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The light we see from the sun comes from which layer


Temperature of the layer of gas that produces the visible light from the sun


why cant you stand on the sun

the sun doesnt have a solid surface

how many planets can fit in the sun?

little over a million

The density of the Sun is most similar to which object


the area in the suns atmosphere above the chromosphere is

the transition zone

wjay percent of incoming energy from the sun reaches the earth

50-70 percent

the solar constant is a measure of

energy recieved by the sun at the location of earth

the luminosity of the sun is a measure of

the total energy of the emitted by the sun in all directions

which is the correct order of the structure of the sun

radiative convection chromosphere

By what mechanism does solar energy reach the Sun’s photosphere from the layer just underneath it?


Hydrostatic equilibrium in our Sun is the balance between

gravitation and pressure

The vibrations of the Sun reveal information about

the interior structure of the sun

What two energy transport mechanisms, in order from outside the core to the surface, is found in the Sun?

the Sun is hottest somewhere between its surface and its core

What two energy transport mechanisms, in order from outside the core to the surface, is found in the Sun?

radiative diffusion, convection

What is the size of a typical granule or convection cell seen in the photosphere?

1,000 km

The pattern of rising hot gas cells all over the photosphere is called:


The outward pressure of hot gas in the Sun

is balanced by the inward gravitational pressure.

When the chromosphere can be seen during a solar eclipse, it appears:


From where does most of the solar wind flow?

coronal holes

What is it about the Sun’s corona that astronomers don’t understand?

The corona is much hotter than layers of the Sun that are closer to the solar interior.

When we glimpse the chromosphere at the start and end of totality, its color is

red, due to ionized hydrogen at lower pressure.

The percentage (by mass) of the Sun that is Hydrogen is about


The percentage (by number of atoms) of the Sun that is Hydrogen is about


The percentage (by mass) of the Sun that is Helium is about


A loop of gas following the magnetic field lines between sunspots’ poles is


How long does the sunspot cycle last, on average?


Visible sunspots lie in the

granulation in the photosphere.

As the Sun rotates, an individual sunspot can be tracked across its face. From eastern to western limb, this takes about


The most striking example of solar variability was the

Maunder Minimum from 1645-1715.


come in pairs, representing the north and south magnetic fields.

Sunspots are dark splotches on the Sun. Which statement is true?

They are extremely hot, but cooler than the surrounding areas of the Sun.

How would sunspots appear if you could magically remove them from the Sun?

They would shine bright orange in color, like Arcturus.

While observing the Sun, you note a large number of sunspots. What can you conclude?

There are likely to be an above average number of flares and prominences.

The numbers of sunspots and their activity peak about every:


Loops of glowing hydrogen seen hanging over the solar limb during totality are:


During a period of high solar activity, the corona

is more irregular

The solar winds blow outward from

cotonal holes

Which of these are not associated with the active Sun?


Suppose a large flare is detected optically. How long until radio interference arrives?


Which of the following is NOT a property of neutrinos?

cannot interact at all with normal matter

The critical temperature the core must reach for a star to shine by fusion is

10 million K.

In the proton-proton cycle, the helium atom and neutrino have less mass than the original hydrogen. What happens to the "lost" mass?

its converted to energy

The primary source of the Sun’s energy is

the strong force fusing hydrogen into helium.

In the proton-proton cycle, the positron is

an anti-electron.

What natural barrier tries to prevent two protons from combining?

electromagnetic repulsion

The critical temperature to initiate the proton-proton cycle in the cores of stars is:

10 million K.

Which is the net result of the proton-proton chain?

4 protons = 1 helium 4 + 2 neutrinos + gamma rays

The speed of light is 3.00 × 108 m/s. If 2.00 kg of mass is converted to energy, how much energy will be produced?

1.80 ×1017 J

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