as envisioned by the Constitution of 1787?

The "people" were free Americans; Native Americans and "other persons," meaning African-American slaves, were not considered part of the political nation.

Which of the following is true of the Constitution of 1787 and slavery?

Although never using the word "slavery," the document protected several aspects of the institution.

The Articles of Confederation employed the principles of federalism.


What did James Winthrop, a Massachusetts public official, fear about the new Constitution?

Under the Constitution, a citizen would lose basic civil liberties.

What was an enduring legacy of the Anti-Federalists?

The fear that a strong central government would trample on liberties.

Who appears to have fathered one or more children with his slave?

Thomas Jefferson.

Not until the twentieth century did the Bill of Rights become revered.


What did the Northwest Territory border on?

Great Lakes.

The U.S. Constitution as written in 1787 does not use the words "slave" or "slavery."


By banning the importation of slaves by 1808 with the Constitution, what did critics of slavery hope to accomplish?

They hoped cutting off the supply would eventually end slavery in the United States.

Two of the original thirteen states initially refused to ratify the Constitution, but ultimately they did ratify it.


What does the omission of the word "slave" or "slavery" in the text of the original Constitution suggest about the founders?

They felt a reference to slavery tainted American ideals on liberty and equality.

James Madison wrote and published the book Notes on the State of Virginia.


The fugitive slave clause in the Constitution was ambiguous.


How did the Articles of Confederation compare to the Constitution with regard to the economy?

Under the Articles, states made more decisions about the economy than the national government.

What did James Madison aim to accomplish with the protections of both public and private liberties?

He hoped to avoid more unrest like Shays’s Rebellion.

In regard to slavery, what did the Constitution do?

It allowed slavery but also contained a potential method to end slavery.

What was the annuity system involving the U.S. government and certain Indian tribes?

A system under which the federal government gave annual monetary grants to Indians.

Which of the following is a check against presidential power in the Constitution?

Although the president appoints Federal judges, they serve for ten years to ensure their independence.

Which of the following groups tended to be Anti-Federalist during the ratification debates?

State politicians fearful of a strong central government.

The Anti-Federalist James Winthrop argued that a bill of rights was necessary in the Constitution because:

it would secure the minority against the usurpation and tyranny of the majority.

The eighty-five essays written in support of ratification of the Constitution are called:

The Federalist.

Shays’s Rebellion demonstrated to many leading Americans the need for a more central government to ensure private liberty.


Which of the following is true regarding Congress and the African slave trade in the United States under the Constitution?

Congress prohibited the African slave trade twenty years after ratification of the Constitution.

Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress was able to:

establish national control over land to the west of the thirteen states.

What was "the first object of government," according to James Madison?

Protect property rights.

What was Congress able to accomplish with its Native American policy under the Articles of Confederation?

Congress demanded and received surrenders of large amounts of Indian land north of the Ohio River and in the South.

So adamant was he about separating church and state that James Madison opposed the appointment of chaplains to serve Congress and the military.


With regard to slavery, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787:

banned slavery in the area north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River.

How would one describe the men who attended the Constitutional Convention?

Most had more wealth than the average American.

How did Thomas Jefferson react to Shays’s Rebellion?

He was not alarmed, seeing it as a positive for the United States.

In the 1780s, settlers in western areas such as Tennessee and Kentucky:

believed they had a right to take possession of western lands and use them as they saw fit.

Part of the philosophy of the Revolution was embracing the principle of hereditary aristocracy.


Adam Smith’s argument that the "invisible hand" of the free market directed economic life more effectively and fairly than governmental intervention offered intellectual justification for those who believed that the economy should be left to regulate itself.


In the 1770s and 1780s, what was a characteristic of voting rights?

They were not uniform, as each state’s constitution had different stipulations.

Virtually every founding father owned at least one slave at some point in his life. Who was a notable exception?

John Adams.

Why did John Adams believe that land ownership was vital to society?

If more people owned land, it would be less likely that fixed and unequal social classes would emerge.

After the Revolution, African-Americans in the North:

often wound up in a state similar to that of indentured servitude.

Support for the separation of church and state resulted in what?

It brought together two dichotomous groups: Deists and evangelicals.

How did the Revolutionary War change the meaning of freedom?

It challenged the inequality that had been fundamental to the colonial social order.

Freedom and an individual’s right to vote had become interchangeable by the war’s end.


Why did apprenticeship and indentured servitude decline after the Revolution?

The lack of freedom inherent in apprenticeship and indentured servitude struck growing numbers of Americans as incompatible with republican citizenship.

In Pennsylvania, new leaders like Thomas Paine and Benjamin Rush wanted to see what occur with regard to voting rights?

Voting requirements needed to eliminate property qualifications.

As one of the few southern white elite men who did not own slaves, Thomas Jefferson was able to honestly declare that all men had inalienable rights.


Joseph Brant, a young Mohawk:

wanted to create an Indian confederacy between Canada and the United States.

To encourage virtue in future citizens, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams:

proposed free public education.

Thomas Jefferson’s views on religion and Christian doctrines:

demonstrated his rejection of the divinity of Jesus.

Until New Jersey added the word "male" to its constitutional definition of a voter in 1807, some of the state’s women enjoyed suffrage rights.


Despite the rhetoric of religious freedom, many states had limitations on religious freedom, such as limiting officeholding to Protestants.


To show gratitude for their invaluable contribution to the war effort, the Continental Congress awarded women universal suffrage.


After the war, abolition of slavery in the North was swift and applied to all slaves.


In Pennsylvania, nearly the entire pre-Revolutionary elite opposed the American independence movement.


How did Pennsylvania display the Revolutionary War’s radical potential?

Philadelphia’s artisan and lower-class communities took control and put a new emphasis on freedom and on more democratic politics.

As a result of the religious freedom created by the Revolution:

upstart churches began challenging the well-established churches.

For which three accomplishments did Thomas Jefferson wish to be remembered?

The Declaration of Independence, the University of Virginia, the "Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom."

What was the most significant reason why Thomas Jefferson wanted public education and the creation of the University of Virginia?

It would raise up the general populace, making the people more informed voters.

Despite many slaves being emancipated during and right after the American Revolution, why did the number of slaves increase by 200,000 from 1776 to 1790?

Owning slaves in the South was seen as a key ingredient to economic autonomy.

Who might be considered an ideal woman in late-eighteenth-century America?

An educated mother.

What did South Carolina and Georgia promise every white volunteer at the war’s end?

A slave.

In spite of the revolutionary rhetoric of freedom, indentured servitude was still widely practiced in the northern states by 1800.


How did the War for Independence affect anti-Catholicism in America?

The alliance with France, a predominantly Catholic country, helped diminish American anti-Catholicism.

General John Sullivan:

destroyed forty Indian towns in a campaign against the Iroquois.

Who benefited the most from the American Revolution and its immediate aftermath?

An indentured servant in New York.

The property qualification for voting was hotly debated during the 1770s and 1780s.


For those Loyalists who remained in the United States after the war, hostility toward them proved to be long and intense.


Which of the following is true of how the new state constitutions in the Revolutionary era dealt with the issue of religious liberty?

Seven state constitutions began with a declaration of rights that included a commitment to "the free exercise of religion."

From a legal perspective, the first step in ending slavery in New England resulted in:

Gradual abolition.

Republican motherhood encouraged:

greater educational opportunities for women.

In regard to voting for the states, what was a contentious issue?

Owning property.

"Freedom" had not played a major part in Indians’ vocabulary before the Revolution, but after the war, freedom meant defending their own independence and retaining possession of their land.


In the Upper South, a considerable number of slaveholders emancipated their slaves.


Thomas Jefferson’s declaration that "all men are created equal" did not radically alter society.


Abigail Adams did not see equality for women as the same as people do in today’s modern world.


During the American Revolutionary War, the buying and selling of slaves was temporarily halted.


The War of Independence weakened the deep tradition of American anti-Catholicism.


After the American Revolution, Nova Scotia and Quebec became part of the United States.


The free black population after the Revolution:

often enjoyed the right to vote if its male members met taxpaying or property qualifications.

Who publicly referred to slavery as a "national crime" that would one day bring "national punishment"?

Benjamin Rush.

The British Navigation Acts contradicted the ideas:

in Wealth of Nations.

After the American Revolution, who held the balance of power between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River?


If Thomas Jefferson lived in the seventeenth century, what would he have feared most?

Wars and corruption caused by organized religion.

The men who led the Revolution from start to finish were, by and large, members of the American elite.


Approximately how many free Americans remained loyal to the British during the war?

20 to 25 percent.

How did John Locke influence slave holders?

He wanted to convert all slaves to Christianity.

What role did Native Americans play in the Revolutionary War?

They divided their allegiance, just as white Americans did.

Which state’s constitution granted suffrage to all "inhabitants" who met a property qualification, allowing property-owning women to vote until an 1807 amendment limited suffrage to males?

New Jersey.

The new state constitutions created during the Revolutionary War:

greatly expanded the right to vote in almost every state.

The free black population increased from about 10,000 in 1776 to more than a million by 1800.


Britain eventually paid compensation to some Americans after the war who claimed they had been improperly deprived of their slave property.


In his Thoughts on Government (1776), John Adams advocated state constitutions that provided for:

a powerful governor and a two-house legislature that reflected the division of society between wealthy and ordinary men.

During the 1780s, what would an American say was the best option for Native Americans in the United States?

to leave the United States.

What policy did the new United States pursue in its dealings with Native Americans?

The U.S. government set out to dispossess the Native Americans of their remaining rich lands and drive them westward.

During the American Revolution, what happened to the economy?

Some merchants hoarded goods.

An example of anti-Catholicism during the 1770s was the:

First Continental Congress’s denunciation of the Quebec Act.

What served as a sort of "school of political democracy" for the members of the "lower orders" in the colonies-turned-states?

The militia.

The expansion of religious freedom diminished the influence of religion on American society.


Who was Phillis Wheatley?

A poet who wrote about how African-Americans felt about freedom.

In regard to rights for women, Abigail Adams:

believed laws should not ignore women.

"Republican motherhood" was an ideology that held that:

women played an indispensable role in the new nation by training future citizens.

Which of the following contributed to the success of free trade advocates during the Revolutionary War?

The publication of Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations.

During the American Revolutionary period, slavery for the first time became a focus of public debate.


In Canada, the Loyalist exiles were viewed as national founding fathers.


Because Americans were preoccupied with war, religious liberty was a rather peripheral issue in the 1770s and 1780s.


What best characterizes slavery in the North during the Revolutionary era?

Ending slavery was a long, drawn-out process.

The men who served in the Revolution through militias were empowered and demanded certain rights, thereby establishing the tradition that service in the army enabled excluded groups to stake a claim to full citizenship.


The irony that America cried for liberty while enslaving Africans was not lost on some British observers like Dr. Samuel Johnson.


In their Revolutionary-era constitutions, all states adopted John Adams’s idea of a "balanced" government.


The efforts to emancipate slaves in the 1770s and 1780s:

reflected the importance of property rights.

Which argument in the petitions of slaves to the Massachusetts legislature employed the principles of the American Revolution?

Natural rights were universal.

After the Revolutionary War, when George Washington demanded the return of slaves who had escaped, the British commander in New York refused, saying it would be dishonorable.


In the United States today, which would best resemble an eighteenth-century companionate marriage?

A union based on love with equal say in running the household.

The idea of republican motherhood encouraged direct female involvement in politics.


As a result of the American Revolution, Americans rejected:

the principle of hereditary aristocracy.

Which settlement in Africa did the British establish for former slaves from the United States?

Sierra Leone.

In a famous speech to Parliament, the British statesman Edmund Burke said what regarding a link between slavery and liberty for American colonists?

He argued that the colonists were sensitive to threats to their liberties because they were so familiar with slavery.

Why did the United States not develop a noble class?

The ideals of Thomas Paine criticized the notion of nobility.

To deal with a wartime economic crisis in 1779, Congress urged states to:

adopt measures to fix wages and prices.

When looking at today’s United States economically, whose visions and ideas seem to have become the most realized?

Alexander Hamilton’s ideas on government subsidies for businesses.

The 1796 election pitted John Adams and Thomas Pinckney against:

Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.

After becoming president, how did Thomas Jefferson deal with the Federalists?

He tried to roll back almost everything they had done by cutting taxes and the size of government.

The Sedition Act of 1798:

led Jefferson to argue that states, not the federal government, could punish seditious speech.

True or False: The aftermath of the War of 1812 confirmed the ability of a republican government to conduct a war without surrendering its institutions.


When Andrew Jackson had the chance to obtain African-American help to fight the British in the Battle of New Orleans, he:

recruited free men of color and promised them the same pay that white recruits received.

What was the overall effect of the American invasions of Canada in 1775 and during the War of 1812?

Stereotypes developed on both sides that in some form still exist today.

The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions resulted from opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts.


What did Jefferson fear with the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts?

A hysteria like the Salem witch trials would result.

True or False: Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa tried to revive a pan-Indian movement and unite against the white man.


True or False: The Twelfth Amendment required electors to cast separate votes for president and vice president.


"Strict constructionists" believed that:

the federal government could only exercise powers specifically listed in the Constitution.

Thomas Jefferson’s original Kentucky resolution served as an argument for what?

States’ rights

True or False: By the early 1800s, some members of the Creek and Cherokee tribes were living like white Americans as traders and slaveholders.


Which of the following was a result of the War of 1812?

The United States gained new territory west of the Mississippi River.

True or False: When Thomas Jefferson became president, he was not interested in dismantling the policies that the Federalists had established.


Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman:

was inspired by Thomas Paine’s Rights of Man.

With regard to Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson’s debates in the 1790s, what aspect of their differences in opinion can still be seen in today’s United States?

Whether the Constitution should be interpreted strictly or loosely.

True or False: The Embargo Act was devastating to the British and French.


Why can a case be made for the War of 1812 actually starting in 1811?

William Henry Harrison attacked Native American villages in 1811.

In the late eighteenth century, what activity would Judith Sargent Murray have praised?

Girls being given the chance to attend college.

True or False: Free trade and sailors’ rights were two issues that drew the United States into the War of 1812.


True or False: Newspapers and pamphlets were a primary vehicle for political debate in the early republic.


True or False: Most of the public government buildings constructed around 1800 in Washington, D.C., were built using slave labor.


True or False: The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 proved to Federalists that democracy in the hands of the ordinary citizenry was dangerous.


In the late eighteenth century, what activity would Judith Sargent Murray have praised?

Girls being given the chance to attend college.

Pierre Charles L’Enfant is well known for:

designing Washington, D.C.

What was one difference between Shays’s Rebellion and the Whiskey Rebellion?

Shays’s was put down by a state government; the Whiskey event required the national government to get involved.

True or False: Jefferson was interested in the Louisiana Territory because he wanted to secure permanent access to the port of New Orleans.


Sacajawea was:

a guide and interpreter for the Lewis and Clark expedition.

True or False: Slave artisans played a prominent role in Gabriel’s Rebellion.


True or False: Alexander Hamilton was the first secretary of the treasury.


True or False: Louisiana’s slaves enjoyed far more freedom under the liberty-loving United States than under the rule of tyrannical Spain.


When George Washington took office as the first president of the United States, American leaders believed that the new nation’s success depended on:

maintaining political harmony.

True or False: Jay’s Treaty effectively destroyed the American alliance with France.


Benjamin Banneker was:

a scientist who helped survey the new national capital.

With regard to Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson’s debates in the 1790s, what aspect of their differences in opinion can still be seen in today’s United States?

Whether the Constitution should be interpreted strictly or loosely.

What was the significance of the case of Marbury v. Madison?

The Supreme Court asserted the power of judicial review.

Why did Thomas Jefferson call the Election of 1800 the "Revolution of 1800"?

He was talking about freedom that secured America’s independence.

True or False: Most of the public government buildings constructed around 1800 in Washington, D.C., were built using slave labor.


When Andrew Jackson had the chance to obtain African-American help to fight the British in the Battle of New Orleans, he:

recruited free men of color and promised them the same pay that white recruits received.

The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were a response to:

the Alien and Sedition Acts.

The "quasi-war" was a war of the United States against:


Who wrote a petition to Congress as the president of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, calling for the end of slavery?

Benjamin Franklin.

Why did the United States become a one-party nation following the War of 1812?

The Hartford Convention’s allegedly treasonous activities fatally damaged the Federalist Party’s reputation.

True or False: By the early 1800s, some members of the Creek and Cherokee tribes were living like white Americans as traders and slaveholders.


During the War of 1812, America’s greatest success in a land battle against the British took place where?

New Orleans

Which of the following contributed to the United States going to war in 1812?

Congressional War Hawks who pressed for territorial expansion into Florida and Canada.

The treaty that ended the War of 1812:

resulted in the United States losing land to Canada.

Which of the following was true of the United States in 1797?

The two political parties were divided on the role of the government.

The land involved in the Louisiana Purchase:

stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada and from the MS River to the Rocky Mountains

Jefferson’s Embargo Act:

caused economic depression within the United States

The Democratic-Republican Societies of the 1790s:

criticized the Washington administration.

Which of the following is true about the expedition of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark?

They encountered Indians west of the Mississippi who were involved in trading.

Which of the following is true of the American response to Toussaint L’Ouverture’s slave uprising, which led to the establishment of Haiti as an independent nation in 1804?

Many white Americans considered L’Ouverture’s uprising to be evidence of black’s unfitness for republican freedom.

The Kentucky resolution originally stated that:

States could nullify laws of congress.

Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa were brothers who:

Preached a militant message to Native Americans early in the 19th century

Which of the following contributed to the poor American performance in the war of 1812?

The nation was deeply divided about whether to go to war.

Which of the following led directly to the formation of an organized political party opposed to the Federalist Party?

Jay’s treaty

Which of the following statements is true of New Orleans under Spanish rule?

Slave women had the right to go to court for protection against cruelty or rape by their owners.

Gabriel’s Rebellion:

Demonstrated that the slaves were as aware of the idea of liberty as anyone else.

In its decision in the case of Fletcher V. Peck, the U.S. Supreme Court:

Said that the purchase of land from a foreign power, as in the case of Louisiana, was constitutional.

How did Americans respond to the French Revolution?

Almost everyone supported it at first, because the French seemed to be following in America’s footsteps.

Why did the Jefferson use the U.S. Navy against North African states?

Tripoli has declared war on the United States after Jefferson had refused demands for increased payments to the Barbary pirates.

Which of the following is true of women and political life in the new republic of the 1790’s?

Some women contributed to a growing democratization of political life by arguing for increased rights for their sex.

What was unusual about the Embargo Act of 1807?

It stopped all American vessels from sailing to foreign ports- an amazing use of federal power, especially by a president supposedly dedicated to a weak central government.

Which international partner did Alexander Hamilton think most important for the survival and prosperity of the United States?

The British.

Alexander Hamilton’s long term goal was to:

Make the United States a major commercial and military power.

Which of the following is NOT true about the expedition of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark?

They never reached the pacific coast.

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